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L.  C.  CATALOG  CARD  NO.  53-5668 

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Some  thirteen  years  have  passed  since  the  first  printing  of 
American  Gun  Makers,  and  though  the  original  work  published 
by  Ulbrich  Company  was  brought  up  to  1949  by  the  issue  of  a 
Supplement,  it  is  felt  that  since  more  of  the  mist  surrounding 
the  activities  of  our  early  arms  makers  has  lifted,  the  time  has 
come  to  correct  and  delete,  to  edit  and  add,  and  place  in  the 
hands  of  the  gun-loving  fraternity  a  revised  volume  incorporating 
old  material  brought  to  date  within  the  knowledge  available;  the 
contents  of  the  Supplement  of  American  Gun  Makers,  and  new 
material  gathered  or  contributed  in  the  past  four  years. 

It  is  perhaps  appropriate  here  to  quote  from  the  Foreword 
of  the  original  work. 

"It  is  regrettable  that  some  of  the  historically  most  im- 
portant arms  makers  are  dismissed  with  but  a  few  lines;  no 
reflection  on  their  craftsmanship,  or  the  volume  of  produc- 
tion. It  is  a  hopeful  sign  that  this  situation  is  being  slowly 
but  surely  corrected  as  new  biographical  and  historical  facts 
are  uncovered,  pertinent  documents  come  to  light,  and  col- 
lectors, students  and  historians  interested  in  research  and 
delving  in  old  forgotten  papers  and  tomes,  contribute  of  their 
knowledge  and  finds. 

While  it  has  been  our  purpose  to  include  only  the  known 
producers  of  complete  American  small  arms,  or  of  their  major 
parts,  it  is  quite  likely  that  many  firearms  makers  of  old,  their 
names  garnered  from  ancient  directories  and  documents,  are 
included,  though  no  arms  have  been  met  with  bearing  their 
name.  Mere  repairs  and  maintenance  would  have  yielded  a 
precarious  living  in  those  days,  and  proud  of  their  craft, 
practically  all  the  old  gunsmiths  were  firearms  makers,  though 
for  natural  reasons,  many  left  the  products  of  their  handi- 
work unsigned  during  the  Revolution,  and  even  later. 

It  is  to  be  noted  that  single  dates,  or  double  dates  indicat- 
ing a  short  period  of  activity,  are  indicative  only  of  the  general 
period  of  such  activity,  having  been  gleaned  from  old  city 
directories,   tax   rolls,   advertisements,   local   histories,    etc." 
We    might    add    here    that    no    available    source    has    been 
neglected   in   the   compilation:    documents,    archives,    directories, 
tax  lists,  local  histories,  tombstones,  family  and  friendly  remin- 
iscences,  oral  tradition,   magazine   articles,   newspaper   advertise- 
ments, letters  to  the  undersigned,  maker's  marks  and  the  arms 
themselves; —all  have  contributed  their  grist,  and  it  is  but  natural 
that  along  with  the  meal  much  chaff  is  included.  There  are  un- 
discovered "repeaters,"  due  to  varied  spellings  or  changed  loca- 
tions; some  are  included  as  gunsmiths  who  merely  inscribed  their 

name  for  pride  or  security  of  possession;  some  may  be  foreign  and 
some  may  never  have  existed  and  have  been  brought  in  by  "asso- 
ciation." To  all  these  errors  of  fact  or  interpretation,  we  plead 
guilty  and  will  be  happy  to  make  amends  or  correction  when 
brought  to  our  attention. 

Included  in  this  edition  are  the  available  initials,  names  and 
other  data  of  our  early  Ordnance  personnel,  civilian  and  military, 
as  a  matter  of  historical  interest,  and  to  facilitate  the  identifica- 
tion of  inspectors  of  our  early  contract  arms. 

Grateful  acknowledgement  is  made  to  Messrs.  Robert  Bingham, 
Milton  DeS.  Clow,  Miner  J.  Cooper,  Roy  E.  Green,  Calvin  Hetrick, 
James  L.  Mitchell,  L.  C.  Quick,  J.  W.  Pittock  Jr.,  and  the  late 
Richard  D.  Steuart  for  generous  contribution  of  much  original 
data  and  biographical  sketches  of  the  original  edition,  and  to 
Messrs.  Walter  M.  Cline,  John  G.  W.  Dillin,  Robert  Gardner, 
James  E.  Hicks,  Dr.  Paul  B.  Jenkins,  Ned  H.  Roberts  and  Stephen 
Van  Rensselaer,  for  their  earlier  works  and  research,  and  to  Rhea 
Mansfield  Knittle  and  Stuart  M.  Martin  for  their  studies  of  early 
Ohio  gunsmiths,  all  of  which  greatly  facilitated  the  task  of  the 

To  all  who  contributed  new  material  or  brought  attention  to 
past  errors  and  omissions,  heartfelt  THANKS.  Sincere  appreciation 
for  important  contributions  of  data  is  expressed  to  Messrs.  Wm. 
C.  Almquist,  Don  H.  Berkebile,  Frank  Donham,  W.  R.  Felton, 
C.  Charter  Harrison,  Dr.  J.  T.  Herron,  W.  H.  Kelly,  Wallace 
Mundell,  Harold  L.  Peterson,  J.  P.  Shaw,  Sam  E.  Smith,  Gerald 
Teesdale:  to  Harry  Wandrus,  Wes  White  and  Robert  C.  Whiteman 
for  generous  contribution  of  material  on  early  Pennsylvania  gun- 
smiths; to  William  Abbot  Jr.,  Jerry  and  Sue  Hirtle,  Frank  E.  Mar- 
tin, Deuel  Richardson,  Harry  C.  Rife,  Russell  Smith,  M.  J.  Urner, 
William  C.  Weaver  and  David  J.  Weimer  for  indirect  contribu- 
tions. Space  limits  acknowledgement  to  all. 

Again  special  acknowledgement  of  great  indebtedness  is 
made  to  Donald  Baird  of  the  Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology, 
Harvard  University.  Mr.  Baird's  critical  and  constructive  com- 
ments and  unselfish  assistance  in  material,  generous  and  valuable 
as  to  quantity  and  quality,  have  been  of  inestimable  value. 

The  unfortunate  meagerness  of  many  of  the  entries  is  self- 
evident.  It  is  hoped  that  this  inadequacy  may  be  rectified  in  the 
future  through  the  generosity  and  cooperation  of  the  readers, 
whose  additional  and  correctional  material,  sent  in  care  of  the 
publishers,  will  be  carefully  preserved  and  incorporated  in  future 

Arcadi  Gluckman 

Colonel   U.  S.   Army — Ret. 

L.  D.   Satterlee 

American  Gun  Makers 

A. — Marking  on  an  early  flintlock  rifle  of  crude  workmanship. 

A.  A. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifle  circa  1760. 

ABBEY,  F.  J.  &  Co.— 43  S.  Clark  St.,  Chicago,  111.  1870-74.  Makers 
of  muzzle  and  breech-loading  rifles  and  shotguns. 

ABBEY,  G.  T.— Chicago,  111.,  1858-1874.  Maker  of  muzzle-loading, 
double  barrel,  percussion  shotguns. 

ABENDSHEN,  Jos.— 50  Wayne  St.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  1850-60.  Makers 
of  an  iron  mounted,  six-groove,  gain  twist,  plains  rifle  marked 

ABERCROMBIE— Near  Seneca,  Oconer  Co.,  S.  C.  Rifle  maker. 

ACCELERATING  FIRE  ARMS  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1857. 

ACCLES,  George  G. — Inventor  of  "Accles  Feed"  for  Gatling  Gun, 
Gatling  Gun  Co. 

ACKLEY,  Luther — Sharon,  O.  Percussion  rifles  of  premium  quality, 
with  elaborate  sideplates  of  identical  design.  Did  not  mark  his 

ACOBY,  P.  J. — Probably   a  misreading  for  P.   Jacoby,  q.  v. 

A.  C.  S.— See  Darling,  B.  &  B.  M. 

ADAM,   Daniel — Unidentified.   Flintlock  period. 

A.  D. — Adam  Daniels — Lancaster,  Pa.  Late  flintlock  and  early  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifles.  Initials  "A.  D."  marked  on  a  brass  and 
silver  mounted,  boy's  percussion   Kentucky  rifle. 

ADAMS,  C. — 508  Commercial  Street,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  Gunsmith. 
Listed  in  1887. 

ADAMS  REVOLVING  ARMS  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  re- 
volvers made  for  this  firm  in  .31  pocket  and  .36  navy  sizes  by 
Mass.  Arms  Co. 

ADAMS,  S. — Battle  Creek,  Mich.  Percussion  rifles. 

ADAMS,  Samuel— Troy,  N.  Y.  in  1840;  Kentucky  rifles. 

ADAMS,  W.— Unlocated.  Fine  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle,  Ketland  lock, 
barrel  round  with  flat  rib. 

ADDICKS — Unidentified.  Maker  of  a  half  stock,  heavy  barrelled, 
percussion  slug  gun. 

ADDICKS,  D.  C— Rome,  Ga.;  percussion  rifles,  died  1941. 

ADIRONDACK  FIREARMS  CO.— Plattsburg,  N.  Y.  Early  breech- 
loading  and  repeating  sporting  arms,  somewhat  similar  to  the 
Winchester  but  on  a  different  mechanical  principle,  based  on 
Patent  125,988  issued  to  O.  M.  Robinson,  April  23,  1872.  Plant 
bought  out  by  Winchester  Repeating  Arms  Co.  in  1875  and 
manufacture  discontinued. 

A.D.K. — Initials  of  A.  D.  King,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within  years 

ADKINS,  Josiah — Connecticut  gun-lock  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Received  payment  for  four  locks  June  26,   1777. 

AETNA  ARMS  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Brass  frame,  tip-up,  .22  cal. 

pocket  revolvers. 
A.  F. — Unidentified.  Over-under  percussion  rifle. 
A.  F.— -Unidentified.   Heavy   barrel,   Kentucky   type   flintlock  match 

rifle.  (Same  as  A.  F.  above?) 

2  American  Gun  Makers 

AFFERBACH,  Wm.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  derringer;  Aston 

AFFLEBAUGH,  Henry— Gun  Stocker,  Germantown  Road  below  4th, 
Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

AGER,  A.— New  Rumley,  Ohio,   1856-61. 

AGNEW,  Andrew— Orange,   N.   J.,   1872-75. 

AGY— Pennsylvania,  about  1780.  A  62-inch  early  Kentucky  flint- 
lock rifle,   .45  calibre. 

A.  H. — Initials  of  Asabel  Hubbard,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 
1818-1833.  Inspected  arms  in  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Simeon 
North,  Nathan  Starr,  Asa  Waters,  Lemuel  Pomeroy  and  Eli 

A.  H. — Unidentified.  Barrel  marking  of  a  fill  curly  maple  stock,  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle  with  British  lock. 

AHLES,  W. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  over-under,  swivel-breech, 
flintlock  rifle. 

AICHELE,  C.  G. — Unlocated.  Full  stock,  octagon  barrel  percussion 

AILER,  Lewis — Gunsmith.  Germantown  Road  above  front  and  167 

N.  Front,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

A.  I.  S.— See  Darling,  B.  &  B.  M. 

A  J — (Or  AS).  Unidentified.  Curly  maple,  half  stocked  plains  rifle 
with  engraved  brass  hardware  and  Jas.  Golcher  lock. 

A.  J.  M. — Marking  on  Civil  War  period  U.  S.  Army  signal  pistol. 

A.  L. — Unidentified.  Early  Pennsylvania  rifle  maker. 

ALABAMA  ARMS  MANUFACTURING  CO.— Montgomery,  Alabama. 
Also  known  as  Gilmer  Gun  Factory.  Rifle  contractors  to  the 
Confederacy.  Signed  a  contract  with  the  State  of  Alabama  on 
March  20,  1862,  to  establish  an  armory  for  making  Enfield  type 
percussion  rifles  at  $35.00  each,  and  were  advanced  $250,000  in 
8%  State  Bonds.  The  president  of  the  firm  was  William  B. 
Gilmer.  The  firm  obtained  the  gun  making  machinery  from 
Bujac  &  Bennett  of  New  Orleans,  whose  machinery  was  shipped 
to  Montgomery  to  escape  capture  and  was  offered  to  the  Con- 
federate States.  The  offer  was  declined  by  Col.  James  H.  Burton, 
Ord.  Dept.  C.SA.,  superintendent  of  the  Macon  Armory,  as 
not  being  up  to  desirable  standard.  (See  Bujac  &  Bennett.)  The 
machinery  was  then  purchased  by  the  firm  on  June  3,  1862, 
and  they  commenced  operations  in  the  Winter  Iron  Works  but 
were  burned  out  and  went  into  a  warehouse.  The  firm  was  suc- 
ceeded by  the  Red-mountain  Iron  &  Coal  Company.  Limited  out- 
put, if  any.  In  March  1864  excuses,  explanations  and  reasons 
were  given  why  they  had  not  made  any  arms.  On  March  Col. 
Burton  came  the  second  time  to  inspect  the  machinery  with 
view  to  purchase.  He  found  "nothing  doing  of  any  consequence; 
machinery  set  in  place  but  not  at  work,  most  of  it  never  having 
been  tested  or  finally  adjusted.  But  few  fixtures  to  the  machines, 
and  they  not  well  devised  or  adopted  to  the  intended  purposes. 
Very  few  of  the  necessary  small  tools,  gauges  etc.  have  been 
made  and  none  of  them  of  good  construction.  Barrel  welding 
rolls  badly  constructed,  and  not  satisfactorily  tested.  Stocking 
machines  cheaply  devised  and  constructed,  and  not  tested.  Forges 
of  brick  and  of  very  temporary  construction.  Buildings  not  built 
for  the  purpose,  and  consequently  not  well  adopted  to  it.  Forg- 

American  Gun  Makers  3 

ing  shop  a  mere  open  shed,  also  mere  sheds  for  rough  turning 
stock  machinery  barrel  rolls,  furnaces  for  annealing  etc.  Very- 
few  attempts  have  been  made  in  the  forging  of  parts  of  arms. 
I  saw  few  triggers,  butt  plate  screws,  hammers  and  lock  swivels. 
The  trip  hammers  for  forging  bayonets  and  ramrods  are  double 
and  have  never  been  tried   .    .    .   Decided  not  to  purchase." 

ALB,  J. — Pennsylvania,  about  1800;  possibly  an  abbreviation  for 
Albright.  Fine  craftsman. 

ALB,  L. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  superposed,  percussion  Kentucky 
type  rifle. 

ALBERTSON,  DOUGLAS  &  CO.— New  London,  Conn.,  about  1840-60. 

ALBRECHT,  Andrew— Warwick  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa., 

ALBRIGHT,  Henry — Gunsmith,  Gnadenhutten,  Tuscarawas  Co.,  Ohio, 
1800.  Made  pistols. 

ALBRIGHT,  J.— Near  Wooster,  Wayne  Co.  Ohio,  1840's.  Half  stock 
percussion  rifle  with  ornate  brass  patchbox. 

ALBRIGHT,  Mathias— Heidelburg  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1771. 

ALBRIGHT,  Peter— Heidelburg  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1771. 

ALBRO,  H.  &  Co. — Cincinnati,   Ohio,   1847.  Mahogany  gunstocks. 

ALDEN,  E.  B.— Claremont,  N.  H.,  1863-68. 

ALDENDERFER,  Joel— Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1815-1855.  Flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle  engraved  "JOEL  ALDENDERFER  1836." 

ALDENDERFER,   Metschl— Lancaster   Co.,    1763-1817. 

ALEXANDER,  C.  W. — Inventor  of  a  breech-loading  rifle,  Confederate 
Patent  No.  163,  April  18,  1863,  a  pattern  of  which  has  been  made 
at  the  Confederate  States  Armory  under  supervision  of  Capt. 
Burton,  (Richmond  Dispatch  Feb.  19,  1862).  The  arm  was  to  have 
been  manufactured  by  Thomas  E.  McNeill  of  Macon,  Ga.,  who 
obtained  a  Confederate  contract  for  20,000  Alexander  pattern 
carbines,  to  be  made  under  Burton's  supervision.  The  arm  never 
materialized  beyond  the  experimental  stage. 

ALLBRIGHT,  Henry — (Also  Albright  and  Albrecht)  Lancaster  Co., 
Pa.,  before  and  after  1744.  Employed  at  Durham  Iron  Works, 
made  rifles  and  some  very  fine  pistols. 

ALLBRIGHT,  Israel — Pennsylvania;  probably  same  as  I.  or  J.  Al- 
bright of  Manheim,  Pa.  Early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles;  a  brass- 
mounted  flintlock  fowling  piece  half-stocked  in  curly  maple, 
barrel  marked  "J.  ALBRIGHT";  lock  by  W.  Jacot. 

ALLBRIGHT,  J.— Manheim,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

ALLEGHANY  GUN  WORKS— Alleghany  City,  Pa.,  1831-77  and  later. 
Makers  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  and  later  of  sporting  and 
target  rifles.  See  Fleeger,  John,  who  operated  the  works. 

ALLEN,  Amasa— Walpole,  N.  H.  Musket  maker  1799-1801.  Asso- 
ciated with  Samuel  Grant  and  Joseph  Bernard  in  a  contract 
under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,500  Charleville  pattern,  (Model 
1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  1,394  were  recorded 
delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

ALLEN,  BROWN  &  LUTHER— Frederick  Allen,  Andrew  J.  Brown 
and  John  Luther,  makers  of  musket  and  rifle  barrels  in  Wor- 
cester, Mass.,  1852.  Among  their  employees  had  been  Horace 
Smith  and  Daniel  B.  Wesson.  Alexander  Stocking,  maker  of  the 

4  American  Gun  Makers 

Stocking  single-action,  pepperbox  pistol,  had  also  been  an  em- 
ployee of  the  firm. 

ALLEN,  C.  B.— Springfield,  Mass.,  1836-41.  One  of  the  manufac- 
turers of  the  Elgin  patent  cutlass-pistol.  Also  made  the  Cochran 
"Monitor"  7-shot  revolver. 

ALLEN,  Elias — Shrewsbury,  Mass.,  musket  maker.  Born  1775,  active 
until  1843. 

ALLEN,  Ethan — Massachusetts  Arms  manufacturer,  1832-63.  See 
Allen  &  Wheelock. 

ALLEN,  E.  &  CO.— Worcester,  Mass.,  1856-65.  See  Allen  &  Wheelock. 

ALLEN  &  FALLS— Springfield,  Mass.,  1837-40. 

ALLEN,  G.  F.— Utica,  N.  Y.,  1852-55. 

ALLEN,  Henry — New  York,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

ALLEN  &  HILLE— Gunsmiths,  79  Magazine,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

ALLEN,  John— New  York,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after  1878. 

ALLEN,  Joseph — Gunsmith.  New  Orleans,  La.,  1861. 

ALLEN,  Oliver — U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1817.  Inspected 
arms   (sabers)   in  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

ALLEN,  Oliver — Norwich,  Conn.,  circa  1840.  Inventor  of  one  of  the 
first  practical  whaling-bomb-lances  which  he  patented  on  Sep- 
tember 19,  1846.  Though  it  had  some  disadvantages  it  saw  con- 
siderable use  among  whalers  and  was  widely  distributed.  The 
invention  of  the  Brand  whaling-bomb-lance  in  1852  somewhat 
curtailed  its  manufacture. 

ALLEN,  Robert — Norwich,  Conn.,  circa  1840.  Inventor  of  a  whaling- 
bomb-lance  which  he  manufactured.  Quite  possibly  related  to 
Oliver  Allen. 

ALLEN,  Silas — Shrewsbury,  Mass.  Rifle  maker.  Bern  1750.  Lived  and 
was  active  on  a  farm  on  Crescent  Street.  Had  served  as  captain 
of  militia.  Made  Kentucky  and  New  England  type  rifles.  Arms 
marked  by  stamping,  "S.  ALLEN."  Died  April  6,  1834. 

ALLEN,  Silas,  Jr. — Son  of  Silas  Allen.  Lived  and  worked  with  his 
father  at  Shrewsbury,  Mass.  Born  1775.  Flintlock  and  percussion 
rifles.  Active  until  1843.  Died  1850. 

ALLEN,  Thomas— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1768-75.  Thomas  Allen  with  John 
Woods,  were  the  Colonial  gunsmiths  returned  to  England  by 
Governor  William  Tryon  in  December,  1775,  with  the  induce- 
ment of  prepaid  passage,  20  guineas  in  cash  and  employment  at 
a  government  armory. 

ALLEN,  THURBER  &  CO.— Grafton,  Mass.,  1838-42.  Norwich,  Conn., 
1842-47.  See  Allen  &  Wheelock. 

ALLEN  &  WHEELOCK— The  firm  was  established  by  Ethan  Allen. 
Massachusetts  firearms  maker  born  Sept.  2,  1806.  Established 
himself  in  North  Grafton  about  1832,  making  Lambert  cane- 
guns  and  rifled  target  pistols.  In  1838  commenced  manufacture 
of  arms  under  his  own  patents,  and  incorporated  with  his 
brothers-in-law,  Charles  T.  Thurber  and  Thomas  P.  Wheelock 
under  the  name  Allen,  Thurber  &  Co.  The  firm  was  well  known 
for  its  pepperbox  revolvers,  made  mostly  double-action  with  5 
and  6  barrels,  though  a  few  were  made  in  a  larger  size  with  3 
or  4  barrels.  Also  made  a  double-barrel  pistol. 

In  1842  the  firm  moved  to  Norwich,  Conn.,  and  again  in  1847 
to  Worcester,  Mass.  In   1857  on  Thurber's  retirement  from  the 

American  Gun  Makers  5 

firm,  the  name  was  changed  to  Allen  &  Wheelock.  Mr.  Wheelock 
died  in  1863,  and  in  1865,  Allen's  two  sons-in-law,  S.  Forehand 
and  H.  C.  Wadsworth,  were  admitted  to  the  firm,  which  in  1866 
became  known  as  Ethan  Allen  &  Co.  Mr.  Allen  died  in  January, 
1871,  and  the  firm  continued  manufacture  of  firearms,  especially 
revolvers,  under  the  name  Forehand  and  Wadsworth.  During 
the  Civil  War,  Allen  &  Wheelock  employed  about  200  hands. 

ALLEN,  William— 108  Maiden  Lane,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1801.  Flintlock 
rifles  and  double-barrel  shotguns.  Made  arms  into  percussion 

ALLENBREN,  John — Location  unknown;  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

ALLFATHER,   John— Near  Berlin,   Penna. 

ALLIN,  Erskine  S.— Born  at  Enfield,  Conn.,  Feb.  3,  1809.  Appren- 
ticed at  the  Water  Shop  of  the  Springfield  Armory  in  1829. 
Master  armorer  at  the  arsenal  from  1847-78.  Perfected  a  system 
of  conversion  of  muzzle-loading  muskets  known  as  the  Model 
1865  alteration.  Died,  Sept.  11,  1879. 

ALLIS,    Epaphriditus — Arms    stocker,    Springfield   Armory,    1818. 

ALLISON,  J.  H. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

ALLISON,  PETER  &  CO.— Main  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1825. 

ALLISON,   T. — Pennsylvania,  flintlock  period. 

ALLOWAY,  Elmer — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  23 
Green,  in  1829. 

ALSOP,  C.  R. — Revolver  manufacturer  of  Middletown,  Conn.,  1859- 
66.  Made  arms  under  Charles  Alsop  patents  Nos.  29,213,  29,538 
and  32,333. 

ALTLAND,  J.— York  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1810.  Rifle  maker. 

ALTMIER,  F. — Lewistown,  Mifflin  Co.,  Pa.  A  swivel-breech  double 
percussion  rifle  with  script  marking  "F.  Altmier"  on  one  barrel, 
"Lewistown"  on  the  other;  barrelmaker's  stamp  "Heberlig, 
Reading  Pa."  on  breeches;  Henry  Parker  lock. 

AMEN,   John — Unlocated.    Full   stock,   percussion    Kentucky    rifle. 

AMERICAN  ARMS  CO.— Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.  Made  Smith  carbines 
during  the  Civil  War. 

AMERICAN  ARMS  CO.— Boston,  Mass.,  about  1870-93;  Milwaukee, 
Wis.,  1893-1904. 

AMERICAN  MACHINE  WORKS— Established  by  Philos  B.  Tyler  in 
1843  at  Springfield,  Mass.  Manufactured  Smith  carbines  on  Civil 
War  contract,  in  1864. 

AMERICAN  NUT  &  ARMS  CO.— 47  Kingston  St.,  Boston,  Mass.,  1868- 
70.  Made  Wheeler's  patent,  hand  arms. 

AMERICAN  REPEATING  RIFLE  CO.— Boston,  Mass.  Formerly 
Fogerty  Rifle  Co.,  of  Boston.  Sold  out  to  Winchester  in  1869. 

AMERICAN  STANDARD  TOOL  CO.— Newark,  N.  J.,  1870-72.  Be- 
lieved to  be  successor  to  Manhattan  Fire  Arms  Co. 

AMERICAN  STEAM  WORKS— 180-182  Center  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
Manufacturers  of  Pecare  &  Smith  percussion  pepperboxes. 

AMES,  David — First  superintendent  of  the  Springfield  Armory.  Ap- 
pointed by  Washington,  1794.  Served  until  1802  when  he  became 
a  paper  manufacturer.  Born  at  Bridgewater,  Mass.,  Feb.  2,  1760. 
Manufacturer  of  shovels  and  guns.  Died  in  Springfield,  Mass.,  in 
August  1847.  Ames  had  seen  active  service  during  the  Revolu- 

6  American  Gun  Makers 

tionary  War  as  a  member  of  Capt.  Reuben  Dow's  Company  of 
Minute  Men. 

AMES,  John— Bridgewater,  Mass.,  1798.  Advertised  in  the  Columbian 
"Sentinel,"  Boston,  June  2,  1798,  offering  1,000  gun-locks  for 
sale  and  offering  to  buy  500  or  600  gun-barrels. 

AMES,  Nathaniel— Boston,  Mass.,  1800. 

AMES  MANUFACTURING  COMPANY— Cutlers,  sword  and  arms 
manufacturers  of  Cabotsville  and  Chicopee,  Mass.  Established 
originally  by  N.  P.  Ames,  Sr.,  at  Chelmsford  (now  Lowell), 
Mass.,  and  moved  to  Chicopee,  Mass.  in  1829.  In  1831  the  busi- 
ness was  incorporated  under  the  name  of  Ames  Manufacturing 
Company  with  initial  capital  of  $30,000.  In  the  same  year,  1831, 
the  company  undertook  its  first  of  sword  contracts  for  the  Gov- 
ernment, which  were  continued  for  thirty  odd  years,  until  the 
Ordnance  Department  began  making  its  own  swords. 

About  1834  the  company  moved  to  Cabotsville,  Mass.,  where 
a  sword  manufacturing  plant  had  been  erected.  In  1841  the 
Ames  Mfg.  Co.,  purchased  the  works  of  Chicopee  Falls  Company 
and  in  1842  moved  back  to  Chicopee. 

Specimen  arms  of  the  company  are  marked  as  follows:  Foot 
Artillery  (Roman  type)  sword  dated  1833,  "SPRINGFIELD"; 
Navy  scale-hilt  cutlass  dated  1842,  "CABOTSVILLE";  Dahlgren 
bowie-knife  Navy  bayonet  for  Whitney  Navy  rifle  M.1861,  (Ply- 
mouth), dated  1864,  "CHICOPEE";  Navy  brass  half -basket  cutlass 
dated  1864,  "CHICOPEE"  and  Civil  War  officers'  swords 
"CHICOPEE."  It  is  possible  that  the  Navy  carbines  and  pistols 
marked  "N.P.AMES"  "SPRINGFIELD"  were  aso  made  at  the 
Chicopee  plant,  a  short  distance  from  Chicopee  Falls  and  a  few 
miles  north  of  Springfield. 

In  addition  to  government  swords  the  company  made  machin- 
ery, gun-stocking  machines,  bronze  cannon,  bronze  statuary  and 
swords  for  military  associations  and  for  societies  and  lodges. 
During  the  Franco-Prussian  War  the  company  received  a  con- 
tract from  the  French  Government  for  about  100,000  sabers  and 
from  the  Turkish  Government  an  order  for  236,000  sabres  during 
the  Russo-Turkish  War.  The  company  also  manufactured  the 
Lowell  machine  gun  for  the  Lowell  Machine  Gun  Company.  See 
AMES  N.  P.  and  AMES  Sword  Co. 

AMES,  N.  P. — Operator  of  Ames  Manufacturing  Company,  cutlers 
and  sword  manufacturers  of  Cabotsville  and  Chicopee,  Mass., 
and  N.  P.  AMES,  makers  of  Jenks  patent,  mule-ear,  side-hammer 
Navy  percussion  carbines  of  1843-47,  and  of  Navy  percussion, 
single  shot,  box-lock  pistols  Model  1843,  1843-46,  at  Springfield, 
Mass.  N.  P.  Ames  (Jr.)  was  born  near  Lowell,  Mass.,  in  1803, 
son  of  N.  P.  Ames  (Sr.),  a  manufacturer  of  edged  tools  of 
Chelmsford  (now  Lowell)  Mass.  His  practical  experience  gained 
in  his  father's  shops  was  later  supplemented  by  study  of 
mechanical  arts  in  Europe  in  1840.  Died  in  Spring  of  1847. 
Nathan  Peabody  Ames  was  described  as  a  "dignified,  affable  and 
generous  man."  See  Ames  Manufacturing  Company. 

AMES,  Oakes— Chicopee,  Mass.  Born  Jan.  10,  1804;  died  May  8,  1873. 

AMES  SWORD  COMPANY— Established  in  1881,  at  Chicopee,  Mass., 
as  a  division  of  the  Ames  Manufacturing  Company,  a  separate 
corporation,  but  with  both  plants  under  the  same  management. 
The  sword  making  machinery  was  set  up  in  the  purchased  plant 
of  the  Gay  lord  Mfg.  Co.,  adjoining  the  Ames  Manufacturing  Co. 

American  Gun  Makers  7 

In  addition  to  swords  the  company  made  the  Protector,  a  seven 
shot  revolver  and  Protector  Palm  Pistols  for  the  Chicago  Arms 
Company.  At  end  of  "sword  era"  Ames  Company  was  merged 
into  Lilley  Ames  Corporation  of  Columbus,  Ohio.  See  Ames  Man- 
ufacturing Co.,  and  Ames,  N.  P. 

AMIDON,  L.  M. — Bellows  Falls,  Vt.  Made  telescopes  for  match  rifles 
(e.g.,  those  of  Norman  Brockway),  also  gain  twist  rifles. 

AMORY — Fond-du-Lac,  Wis.  Walnut  half-stock,  brass  mounted, 
octagon  barrel  percussion  plain  rifle. 

AMOS,  John— Bedford  Borough,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1840's  (on  1843  tax 
list).  Brother-in-law  of  W.  Border.  A  long,  slim,  early  percussion 
Kentucky  rifle  with  applewood  stock  and  hand-forged  bar  lock, 
marked  "J.  A." 

AMOSKEAG  MFG.  CO.— Manchester,  N.  H.  Made  27,001  Springfield 
Model  1861  rifle  muskets  on  government  contracts  during  the 
Civil  War:— 

Jan.  7,  1862,  10,000  muskets  at  $20.00  each.  10,001  delivered, 
Nov.  5,  1863,  15,000  muskets  at  $19.00  each.  Contract  completed. 
Jan.  6,  1865,  2,000  muskets  at  $19.00  each.  Contract  completed. 

AMSDEN,  B.  W.— Lake  Ave.  &  Hodgman  Sts.,  Saratoga  Springs, 
N.  Y.,  about  1860-1880.  Percussion  target  rifles,  double  rifles,  and 
rifle-shotgun  combinations;  shaded  front  sight  of  pig  bristle; 
silver  eagle  cheek-rest  inlays. 

AMSDEN,  J.— Saratoga  Springs,  N.  Y.,  1870-73.  Maker  of  a  double, 
side-by-side,  combination  percussion  rifle-shotgun.  Engraved  locks 
and  dolphin  type  hammers.  Ornate  patch  box.  Iron  furniture. 
(Related  to  Amsden,  B.  W.?) 

AN,  Jos.— Marking  "JOS*AN"  on  barrel  of  Kentucky  rifle.  Probably 
abbreviation  for  one  of  the  Pennsylvania  Angstadt  family. 

ANDERSON,  James — Gunsmith  to  Committee  of  Safety,  Virginia, 

ANDREWS,  Edward  W.— 19  Ontario  St.,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  1825-55, 
then  Oberlin  to  1859. 

ANDREWS,  Philip  B.— Cleveland,  Ohio,  1820-30.  Brother  of  E.  W. 
Andrews.  Born  at  Whitestown,  N.  Y.,  1796. 

ANDRUS  &  OSBORN— Canton,  Conn.  Under-hammer  percussion 
pistols  and  Civil  War  arms. 

ANG,  Jos. — On  barrel  of  very  early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  in- 
cised Roman  nose  stock. 

ANGEL,  John— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  97  Dillwyn, 
in  1829. 

ANGEL,  N. — (Same  as  Angle,  N.)  Erieville,  N.  Y.;  percussion  match 

ANGELE,  George— 42  Genesee  St.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1858-59. 

ANGLE,  N.— Near  Virgil,  N.  Y. 

ANGLIN,  Phil— "Old  Uncle  Phil,"  Robertson  County,  Tenn.,  maker 
of  flintlock  and  later  percussion  Kentucky  rifles  marked  "P.  A." 
Maker  of  a  flintlock  rifle  with  lock  by  John  Kirkman,  Ashville, 
Pa.  Also  made  a  tiger  maple,  full  stock,  .38  caliber,  percussion 
rifle  with  set  triggers  and  lock  apparently  of  own  manufacture. 

ANGSTADT,  Adam — Pennsylvania  rifle  maker.  Contractor  for  "rifle 
guns"  in  1792. 

8  American  Gun  Makers 

ANGSTADT,  Gideon — Unidentified.  Inlaid  and  engraved  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle  of  fine  workmanship. 

ANGSTADT,  Peter — Pennsylvania,  flintlock  period. 

ANGSTATT,  Joseph — Penna.  rifle  maker  probably  related  to  the 
Angstadts  and  Ansteds.  Used  abbreviation  "JOS*AN"  as  per 
marking  on  very  early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

ANGSTEAD,  Peter  (or  Angstadt) — Pennsylvania.  Fine  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

ANGUSH,  Jas.— Earl  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1771  and  before. 

ANNELY,  Edward— New  Jersey,  1771,  and  before. 

ANNELY,  John — New  York,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

ANNELY,  Thomas— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  in  Maryland,  1799-1801. 
Received  payment  for  expenses  incurred  in  connection  with  prov- 
ing muskets. 

ANNELY,  Thomas — New  Jersey,  1776,  before  and  after.  (Same  as 

ANSCHUTZ,  E.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1860. 

ANSTADT,  Jacob— Berks  County,  Pa.,  1815-17. 

ANSTAT— Believed  to  be  Peter  Angstadt  above. 

ANSTATT,  A. — Marking  on  barrels  of  superposed,  swivel-breech 
flintlock  Penna.  rifle,  circa  1820.  (Same  as  Adam  Angstadt?) 

ANSTED,  A.  &  J.— Contractors  on  April  22,  1808,  with  Tench  Coxe, 
Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  for  50  pairs  of  pistols  at  $10.00 
each.  Probably  are  Adam  Angstadt  and  Jacob  Anstadt,  Penn- 
sylvania arms  makers,  whose  names  were  spelled  with  a  number 
of  variations. 

ANTES,  William — Mahoning  Township,  Northumberland  Co.,  Pa., 

ANTIS,  R. — Canandaigua,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

ANTIS,  William — Frederick  Township,  Pennsylvania,  Revolutionary 
War.  (Same  as  Antes?) 

APPLEBAY,  Alexander— Born  March  4,  1832;  died  March  4,  1906. 
Worked  at  Wellsburg,  W.  Va.,  and  Steubenville  and  later  Lowell, 

APPLEBAY,  H.  D.  &  W.  R.— Wellsburg,  W.  Va.,  and  later  Lowell, 

ARCHER,  John — Unidentified.  Lock  marking  on  a  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

ARMSTRONG— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  maker  of  Kentucky  rifles  dating 
to  about  1800.  Possibly  same  as  John  Armstrong. 

ARMSTRONG,  A.  H.— Unlocated.  Maker  of  a  half  stock,  percussion 

ARMSTRONG,  Allen— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  about  1800.  Kentucky  flint- 
lock rifles;  rifled  flintlock  Kentucky  target  pistol,  lock  marked 

ARMSTRONG,  John— Emmetsburg,  Md.,  later  Pennsylvania,  from 
about  1790;  died  1827.  Fine  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle;  raised  carv- 
ing, silver  inlays,  lock  handmade. 

ARMSTRONG,  John,  Jr. — Son  of  John  Armstrong.  Active  at  Gettys- 
burg, Pa.,  1855,  before  and  after. 

ARMSTRONG,  R.  H. — Hudson,  Mich.  Maker  of  plain  percussion 
match  rifles. 

American  Gun  Makers  9 

ARMSTRONG,  S.  F.— -Adamsville,  Mich. 

ARMSTRONG  &  TAYLOR— Augusta,  Ky.,  1864.  Rifle  makers. 

AS — (Or  AJ).  Unidentified.  Curly  maple  half  stocked  plains  rifle  with 
engraved  brass  hardware  and  Jas.  Golcher  lock. 

ASHEVILLE  ARMORY— Asheville,  N.  C.  Established  in  1861  by  Col. 
R.  W.  Pulliam,  Ephraim  Clayton  and  G.  W.  Whitson,  at  the 
corner  of  Valley  and  Eagle  Streets,  with  one  Riley,  an  English- 
man, as  chief  machinist.  The  plant  was  turned  over  to  the  Con- 
federate Government  in  1863,  and  arms  are  believed  to  have  been 
marked  "Asheville  Armory."  The  machinery  and  equipment  were 
moved  to  Columbia,  S.  C,  prior  to  April,  1864,  and  the  plant  re- 
established as  the  Columbia  Armory  in  charge  of  Capt.  C.  C. 
McPhail,  C.  S.  Ord.  Dept.  See  Columbia  Armory.  A  year  later, 
in  the  latter  part  of  April,  1865,  the  old  armory  buildings  at 
Asheville  were  burned  by  Federal  troops. 

ASHFIELD,  J. — Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period.  (Identical  with  J. 
Ashfield  of  Toronto,  Canada,  maker  of  a  rifle  with  Goulcher 

ASHMORE— Unidentified.  Maker  of  Kentucky  rifles  about  1800-08. 

ASHMORE,  N. — Lockmaker,  flint  and  percussion  arms.  Percussion 
shotgun  locks  marked  "N.  ASHMORE." 

ASHMORE,  R. — Lockmaker,  flint  and  percussion  arms.  Maker  of  a 
Kentucky  rifle  flint  lock  marked  "R.  ASHMORE  WARRANTED" 
and  of  an  original  Kentucky  rifle  percussion  lock  marked  "R.", 
and  "ASHMORE"  in  two  lines. 

ASHTON,  P.  H. — Unlocated.  Percussion  underhammer  pistol. 

A.ST.B. — Unidentified  marking  of  a  curly  maple,  half-stock,  octagon 
barrel,  double  set  trigger  percussion  rifle  numbered  "No.  199." 

A.  S.  T.  CO. — Unidentified  "Hero"  percussion   pocket  pistols. 

ASTOL,  J.  &  W.— New  Orleans,  La.,  1805-12. 

ASTON,  H. — The  firm  of  H.  Aston  was  organized  at  Middletown, 
Conn.,  about  1843,  by  Henry  Aston,  who  arrived  in  the  United 
States  from  England  in  1819,  and  as  a  skilled  pistol  maker  readily 
found  employment  with  Simeon  North,  pistol  manufacturer,  at 
Middletown,  Conn.  Subsequent  to  1850  the  firm  was  reorganized 
and  from  1851  the  famed  Model  1842  Army  pistols  made  by  the 
Aston  Company  were  marked  "H.  Aston  &  Co."  The  contract  for 
30,000  pistols  at  $6.50  each  was  awarded  Feb.  25,  1845. 

ASTON,  H.  &  CO. — See  H.  Aston  above.  Henry  Aston's  partners 
were:  Nelson  Ashton,  Peter  Aston,  John  North,  Sylvester  C. 
Bailey  and  Ira  N.  Johnson. 

ASTON,  H.  &  W.— Converted  flint  lock  on  halfstock  plains  rifle  by  R. 

ASTON,  J.  &  J. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  the  lock  of  a  percussion 
over-under  rifle. 

ASTON,  J.  &  W— Converted  flint  lock  with  tumbler  detent,  late 
period,  on  a  Kentucky  rifle.  Marked  "J.  &  W.  ASTON  WAR- 

ASTON,  W. — William  Aston,  Middletown,  Conn.,  maker  of  under- 
hammer, percussion  saw-handle  pistols  about  1854,  in  the  old 
S.  North  pistol  and  musket  manufacturing  shops. 

ATHERTON,  C— Stamping  on  an  old,  flintlock,  Kentucky  rifle  barrel. 

ATKINSON— Unidentified.  Percussion  rifle. 

10  American  Gun  Makers 

ATKINSON— Maker  of  a  full  maple  stock,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle, 
with  ornate  patch  box  and  with  barrel  octagonal  at  the  breech. 

ATKINSON,  Joel — Parkesburg,  Ky.,  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

ATKINSON,  Wyat^-Hidalgo,  Ky.  Born  1880  at  Parkesburg,  Ky.,  son 
of  Joel  Atkinson  with  whom  he  learned  the  trade. 

ATLANTA  ARSENAL — Confederate  Arsenal  at  northwest  corner  of 
Walton  and  Peachtree  Streets.  Acquired  by  Trenholm,  Frazer  & 
Co.,  government  fiscal  agents  Aug.  6,  1863.  In  an  ad  in  "Southern 
Confederacy"  for  Dec.  6,  1862,  Major  M.  H.  Wright,  C.  S.  A., 
Commanding  Arsenal,  offers  to  exchange  powder  for  lead  at  the 
Military  Store  House,   corner  Peachtree  and  Walton. 

ATLAS  GUN  CO.— Ilion,  N.  Y.,  1893.  Small  caliber  rifles. 

ATLEY,  Conrad— Bedford  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1800. 

ATWATER,  J.  B.— Ripon,  Wis.  Probably  during  1850's. 

A.  T.  W. — Unidentified.  Bedford  County,  Pa.,  silver  inlaid  percussion 
Kentucky  rifle. 

AUER,  B.  I. — Louisville,  Ky.  Reported  maker  of  a  heavy,  19  lb.  walnut 
half  stock,  schuetzen  rifle. 

AUER,  X.— Gunsmith,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1861. 

AUGUSTA  ARSENAL— Augusta,  Ga.  Manufactured  equipment,  field 
artillery,  powder  and  repaired  arms  for  the  Confederacy. 

AUGUSTINE,  S.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.     . 

AUGUSTINE,  Samuel— Athens  County,  Ohio,  1853-54. 

AULTLAND,  H.  G.— Penna.  rifle  maker. 

AUSTIN,  Cornelius — New  Jersey,  1776-78.  Armorer  to  New  Jersey. 

AUSTIN,  Thomas — Charlestown,  Mass.  Gunsmith  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Armorer  to  Massachusetts,  1775. 

AVERY,  G.— Hamburg,  Pa. 

AVERY,  Willis — Salisbury,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

AVET,  F.— Gunsmith,  St.  Laude,  between  St.  Phillip  and  Ursulines, 
New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

A.  W. — Marking  inside  of  lock  of  Model  1795  flintlock  musket. 

AYRES,  R.  A.— Alexandria,  Va.,  (?).  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with 
Remington  barrel. 


BABBITT,  L.  W.— Ohio,  1837.  Flintlocks. 

BABCOCK,  J. — Under  hammer  percussion  pistol  with  ring  hammer. 

BABCOCK,  Moses — Charlestown,  Mass.  Listed  in  Directories  from 
1838  to  1874.  Was  assistant  to  Abijah  Monroe,  gunsmith,  then 
owner  of  a  shop  on  Charlestown  Square  1877-81.  Died  Aug.  27, 

BACH,  John— 52  Commercial  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1855;  72  Com- 
mercial 1858-65. 

BACHNER  BROTHERS— 72  Hennepin,  later  36  S.  Washington  Ave., 
Minneapolis,  Minn.,  1869-80. 

BACKHOUSE,  Richard— Gun-barrel  maker  of  Easton,  Pa.,  1774-81. 
Owner  and  operator  of  the  Durham  Iron  Works. 

BACON  ARMS  CO.— Established  at  Norwich,  Conn.,  by  Thomas  K. 
Bacon  in  1852.  Makers  of  Bacon  percussion  pepperboxes,  single- 
shot  pistols,  and  of  Briggs  and  C.  W.  Hopkins  type  revolvers. 
Formerly  had  been  Bacon  &  Co.,  then  Bacon  Mfg.  Co.  The  firm 

American  Gun  Makers  11 

ceased  operations  in   1888.  In  1892  the  remaining  inventory  of 

the  Company,  amounting  to  only  about  $14,000,  was  taken  over 

by  the  Crescent  Fire  Arms  Co.,  of  Norwich. 
BACON  &  CO. — Percussion  pistols  and  pepperboxes.  See  Bacon  Arms 

BACON  MFG.  CO. — Bacon  percussion  and  cartridge  revolvers.  See 

Bacon  Arms  Co.  above. 
BAER,  J.— Lancaster,  Pa.,   1810-1840.   Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 
BAGGETT,  Elijah — Attleboro,  Mass.  Contractor  under  Act  of  1798  for 

500  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand. 
BAGLEY,  Albert  G. — Breech-loading,  percussion  rifle  marked  on  bar- 
rel, "ALBERT  G.  BAGLEY  MARCH  1852." 
BAHN,  B.  &  BRO. — Cape  Girardeau,  Mo.,  makers  of  percussion  sport- 
ing rifles. 
BAHRMANN,  G. — Louisville,  Ky.  Percussion  rifle. 
BAILEY,   D. — New   Orleans,   La.   Importer   and  dealer   in  firearms, 

English  percussion  revolvers  known  with  this  marking. 
BAILEY,  George — Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  on  New  Market  near 

Green,  in  1829. 
BAILEY,  G.  L. — Portland,  Me.  Maker  of  half  stock,  muzzle  loading, 

percussion  sporting  rifle  with  Remington  barrel. 
BAILEY,  Goff— Kincheloe,  W.  Va.  Percussion  rifles. 
BAILEY,  Nathan— Gunsmith  of  New  London,  Conn.,  1776-79.  Worked 

on  repair  of  public  arms  for  the  State.  Was  paid  50  pounds  in 

July,  1775. 
BAILEY,  Thomas— Gunsmith,  160 Vz  Chartres,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 
BAILEY,  W.  A. — Unlocated.  Under-hammer,  percussion  target  pistol. 
BAIRD,  C. — Vermont.  Percussion  target  pistol  with  false  muzzle  and 

bird's-eye  maple  shoulder  stock. 
BAIRD,  S.  S. — Chittenden,  Vt,  percussion  period. 
BAKER,  Andrew— Bedford,  Pa.,  area  (?). 
BAKER,  C. — Unlocated,  Marking  on  the  lock  of  a  percussion  sporting 

BAKER,  Clyde— 2100  East  59th  St.,  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  modern. 
BAKER  GUN  &  FORGING  CO.— Batavia,  N.  Y.  1911-14.  Cal.  .22  auto 

BAKER,  J.— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifle  dated  "Nov.  28,  1843."  Also 

made  3-barrel  swivel  breech  guns. 
BAKER,  Jacob   S. — Listed  as  gunsmith  at  386  North  Front,  Phila., 

Pa.,  in  1819.  Operated  a  rifle  factory  at  916  Front  St.,  in  1824. 

Again  listed  as  gunsmith  on  No.  Front,  corner  Otter  in  1859. 

BAKER,  James — Musket  contractor.  Contract  of  January  24,  1829. 
Was  Administrator  for  Marine  T.  Wickham,  deceased  musket 
manufacturer  1829-1835. 

BAKER,  James— Mill  Creek,  Pa.,  about  1825. 

BAKER,  John — Lancaster,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

BAKER,  John — Pennsylvania  musket  maker.  Several  references  to 
John  Baker  making  Provincial  firearms  for  Pennsylvania  in  1776. 
His  farm  and  shop  were  on  the  south  side  of  the  Germantown  Pike 
at  the  North  Wales  Road,  which  is  at  rear  end  of  the  State  Hos- 
pital for  the  Insane  at  Norristown,  Pa.  Rev.  Charles  Collins  in 

12  American  Gun  Makers 

1895  stated  that  "John  Baker  was  an  ingenious  worker  in  iron, 
steel,  and  other  metals.  His  father  was  a  native  of  Germany; 
and  a  very  early  settler  in  the  vicinity.  During  the  Revolutionary 
War  Mr.  Baker  rendered  very  efficient  aid  to  the  Whig  cause,  by 
his  handicraft,  in  the  work  of  repairing  suitable  fire-arms. 
Mr.  Baker  lived  to  a  great  old  age;  being  nearly  a  centenarian; 
and  died  about  1820."  A  son  Arnold  died  at  the  old  homestead 
about  1858.  The  son  kept  Barley  Sheaf  tavern. 

BAKER,  John— Providence  Township,  Pa.,  1768-75  and  after. 

BAKER,  Melchior — Also  Melchor.  Fayette  County,  Pa.,  before  and 
after  1781-1804.  After  participating  in  Col.  Lochry's  ill-fated  ex- 
pedition of  1781,  he  came  to  Georges  Township,  Fayette  Co., 
where  he  settled  and  established  an  arms  factory  in  association 
with  Albert  Gallatin,  who  furnished  most  of  the  financial  back- 
ing. The  plant  at  times  employed  up  to  a  hundred  hands,  and 
supplied  the  state  as  well  as  furnished  arms  to  the  national  gov- 
ernment, making  broadswords  and  long  arms.  After  Gallatin 
joined  Jefferson's  Cabinet,  he  withdrew  from  the  firm,  disposing 
of  his  interest  to  Baker,  who  continued  the  operation  of  the 
plant  with  the  assistance  of  his  sons.  The  factory  was  in  opera- 
tion in  1804,  as  is  evidenced  by  a  Pennsylvania  State  payment  of 
$1,333.33  for  arms  furnished.  The  firm  closed  when  the  govern- 
ment armories  went  into  large  scale  production,  and  Baker 
moved  to  Clarksburg,  Va.  (now  W.  Va.) 

BAKER,  W.  H.— Marathon,  Courtland  Co.,  N.  Y.,  and  Batavia,  N.  Y., 
heavy  percussion  sniper's  and  target  rifles  with  patent  muzzles 
and  telescope  sights. 

BALD,  Fred— 91  Pennsylvania  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1860. 

BALDWIN,  Elihu — Branford,  Conn.  Musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Made  17  good  guns  with  bayonets.  Recorded  Nov.  18, 

BALDWIN,  Jacob — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Jacob  Baldwin  was  one  of  the  petitioners,  representing 
Pennsylvania  gun  makers,  complaining  to  Committee  of  Safety 
in  November,  1776,  against  the  high  cost  of  materials  and  labor 
entering  into  arms  making,  and  quoting  advances  in  prices  within 
one  year,  since  1775. 

BALL,  Elisha— North  Carolina  before  and  after  1821;  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

BALL  &  WILLIAMS— Worcester,  Mass.,  1861-66.  Makers  of  Ballard's 
patent  carbines  and  military  and  sporting  rifles,  under  Charles  H. 
Ballard  patent  of  Nov.  5,  1861,  No.  33,631.  During  the  Civil  War 
the  government  purchased  1,509  Ballard  carbines. 

BALLARD  ARMS  CO.— Worcester,  Mass.  Civil  War  arms. 

BALLARD,  C.  H.  &  CO.— See  Ballard  &  Fairbanks. 

BALLARD  &  FAIRBANKS— Worcester,  Mass.,  1870.  Made  Ballard 
cartridge  derringers. 

BALLWEG,  A.— 129  W.  Washington  St.,  Indianapolis,  Ind.,   1868-72. 
BALSER,  A.  L.  &  CO.— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1857-59. 
BALSLEY,  T.— Connellsville,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa.  Half  and  full  stock  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifles  of  good  workmanship.  Name  on  barrel. 
BALTIMORE  ARMS  CO.— Modern.  Shotguns. 
BAMES,  S.  or  T— Marking  on  sideplate  of  circa  1840  Kentucky  rifle. 

American  Gun  Makers  13 

BANDLE  GUN  CO.— J.  Bandle,  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  .22  Cal.  percussion 
"saloon"  rifles. 

BARBOUR,  A.  M.— Superintendent  Harpers  Ferry  Armory,  1860. 

BARENT,  Covert— Or  Govert.  New  Amsterdam,  N.  Y.,  1648. 

BARKER,  Cyrus — Providence,  R.  I.,  percussion  period. 

BARLOW,  J.— Moscow,  Ind.,  1840-1859,  probably  before  and  after.  A 
few  flint  rifles.  A  heavy,  curly  maple,  halfstocked  percussion 
rifle  with  H.  E.  Leman  back-action  lock.  Barrel  marked  in  script 
"J.  BARLOW  March  the  12,  1859." 

BARNARD,  Joseph— Musket  maker  1799-1801.  See  Amasa  Allen. 

BARNES,  Thomas  N.  —North  Brookfield,  Mass.  Born  1763,  active  to 
about  1800.  Died  at  Bakersfield,  Vt. 

BARNES,  Thomas  Washington— Born  1840  at  Oakville,  Ontario,  Can- 
ada; died  Aug.  28,  1909  at  Vassar,  Mich.  Learned  gunsmithing 
about  1856  from  father  Jacob  Barnes  and  an  old  English  smith. 
Set  up  shop  at  Vassar,  fall  of  1865.  Various  partners:  Ab.  Har- 
rington, Saul  Green  (as  Barnes  &  Green);  son  George  W.  Barnes 
after  about  1905.  Made  percussion  over-under  rifle-shotguns  with 
side  hammers,  marked  "T.  W.  BARNES"  on  lockplate  (some  un- 
marked). Inlays  of  German  silver  or  other  white  metal;  patch- 
boxes  open  downward.  Also  made  some  breechloaders. 

BARNES,  W.  H. — Boston,  Mass.  Back-action   lock,   percussion  rifle. 

BARNHART,  Geo.  A.— New  Rumley,  Harrison  Co.,  Ohio,  1841-1881. 
Descended  from  Hessian  prisoners  of  war  who  settled  in  Bucks 
County,  Pa.,  after  Revolutionary  War. 

BARNHART,  George— Greene  Township,  Ross  Co.,  Ohio.  Born  in 
Pennsylvania,  1798,  died  in  Ohio,  Feb.  17,  1844.  Brother  of  Wil- 
liam Barnhart  (elder). 

BARNHART,  Nehemiah— Hallsville,  Ross  Co.,  Ohio.  Born  1831,  died 
1888.  Son  of  William  Barnhart   (elder). 

BARNHART,  William— (The  elder).  Brother  of  George  Barnhart. 
Greene  Township,  Ross  Co.,  Ohio.  Born  Aug.  12,  1802,  died  Oct.  6, 

BARNHART,  William— (The  younger).  Son  of  George  Barnhart. 
Greene  Township,  Ross  Co.,  Ohio.  Born  September,  1825,  died 
February,   1891. 

BARNHART,  Simon — Pennsylvania;  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

BARNHIZLE,  Christopher— Musket  maker  1799-1801.  In  association 
with  Nicholas  White,  Thomas  Craft  and  Jacob  Metzger,  con- 
tracted under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern 
(Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand,  of  which  235  were 
delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

BARR,  Frederick— Gunsmith,  New  York,  N.  Y.  1801-02. 

BARR,  R. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Reported  marking  on  a  Birmingham 
proofed  percussion  shotgun.  Importer? 

BARRET — "Deacon"  Samuel  Barret,  musket  maker  of  Concord, 
Mass.,  after  1775. 

BARRETT,  J.  B.— Wytheville,  Va.  Civil  War  musket  contractor  to  the 
Confederacy.  So  called  "Hall  muzzle-loading  rifle"  may  have  been 
made  here  as  well  as  rifles  patterned  after  Model  1855,  but  with- 
out patch  box  or  primer. 

BARRETT,  Thomas— "Deacon"  Thomas  Barrett  and  son  Samuel, 
("Deacon"   Samuel  Barret?)   Revolutionary  War  operators  of  a 

14  American  Gun  Makers 

gun  factory  at  Concord,  Mass.,  at  the  time  of  the  battle  of  Con- 

HARRINGTON,  A.  C. — Lebanon,  N.  Y.  Percussion  under-hammer 

BARROWS,  E. — Unlocated.  Curly  maple  full-stock,  octagonal  barrel, 
.36  cal.  flintlock  Kentucky  squirrel  rifle. 

BARSTOW,  I.  &  C.  C— Musket  makers  of  Exeter,  N.  H.  Contracted 
on  Oct.  21,  1808,  for  2,500  Model  1808  muskets.  Barstow  musket 
lock  plates  are  marked  "J.  &  C.  B.  Exeter."  In  the  early  19th 
Century  letters  J  and  I  were  interchanged  rather  freely  in  writ- 
ing. Probabilities  are  that  the  contract  should  have  read  J. 

BARTLETT— Lancaster,  Pa.  Early  Kentucky  flintlock  rifles  of  excel- 
lent workmanship. 

BARTLETT,  A.— Ruxton  Lane,  Baltimore,  Md.,  active  in  1817. 

BARTLETT,  A.  &  P. — Massachusetts  musket  makers.  Contracted 
Oct.  31,  1808,  for  2,500  Model  1808  muskets.  Of  these  1,500  were 
delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

BARTLETT,  Isak— Forged   lock  plates  at  Springfield  Armory   1808. 

BARTLETT,  Joseph,  and  Robert  S.— Binghamton,  N.  Y.,  1829-50. 
Sons  of  Capt.  Isaac  Bartlett,  Connecticut  blacksmith  and  wheel- 
right,  who  in  1813  established  in  Owego,  N.  Y.,  and  thence  in 
1829,  settled  at  Chenango  Point  (now  Binghamton).  Joseph  and 
Robert  Bartlett  opened  a  shop  on  Court  Street  where  between 
1829  and  1834  they  made  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  at  first,  then 
percussion  arms.  In  1834  the  site  of  their  shop  being  taken  over 
by  the  State  for  a  canal  project,  they  put  up  a  larger  new  build- 
ing on  Franklin  (now  Washington)  Street,  employing  at  times 
as  many  as  25  hands.  From  1834,  on  change  of  name  of  the  city 
to  Binghamton,  the  Bartlett  arms  were  marked  with  the  new 
name,  instead  of  Chenango  Point.  The  plant  discontinued  about 
1850,  unable  to  compete  with  cheaper,  machine  made  arms  made 
on  production  basis. 

BARTON,   Samuel— Thorntown,  Ind.,   1885. 

BASLER,  A.  L.  &  CO.— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1857-59. 

BASSET,  F.  E.— Breech-loading,  rim-fire  target  pistol. 

BATCHELOR,  William  R.— Gunmaker.  Miller's  Court  (N.L.),  Phila., 
Pa.,  1819. 

BATES,   Cord — Thornton,  N.  Y.,  percussion   period. 

BATES,  R.— North  Carolina;  making  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  in  1820. 

BATLEFELD,  R.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

BATON  ROUGE  ARSENAL.— Confederate  Arsenal  at  Baton  Rouge, 
La.  Serviceable  property  removed  by  the  State  of  Louisiana  in 
May  1861,  including  4,000  muskets,  sabers,  pistols,  battery 
wagons,  forges,  etc.  The  gun  machinery  for  making  arms  was 
removed  to  Columbus,  Ga.,  in  1862. 

BATTLES,  C.  G.— Wellington,  Lorain  Co.,  Ohio. 

BATTLS,  John— Whittier,  N.  C.  Percussion  rifles. 

BAUER,   George — Lancaster,   Pa.,   prior   to   1783. 

BAUER,  J.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  period. 

BAUER  &  KLEPZIG— 212  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1855. 
See  also  KLEPZIG  &  CO. 

BAUM,  C— Unlocated.  "C.  BAUM  MAKER,  POTTSVILLE,"  marking 
on  barrel  of  superposed,  swivel-breech  percussion  rifle,  circa  1845. 

American  Gun  Makers  15 

BAUM,  Samuel— New  Berlin,  Pa.,  1789-1840.  Flintlock  and  percussion 
Kentucky  rifles. 

BAXTER,  A.  T.— Baltimore,  Md.,  about   1830-41. 

B.  &  CO. — Unidentified.  Brass  barrel  and  frame  pistol. 

BAY  STATE  ARMS  CO.— Oxbridge,  Mass.,  about  1870-75.  Single-shot 
target  rifles  and  pistols. 

B.  B. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  a  Kentucky  type  pistol  with  silver 

BEACH,  C.  H. — Unlocated.  Three  barrel  pepper-box  type  revolving 
rifle,  each  barrel  with  own  sights.  Same  as  Claudius  H.  Beach? 

BEACH,  Claudius  H.— Marshall,  Michigan.  Born  at  Bloomfield,  On- 
tario Co.,  N.  Y.,  and  later  apprenticed  to  a  gunsmith.  Moved 
West  to  Marshall,  Mich.  Married  Mary  McKay  October  10,  1830. 
Three  children.  Hunting  and  target  rifles  usually  using  Reming- 
ton barrels  and  Geo.  Golcher  locks.  Died  Aug.  26,   1888. 

B.  E. — Script  Initials  of  Barney  Engle,  Greensboro,  Greene  Co.,  Pa., 
before  and  after  1870.  Maker  of  a  late  percussion  rifle,  and  a 
plains  rifle,  so  marked. 

BEACH,  J.  J.— Celina,  Ohio,   1835-1860. 

BEACH,  T.— Perry  Co.,  Pa.,   1815,  before  and  after. 

BEADLE— Indian  Trail,  Maumee  Valley,   Ohio,   1840-90. 

BEALE— Unidentified.  1858. 

BEAN,  Baxter — Jonesboro,  Tenn.,  1812.  Also  Cherokee  Creek  and 
Nashville.  Rifle  made  in  1834.  Son  of  Russell  Bean  who  was  born 
in  1769  on  Watauga  River,  Tenn.,  of  William  Bean. 

Russell  Bean  was  the  father  of  Baxter,  Charles,  Joseph  (of 
Rock  Creek,  Tenn.)  and  Robert  (Washington  Co.,  about  1835). 
He  had  brothers  Edmund,  Jesse  (company  commander  at  Battle 
of  Kings  Mountain),  John,  Robert  (served  in  War  of  Revolution) 
and  William,  Jr.,  all  sons  of  Wm.  Bean  of  Watauga  River,  Tenn. 

BEAN,  Charles — Son  of  Russell  Bean,  Jonesboro,  Tenn.  Rifle  made 
in  1831.  Father  of  Charles  Bean,  Jr. 

BEAN,  Charles,  Jr. — Percussion  rifles.  Son  of  Charles  Bean.  Died 
near  Erwin,  Tenn.,  about  1920. 

BEAN,  James — East  Tennessee,  flintlock  period. 

BEAN,  Russell— Jonesboro,  Tenn.  Born  1869.  Rifle  maker.  His  identifi- 
cation marks  were  stars  at  muzzle  and  on  rear  sight. 

BEARDSLEY  MFG.  CO.— Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  about  1868.  Rifled  muskets. 

BEAUVAIS,  R.— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  gunsmith.  Born  in  1817.  Listed  in 
the  city  directory  from  1858  to  1875.  Reported  to  have  made  a 
few  revolvers  of  Colt  type  for  the  Confederacy.  When  Missouri 
"went  Union,"  the  Beauvais  family  are  alleged  to  have  supplied 
the  Confederate  members  of  "Order  of  American  Knights"  or 
"Knights   of   the   Golden   Circle,"   with   arms. 

BEBOUT,  William— Monroe  Township,  Belmont  Co.,  Ohio,  1858-1876. 

BECHTLER,    Christopher— Rutherford,    N.    C,    1829-47    and    later. 

BECK,  A.   S.— Unidentified.  Kentucky  flintlock  rifle. 

BECK,  C— Lancaster  Co.,  Penna.  1780-1820.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

BECK,   Christian— Indianapolis,    Ind.,    1871-74. 

BECK,  D.— Unidentified,  Flintlock  and  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

BECK,  Gideon — Pennsylvania,  about  1780-90. 


American  Gun  Makers 

BECK,  H.— Gunsmith,  27  St.  Phillip,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

BECK,  Isaac— Mifflinburg,  Union  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1835.  Fine  flintlock 

BECK,  John— Lancaster  County,  Pa.  Active  1772-77,  before  and  later. 

BECK,  J.  P.— Union  County,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

BECK,  John  Philip— Dauphin  County,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1788-89. 

BECK,  J.  W.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

BECK,  S.  &  SONS— Indianapolis,  Ind.  Makers  and  distributors  of 
rifles  and  shotguns.  Many  of  their  products  were  made  from 
standard  rough  parts  furnished  to  sub-contractor  gunsmiths  in 
the  vicinity,  for  boring,  stocking  and  finishing. 

BECK,  Samuel— Indianapolis,  Ind.,  1870-71. 

BECK,  Wm.  &  Son — Portland,  Ore.  Dealers  and  gunsmiths,  percus- 
sion period. 

BECKER,  I.  or  J.— Lebanon,  Pa.,  before  1800.  Kentucky  rifle. 

BECKLEY,  Elias— Connecticut,  flintlock  period.  Died  in  1816.  His 
son,  Elias,  Jr.,  carried  on  the  business  at  Beckley  Quarter,  near 
Berlin,  until  his  death  in  1828. 

BEDDIE,    George — Sugar    Creek    Township,    Tuscarawas    Co.,    Ohio, 

1815-1871.  "Rifles  and  other  firearms." 
BEEBE— Albany,  N.  Y.,  1846-49. 
BEEBE,  Richard— Springfield,  Ohio,   1861-64. 

BEEMAN— Massachusetts.  Gunsmith  to  Committee  of  Safety,  1775-76. 
BEEMAN,  John— Lancaster,  Fairfield  Co.,  Ohio,  1820. 
BEEMAN,  Martin— Lancaster,  Fairfield  Co.,  Ohio,  1831. 
BEERSTECHERS,  E.— Lewisburg,  Pa.  Same  as  Beerstecher,  F.? 
BEERSTECHER,   F.— Philadelphia,    Pa.    Percussion    Kentucky   rifles. 

Also  patentee  of  a   two-shot,   single   barrel  rifle,   Sept.   25,    1855, 

Patent  No.  13,592. 

BEERSTECHER,  G.  F.— Lewisburg,  Pa.  Percussion  side-by-side  dou- 
ble rifle. 

BEISEL,  John  and  Simon — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmiths  on 
Lilley  Alley  in  1829. 

BEKEART — San  Francisco,  Cal.,  percussion  rifles. 

BELKNAP,  Amaso — Cherry  Valley,  N.  Y.,  rifle  maker.  Born  in  Elling- 
ton, Conn.,  Nov.  29,  1786.  Moved  to  Cherry  Valley,  year  un- 
known. The  last  house  he  lived  in  still  stands  but  the  brick 
gunshop  was  torn  down  about  1900.  Fine  muzzle  loading,  full- 
stock,  pill-lock  and  percussion  hunting  and  target  rifles  on  the 
German  styles,  with  cheek-piece  and  inlays.  Died  Sept.  21,  1878 
and  is  buried  in  Cherry  Valley  cemetery. 

BELL,   Conder — Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

BELL,  Elias — Pennsylvania;  making  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  in  1818. 

BELL,  H.  P.— Cambridge,  Ohio. 

BELL,  John— Boston,  Mass.,  1745-54. 

BELLES,  P. — Unlocated;   possibly   same   as   Bellis  of  Lancaster,   Pa. 

Flintlock  and  percussion  Kentucky   rifles. 
BELLIS — Lancaster,  Pa.  Early  flintlock  period. 

BELLOWS,  Josiah— Walpole,  N.  H.  Musket  maker,  1799,  1801.  Asso- 
ciated with  Gurdon  Huntington,  John  Livinston  and  David  Stone 

American  Gun  Makers  17 

in  a  contract  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  500  Charleville  pat- 
tern (Model  1795),  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  235  were 
delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

BELTON,  Joseph— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1777.  By  direction  of  Congress 
of  May  3,  1777,  authorized  to  superintend  the  making  or  altering 
of  one  hundred  muskets  on  a  plan  exhibited  by  him.  These  guns 
were  to  fire  eight  rounds  "with  once  loading." 

BEMIS,  Edmund— Boston,  Mass.  Born  1720.  Active  1746-85.  Died  1810. 

BENDER,  J.— Pennsylvania,  period  of  1790.  Fine  Kentucky  flintlock 
rifle.  Late  Kentucky  rifles  so  marked  are  possibly  by  another 

BENFER,  Amos  and  Arnig — Beaverstown,  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  Flintlock 

BENFER,  Amos — Troxelville,  Pa.  Over-under,  full  stock,  percussion 
Kentucky  type  rifle  marked  on  barrel,  "AMOS  BENFER  TROX- 
ELVILLE, PA.  MARCH  1883."  Related  to  Benfer,  Amos  above? 

BENNETT— With  Packson  settled  on  Kent  Island,  Md.,  in  1631.  Mary- 
land's first  gun  makers.  Established  three  years  before  founding 
of  the  Province  by  Calvert. 

BENNETT,  T. — Unlocated.  Single-shot,  percussion  underhammer 
pistol  of  "hand  forged"  workmanship. 

BENNETT,  William  N.— Elgin,  Iowa,  1854-84.  Born  February  14,  1834, 
at  Middlebury,  Addison  Co.,  Vt.  Came  to  California  in  his  youth 
via  Cape  Horn,  thence  in  the  1850's,  after  a  three  months  over- 
land journey,  to  Iowa,  where  he  located  3  miles  from  Elgin  and 
worked  for  thirty-five  years.  Made  muzzle  loading,  percussion, 
hunting  and  target  rifles  with  gain  twist  rifling  of  noted  accuracy. 
Bennett  rifle,  .45  caliber,  31  inch  barrel  known  dated  March  1, 
1884.  William  Bennett  died  in  1914  in  Stowe,  Vermont. 

BENSON,  EZRA  D.— Terra  Alta  (formerly  Cranberry  Summit),  W. 
Va.,  and  later  Morgantown,  W.  Va.,  about  1870  and  later.  Ornate 
German  silver  inlaid,  halfstock  percussion  rifles. 

BENSON,  M.  M.— Morgantown,  W.  Va.,  about  1870  and  later.  Brother 
of  E.  D.  Benson  above.  Made  same  type  of  ornate,  German  silver 
mounted,  half  and  fullstock  percussion  rifles. 

BENSON,  Wm.— Rices  Landing,  Greene  Co.,  Pa. 

BERG,  Henry — Davenport,  Iowa,  1860-70.  Born  in  Schleswig-Holstein, 
Germany,  about  1827;  came  to  U.  S.  in  1850's  after  having  served 
apprenticeship  as  gunsmith.  Worked  first  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  for 
two  or  three  years,  then  came  to  Davenport  where  he  first  estab- 
lished his  shop  in  a  one-story  building  on  the  northeast  corner 
of  Third  and  Main.  Later  moved  to  northeast  corner  of  Third  and 
Harrison,  where  he  built  a  three-story,  brick  building  which  still 
stands.  Operated  under  own  name  for  many  years  until  joined 
by  his  sons,  Frank  and  Emil  (famous  off-hand,  scheutzen  rifle 
shot),  when  the  firm  became  H.  Berg  &  Sons.  Henry  Berg  made 
rifles,  shotguns  and  pistols.  Was  active  in  the  Davenport  Schuet- 
zen  Verein  and  his  rifles  were  mostly  of  the  schuetzen  type. 
Berg  ceased  making  arms  about  the  time  of  the  Civil  War,  to 
engage  in  the  sale  of  commercial  arms  and  supplies.  In  later 
years  the  firm  was  at  221  Harrison  St.  The  business  was  sold  in 
1926,  to  be  operated  as  a  sporting  goods  store. 

BERGER,  Casper — Detroit  gunsmith.  Active  in  Detroit  up  to  1866. 
Several  percussion  rifles  marked  with  his  name  are  in  existence, 

BERGER,  W.— Aurora,  Ind.  Percussion  rifle, 

18  American  Gun  Makers 

BERLIN,  Abraham — Easton,  Pa.,  before  and  after   1786. 

BERLIN,  Isaac — Easton,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1786.  Born  1755, 
died  1831. 

BERLIN,  Louis— 10  Court  St.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1854. 

BERNARD,  Joseph— Walpole,  N.  H.  Musket  maker,  1799-1801.  As- 
sociated with  Amasa  Allen  and  Samuel  Grant  in  a  contract  for 
1,500  Charleville  pattern,  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per 
stand,  of  which  1,396  were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

BERRY,  A.  P.— Unlocated,  flintlock  period. 

BERRY,  B.— Painted  Post,  N.  Y.,  about  1820.  Late  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifles;  an  over-under  double  rifle. 

BERRY,  R.  B. — Unlocated,  flintlock  period. 

BERRY,  S.— Pennsylvania,  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

BERRY,  W. — Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after  1840.  Later  at 
Albany,  N.  Y.  Percussion  revolvers  under  Cochran's  patent. 

BERSTRO,  I.  W.— Buffalo,  N.  Y.  A  German  silver  mounted,  walnut 
halfstock  percussion  rifle  with  A.  W.  Spies  lock.  Probably  related 
to  J.  H.  Berstro. 

BERSTRO,  J.  H. — Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1835.  Silver  inlaid,  brass  mounted 
flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

BERY,  P. — Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  with  carving  in  relief. 

BEST — Lancaster,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

BEST,  M. — Pennsylvania,  late  flintlock  period. 

BETTLEY— Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1860.  Sporting  rifles  and  shotguns. 

BEUTTER  BROS.— New  Haven,  Conn.  Later  Meriden,  Conn.,  be- 
fore and  after  1850.  Match  rifles. 

BEVANS,  A.  L. — Flushing,  N.  Y.  Halfstock,  octagon  barrel  percussion 

BE  VIE  R,  James— Plymouth,   Ohio,   1867-96. 

BEYER,  N.— (Or  Beyers).  Lebanon,  Pa.,  about  1780-1808.  Fine  heavy 
flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  scroll  carved,  without  patchbox  or  with 
long-necked  bird  forming  tip  of  patchbox. 

BEYERS,  N.— Pennsylvania,  about  1808.  (See  Beyer,  N.  same?) 

B.  F.  A. — Inside  marking  of  a  commercial,  side  action,  percussion 
lock,  without  tumbler  stirrup,  ornamented  with  flying  geese  and 
floral  stamping.  Also  lock  marking  of  a  percussion  rifle  by  R. 
Haskell,  Painesville,  Ohio. 

B.  F.  S.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  Lock  by  Wilkes 
of  London,  1810. 

BISCAISE,  Benjamin— Charleston,  S.  C,  1867. 

BICKEL,  Louis— Akron,  Ohio,  1878-83. 

B.  I. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifle. 

BICKNELL,  Thomas— Musket  maker,  active  1799-1801.  Contracted 
under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  2,000  Charleville  pattern,  (Model 
1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand,  1,300  of  which  were  delivered 
by  June  10,  1801.  The  name  is  spelled  BRICKNESS  in  the  list 
of  contractors,  and  Bicknell  in  the  list  of  payments  made. 

SICKNESS,  Thomas— See  Bicknell,  above. 

BIDDLE,  Levi— Shanesville,  Tuscarawas  Co.,  Ohio,  1830.  Half-stock, 
silver  inlaid,  percussion  match  rifle. 

American  Gun  Makers  19 

BIDDLE,  T.  &  W.  C. — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  percussion  period. 

BIDDLE,  R.  &  W.  C— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  about  1840.  Flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifles.  Marking  known  on  barrels  and  on  locks. 

BIDDLE,  W.  C.  &  CO. — Marking  on  a  lock  of  a  percussion  Plains 

BIDWELL,  Oliver— Hartford,  later  Middletown,  Conn.  Born  Dec.  13, 
1732,  son  of  David  and  Mehetabell  Bidwell.  Active  1756-1810. 
Contracted  Oct.  25,  1808,  for  4,000  Model  1808  muskets.  Of  these 
750  were  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812.  Had  been  a  gunsmith. 

BIEG,  S. — Pennsylvania,  18th  century.  Splendid  rotating  double 
flintlock  rifle. 

BIELRY  &  CO. — Unlocated.  Late  flintlock  period  pistol  maker. 

BIGELOW,  B. — Marysville,   Cal.  Revolving  cylinder  pill-lock  rifles. 

BIGOT,  Leon— 150  Sacramento  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1859-61. 

BILHARZ,  HULL  &  CO.— Pittsylvania  Court  House,  Va.  Confederate 
shoulder  arms.  Advertised  for  25-30  gunsmiths,  May  16,  1862. 

BILLINGHURST,  William— 9  Stillson  St.,  Rochester,  N.  Y.  Born  in 
Monroe,  Co.,  N.  Y.,  in  1807,  died  in  Rochester  March  4,  1880.  Inter- 
nationally famous  maker  and  match  shooter.  Established  in 
Rochester  about  1838;  43  Main  St.  in  1841.  Advertised  in  1853: 
".  .  .  rifles,  target  rifles,  repeating  rifles,  or  seven-shooters,  double 
barreled  rifles,  one-above-the-other,  rifle  and  shot,  double 
barreled  guns,  telescopic  sights  for  rifles  made  to  order.  Repairing 
of  all  kinds  .  .  ." 

BILLINGS  &  SPENCER— Hartford,  Conn.,  1869-76.  Firm  organized 
by  Charles  E.  Billings,  ex-employee  of  Colt's  and  Remington's. 
Made  Roper  sporting  arms. 

BILLUPS  &  HASSELL — Mound  Prairie  (or  Plenitude),  Anderson 
Co.,  Tex.  Consisting  of  John  Billups  and  D.  D.  Hassell.  Made 
650  Texas  rifles  for  the  Confederacy  between  December,  1862, 
and  March,  1864. 

BINGHAM,  Henry — Pennsylvania,  Committee  of  Safety  Flintlock. 

BIRCH — Maker  of  flint  and  percussion  rifle  locks.  "BIRCH"  stamped 
on  a  flint  lock  (with  gooseneck  hammer  and  frizzen-spring  roller 
bearing),  of  a  John  Derr  Kentucky  pistol.  Also  marking  on  lock 
of  a  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

BIRCHER,  C. — St.  Louis,  Mo.  Schuetzen  type,  walnut  stocked  per- 
cussion rifle,  iron  furniture,  target  sights. 

BIRD,  A.  N.— Kenton,  Hardin  Co.,  Ohio,   1853-65. 

BIRD,  C.  &  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  about  1812-1820;  lockmakers. 
Engraved  flintlocks  on  Kentucky  rifles  and  pistols. 

BIRD,  John  W. — Oscaloosa,  Iowa.  Active  about  1860-1900.  Born  in 
1832;  died  October  13,  1917,  in  Des  Moines;  interred  in  Oscaloosa. 

BIRD,  Mark— Birdsboro,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1775-88.  Son  of  William 
Bird  and  established  the  town.  Cast  cannon  during  Revolution 
and  agreed  on  May  28,  1776,  to  make  100  muskets  for  Pennsyl- 

BIRD,  W. — Overton,  Pa.  Maker  of  an  over-under,  percussion  rifle  in 
1858  or  1859.  Also  marking  on  the  lock  of  a  percussion  Kentucky 

BISBEE,  D.  H.— Norway,  Maine,  1835-60.  Silver  mounted  Kentucky 
rifle  of  fine  workmanship. 

20  American  Gun  Makers 

BISBEE,  J. — Kalamazoo,  Mich.,  3-barrel,  swivel-breech,  percussion 

BISBING — Pennsylvania,  percussion  period. 

BISBING,  A.  S. — Well  made,  fancy,  percussion,  swivel  breech,  over- 
under  rifle  of  Kentucky  style  and  lines,  marked  on  barrel  "A.  S. 
BISBING  (MAKER)."  The  lock  plate  engraved  "L.  M.";  bridle 
plate  marked  "L.  HETTINGER,"  possibly  the  owner. 

BISHOP,  D.  D. — Unidentified.  Maker  of  over-under,  combination  per- 
cussion rifle. 

BISHOP,  Henry  H.— Boston,  Mass.,  about  1847. 

BISHOP,  J. — Eastern  Pennsylvania,  gun-lock  maker  after  1775. 

BISHOP,  W. — Springfield,  Illinois.  Percussion  rifle. 

BISHOP,  William— Boston,  Mass.,  1818-60. 

BITTERLICH,  Frank  J.— No.  16,  Deaderick  St.,  Nashville,  Tenn., 
1861.  "Gun  Manufacturer."  Percussion  derringers.  Reputed  to 
have  made  and  repaired  rifles  at  the  beginning  of  the  Civil  War. 

BITTINGER,  Peter— Orange  Township,  Ashland  Co.,  Ohio,  1825. 

BITTLE,  W.  C— Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

BIXLER  &  IDDINGS— Lafayette,  Ind.,  in  1874.  Percussion  lock  on 
J.  N.  Brown,  Dayton,  O.,  rifle. 

BLACK — Springfield,  Ohio.  Percussion  rifle. 

BLACKMAN,  Anson — Osceola  and  Elkland,  Pa.,  before  and  after 

BLACKMAN,  Elijah — In  January,  1776,  requested  money  to  manu- 
facture arms  for  the  Colony  of  Connecticut.  Made  musket  locks 
for  Titus  Hosmer  of  the  Arms  Committee  of  the  Committee  of 
Safety  at  Middletown. 

BLACK  &  OWEN— Detroit,  Mich.  Cal.  .32  chased  frame  pocket 

BLACKWOOD,  Marmaduke— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Musket  lock-maker 
to  Committee  of  Safety,  1775-76.  Contracted  for  200  musket  locks 
Dec.  5,  1775. 

BLAINE,  William— Ligonier  Township,  Westmoreland  Co.,  Pa.,  1838. 

BLAIR,  Andy— Gunsmith.  Belmont  Co.,  Ohio,  1802.  Sent  to  Stockade 
and  Fort  in  Richland  Co.,  by  the  U.  S.  Government,  1812-17. 

BLAIR  AND  MORRILL— Amherst,  Mass.,  Cutlass  pistol.  See  Morrill, 
Mosman  &  Blair. 

BLAISDEL,  Jonathan — Amesbury,  Mass.,  1775.  Gunsmith  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety. 

BLAKE — Of  the  firm  French,  Blake  and  Kinsley,  musket  makers, 
contractors  of  Oct.  20,  1808,  for  4,000  stand  of  arms.  There  were 
2,175  known  to  have  been  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

BLAKE,  John  Henry — Maker  of  a  bolt  action,  7-shot,  revolving 
magazine  sporting  rifle.  Similar  military  type  tested  by  an 
Ordnance  Board  of  Governor's  Island,  N.  Y.,  in  July  1891. 

BLAKE,  P.  &  E.  W.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  musket  makers  of  Model 
1821  muskets.  Believed  to  have  been  the  nephews  of  Eli  Whitney. 
Sr.,  and  to  have  been  the  trustees  of  the  Whitney  Armory  from 
1823  until  Eli  Whitney  (Jr.)  coming  of  age  in  1842. 

BLANCHARD,  Thomas — Inventor  of  machinery  for  the  mechanical 
completion  of  gun  stocks  and  irregular  turnings  used  at  Spring- 
field Armory  in  the  early  19th  Century.  Born  at  Sutton,  Mass., 
June  24,  1788,  died  in  Boston,  April  16,  1864. 

American  Gun  Makers  21 

BLANKENSHIP,  W.  S.— Hot  Springs,  N.  C,  19th-20th  century.  Fine 
handmade  percussion  rifles;  a  noted  match  shooter. 

BLASIRUS,  Peter — Unlocated.  Marking  on  Kentucky  flintlock  rifle. 

BLEWITT  &  JOHNSON— 507  Commercial  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif., 

BLICKENSDOERFER  &  SCHILLING— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  makers  of 
rifles,  particularly  of  schuetzen  type,  with  false  muzzles  and  set 
triggers,  with  fine  workmanship  as  to  rifling,  stocking,  and  hand 
made  actions. 

John  Blickensdoerfer  is  listed  at  12  South  Third  Street  in  the 
1868  St.  Louis  Directory.  The  1873  Directory  lists  Blickensdoerfer 
&  Schilling  at  the  above  address.  The  firm  is  listed  as  J.  Schilling 
only  in  1875. 

BLISS,  Frank  D.— 16  Whitney  Ave.,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  about  1856- 
63.  Cartridge  revolvers. 

BLISS  &  GOODYEAR— 16  Whitney  Ave.,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  1859. 
Made  F.  D.  Bliss  percussion  revolvers. 

BLOODGOOD— North  Carolina,  flintlock  period. 

BLOODWORTH,  Timothy— North  Carolina  musket  maker,  1776-78. 
Authorized  by  the  State  of  North  Carolina  on  June  14,  1776,  to 
be  paid  5  pounds  for  each  musket  with  bayonet  to  be  delivered 
within  the  next  four  months,  Bloodworth  and  his  workmen  to 
be  exempt  from  military  service  during  that  period. 

BLOOM,  Jacob — Pennsylvania,  after  about  1780.  Flintlock  and  per- 
cussion rifles;  one  with  turkey  head  patchbox,  brass  lockplate, 
signed  on  barrel  and  lock. 

BLUE  GRASS — Marking  on  an  ordinary  percussion  bar  lock  of  a 
home  made  half  stock  rifle,  crudely  marked  "JOAB  HELTON 

BLUNT,  Orizon— 118  Ninth  St,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Offered  Sept.  10, 
1861  to  contract  for  20,000  Enfield  rifles  "to  be  manufactured  in 
this  country."  March  31,  1862  reported  200  ready  for  delivery 
and  on  May  13,  1862,  had  500  muskets  ready. 

BLUNT  &   SYMS— 44  Chatham  St.,  New  York  City,    1837-65.  Per- 
cussion pistols,  pepperboxes  rifles.    (Orison  Blunt). 
BLYMYER— See  Clark  &  Blymyer. 

BLYMYRE,  George— 12  miles  north  of  York,  Pa,  in  1776.  Flintlock 
Kentucky  rifles. 

B.  M. — Initials  of  Benjamin  Moore,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms,  1810-15. 

BOALER,   Joseph — Newark,  N.  J.   Percussion  duelling  type   pistols. 

BOARDLEAR,  Samuel— Boston,  Mass,  1796. 

BOBB,  Anthony— Reading,  Berks  Co,  Pa,  1778-81. 

BODENHEIMER,  William— Came  to  Lancaster,  Ohio,  as  wheelright 
in  1817.  One  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  known,  period  1810,  as  well 
as  percussion  rifles  made  before  and  after  1837.  Listed  as  gun- 
smith and  gun  manufacturer  in  1859. 

BOENZLI,  Andreas— Lancaster,  Pa.  Swiss  by  birth;  made  beautiful 
Kentucky  flintlock  rifles  showing  Swiss  influence. 

BOGART  BROS.— 112  Washington  St,  1858-61. 

BOLEN,  J.  G.  B.— New  York,  N.  Y,  1857.  Percussion  pepperbox. 
Probably  made  by  Allen. 

BOLRENIUS,  Albert-Milwaukee,  Wis.  Born  October  28,  1820,  in 
Rhine,  Prussia,  where  he  learned  the  gunsmith  trade.  Came  to 

22  American  Gun  Makers 

U.  S.  in  1847,  and  to  Milwaukee  in  1848,  where  he  was  active  as 

rifle,  gun  and  pistol  maker  for  over  30  years.  Located  on  Oneida 

Street  from   1848   until   after   the   Civil  War,   then   at   501   East 

Water  until  his  death  in  1890.  Noted  for  fine  percussion  target 

rifles,  schuetzen  type. 
BOLSER,  Joseph — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in  1799;  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 
BOLTON — Barrel   marking    of    a    flintlock   Kentucky    rifle    of    about 

BOLTON,  Enoch— Charleston,  S.  C,  1665. 
BOLTON,  Roberta-Georgia,  1770-73.  Armorer  to  the  Colony. 
BOMFORD,  Geo.— Colonel  Ordnance  Dept.   U.  S.   Army.  Connected 

with  procurement  and  technical  improvement  1818-1841. 
BONEBRAKE,  Tobias  Miller— Kingman,  111.,  before  1885.  Percussion 

BOND,  Richard — Cecil  County,  Md.  Contractor  to  Maryland  Council 

of  Safety  for  1,000  gun  barrels,  on  April  17,  1777. 
BONNET,   A.— Clarion,   Pa.,    1875.   Maker   of  full   stock   plains   rifle 

marked  "A.  BONNET  CLARION  PA.  1875"  and  numbered.  Barrel 

by  James  Bown,  Pittsburgh  (1862-1871),  lock  by  J.  H.  Johnston, 

Pittsburgh,   (1866-1916). 
BONTEMPS— Camden,  N.  J.  Percussion  rifles. 
BOONE,  E.— Oley  Valley,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1818.  Cousin  to  Daniel 

Boone.  Long,  plain  but  graceful  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  scroll 

carved  but  without  patchbox;  one  dated  1817. 
BOONE,  Samuel— Berks  County,  Pa.,   after   1768.  Nephew  to  Daniel 

BOONE,  Samuel — Frederickstown,  Md.  Musket  lock-maker  of  Revolu- 
tionary War  period. 
BOONE,    Squire — Rowan    County,    N.    C.    Brother    to    Daniel    Boone, 

before  1800. 
BOONE,  Thomas — Oley  Valley,  Pa.;  making  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles 

in  1797.  First  cousin  to  Daniel  Boone. 
BOOTH,   R.   W. — Cincinnati,   Ohio.   Maker   of   percussion   rifle   locks. 

Also  made  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 
BOOTH,  William— Philadelphia,   Pa.,   85   S.  Front   St.,   in    1798,   and 

on  South  Second  St.  from  1799  to  1816.  Made  pistols  of  martial 

type  and  manufactured  and  rented  duelling  pistols. 
BOOTH,  William — Musket  maker  of  Narberth,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

May   have   been    the    Wm.    Booth    who    later    married    into    the 

Nippes  family,  musket  contractors. 
BORDER,  Daniel  and  Enos — Bedford  Borough  and  Township,  Bedford 

Co.,  Pa.,  about  1843. 
BORDER,  Gebald— Bedford,  Pa.,  1769. 
BORDER,  John— Bedford  Co.,  Pa.  Son  of  William,  brother  of  Daniel. 

Made  mostly  percussions. 
BORDER,   Samuel— 1825-1865,  flint  and  percussion   periods.   Bedford 

Co.,  about  1841,  later  Somerset  Co. 
BORDER,  William— Bedford,  Pa.  Son  of  Gebald,  father  of  Daniel  and 

John.  Made  rifles  before  1800. 
BORDER,  Wm.— New  Paris,  Bedford,  Co.,  Pa.  Maker  of  full  stock 

percussion  squirrel  rifles.  Lock  marked  "W.  B." 
BORTREE,   William— Gunsmith.   Back   of  433   N.   Third,  Phila.,   Pa., 


American  Gun  Makers  23 

BOSTON  ARMS  COMPANY— Boston,  Mass.  Civil  War. 

BOSWORTH— Also  Bossworth,  Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  1800-1805. 

BOSWORTH,  B.  M.— Unidentified.  Cased  pair  of  all  metal  percus- 
sion "bootleg"  pistols.  Cap  boxes  on  left  side  of  grips. 

BOUCHETTE,  John—Gunsmith.  Cobb's  Court,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

BOUDEREAUX,  P.— N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  massive,  schuetzen  type, 
octagon  barrel,  percussion  target  rifle  with  false  muzzle  and  en- 
graved lock  and  breech. 

BOULON,  W.  S.— Kentucky,  1800-40. 

BOURNE,  William — Savannah,  Ga.,  Confederate  imitation  Colt 
Remington  revolvers,  marked  "W.B.  C.S.A." 

BOURON,  P. — New  Orleans,  La.,  arms  maker.  Born  at  Nantes,  France 
in  1835.  Was  apprenticed  to  the  gunsmith  trade  under  Armand 
Soubie  in  1847,  at  the  age  of  12.  Located  at  259  Bayou  Road  in 
1853.  Died  in  1905. 

BOURON,  Louis  L.— New  Orleans,  La.,  1861-1943.  Son  of  P.  Bouron. 
Learned  the  gunsmith  trade  in  his  father's  shop  and  after  father's 
death  continued  the  firm's  business  at  534  Chartres  as  P.  Bouron 

BOURON,  Philipe  George— New  Orleans,  La.,   1859-1929.  Son  of  P. 

Bouron.  Learned  the  gunsmith  trade  at  Evaeux,   France,  from 

1878  to  1881,  when  he  returned  to  New  Orleans  to  work  in  his 

father's  shop. 
BOWMAN,    William — Loudonville,    Ohio.    Percussion    rifles.    Active 

1865-1892.  Worked  with  P.  A.  Reinhard  of  Loudonville,  Ohio. 

BOWN,  A. — Barrel  marking  of  a  muzzle-loading,  percussion  rifle. 

BOWN,  James — Born  in  England,  1823;  emigrated  when  ten  years  old 
and  settled  at  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  in  1843.  With  Tetley,  established 
the  Enterprise  Gun  Works,  136-138  Wood  Street,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 
Father  of  Wm.  H.  Bown.  Member  of  firms  Bown  &  Tetley  (1848- 
1862),  and  James  Bown  &  Son  (1871  to  1879  and  possibly  later). 

BOWN,  James  &  Son — (James  and  William  H.  Bown),  Enterprise 
Gun  Works  136-138  Wood  St.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  from  1871;  121 
Wood  St.  in  1883;  bought  out  by  Brown  &  Hirth  in  or  before 
1886.  In  1883  advertised  percussion  fullstock  rifles  at  $15,  half- 
stocks  at  $12  and  $20,  double  rifles  at  $35,  and  double  rifle- 
shotguns  at  $30.  "The  only  manufacturers  of  the  CELEBRATED 
KENTUCKY  RIFLES,  which  name  was  adopted  by  the  senior 
member  of  this  firm  in  1848;  ...  all  our  Rifles  have  our  name 
stamped  on  each  barrel,  and  THIS  STAMP."  (KILL  over,  BUCK 
under,  a  buck  facing  left). 

BOWN,  William  H.— Son  of  James  Bown,  above.  Born  1847  at  Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.  See  also  Bown,  James  &  Son,  above. 

BOWN  &  TETLEY— Enterprise  Gun  Works,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  estab- 
lished 1848.  James  Bown  became  sole  proprietor  in  1862.  Makers 
of  a  half  stock,  German  silver  mounted,  percussion  rifle  of  fine 
workmanship,  with  barrel  and  lock  marked  "BOWN  &  TETLEY 
PITTSBURGH"  and  barrel  marked  "KILL"  over  a  buck  and 

BOYCE,  T. — Unlocated.  Percussion  underhammer  pistol. 

BOYD  BREECH-LOADING  ARMS  CO.— 81  Washington  St.,  and  later 
205  Broadway,  Boston,  Mass.   1870-72. 

BOYD,  Robert— New  Windsor,  Ulster  Co.,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after 
1772-76.  Proposed  to  the  Provincial  Congress  of  New  York  (con- 

24  American  Gun  Makers 

sidered  June  13,  1775),  to  furnish  1,000  muskets  complete  with 
steel  ramrods,  bayonets  and  scabbards  at  the  price  of  3  pounds, 
15  shillings  per  stand,  New  York  currency. 
BOYER,  D.  (David)— Or wigsburg,  Schuylkill  Co.,  Pa.  Maker  of  a 
flintlock  (converted  to  percussion)  Kentucky  rifle,  .47  caliber, 
barrel  marked  "D.  BOYER,"  patchbox  engraved  in  script 
"ORWIGSBURG  DAVID  BOYER";  related  to,  or  possibly 
identical  with  D.  (Daniel)  Boyer?  Lock  marked  "H.  ELWELL 
WARRANTED."  See  also  Elwell,  Henry  and  Elwell,  H. 

BOYER,  D.   (Daniel)— Orwigsburg,  Pa.  1790-1810.  Son  of  M.  Boyer. 

BOYER,  H.— Lehigh,  District,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

BOYER,  J. — Pennsylvania,  Kentucky  rifle. 

BOYER,  M. — Lehigh  District,  Pa.,  flintlock  period,  Father  of  D.  Boyer. 

BOYER,  N.— Lehigh  District,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

BOYINGTON,  John  S.— South  Coventry,  Conn.,  late  flintlock  to  early 
percussion.  Patent  breech  percussion  rifle. 

BOZEMAN,  David  W.— See  Davis  &  Bozeman. 

BRACKLOW,  T. — Marking  on  percussion,  walnut  stocked,  bronze 
furniture,  percussion  rifle  with  Remington  barrel  and  G.  Goulcher 

BRADA,   Conrad— Baltimore,   Md.,   1860. 

BRADLEY,  R. — Unlocated.  Possibly  Georgia.  Late  flintlock  period 
Kentucky  rifle. 

BRADT,  W.  H.— Leadville,  Col,  1877-80. 

BRAGG,  Joseph  C— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1841-42,  in 
plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

BRAMMER,  George  L.— Chesapeake,  Ohio.  Died  Feb.  16,  1947,  aged  85. 

BRAND  ARMS  CO.— Norwich,  Conn.,  1866-75.  Whaling  guns.  See 
Brand,  Christopher. 

BRAND,  Christopher  Crandall — Norwich,  Conn,  manufacturer  of 
whaling  guns  and  lance  guns.  Born  Hopkinton,  Rhode  Island 
Nov.  20,  1813.  Learned  the  ironworker's  trade  and  in  1852 
patented  his  first  invention,  an  explosive  whale-bomb.  Operator 
of  Brand  Firearms  Company  at  Norwich,  1852-1875;  plant  located 
at  112  Franklin  St,  1866-72,  then  at  124  Franklin.  Residence 
variously  at  24  and  26  Broad.  Also  made  patented  shoulder  bomb 
guns  for  the  whaling  trade  and  invented  many  improvements 
for  whaling  devices  and  more  conventional  arms.  After  his  death 
the  factory  was  operated  by  Junius  A.  Brand  until  1890. 
Christopher  Brand  was  the  original  donor  and  incorporator  of 
the  Norwich  Free  Academy  in  1854. 

BRANDAGEEZ — Grahamsville,  N.  Y.  Several  generations  made  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

BRANG,  Peter— See  Brong,  Peter. 

BRANNAN,  Luke— Paper  Mill  Street,  Norwich,  Conn,  1875.  Pistol 

BRANT,  Jacob  F.— Uniontown,  Pa,  gunsmith,  1820-1850. 

BRASIRUS,  Joseph — Pennsylvania,  flintlock  period. 

BRASIRUS,  Peter — Pennsylvania,  flintlock  period.  Related  to  Joseph 

BREICK,  Henry  W.— Market  St,  (now  No.  1008),  San  Francisco, 
Calif,  1847.  Gunsmith  shop  back  of  hardware  store.  Died  1848. 

American  Gun  Makers  25 

BREIDENHART,  Chris— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  Rifles. 

BREIGLE,  Jacob— Union  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1860. 

BRELSFORD,  Jonathan — Zanesville,  Muskigum  Co.  Ohio,  1814. 

BRELSFORD— Zanesville,  Ohio,  1850-61.  Son  of  Jonathan  Brelsford. 

BRENNER,  Martin— Lancaster,  Fairfield  Co.,  Ohio,  1820-30. 

BREY,  Elias— Pennsburg,  Pa.  Born  Nov.  2,  1817,  son  of  John  Adam 
and  Elizabeth  Brey.  Worked  as  a  youth  in  Kraussdale  machine 
shops.  A  bachelor,  he  later  settled  in  Kraussdale  with  relatives 
until  his  death  May  25,  1891.  Made  two  styles  of  cane  guns. 

BRIDESBURG  MACHINE  WORKS— Shops  at  Bridesburg,  and  Phila- 
delphia, Pa.  Musket  contractors  for  Springfield  muskets  during 
the  Civil  War.  There  were  98,464  stands  delivered  of  the  100,000 
contracted  for.  Controlled  by  Alfred  and  Barton  J.  Jenks.  See 
Jenks,  A.  &  Son. 

BRIDGEWATER  MFG.  CO.— North  Bridgewater,  Mass.,  July  26, 
1813,  Alpheus  and  Parmenas  Brett  "conveyed  all  rights,  title  and 
interest  in  and  to  the  trip-hammer  or  water  shop  to  the  Bridge- 
water  Mfg.  Co."  It  is  not  certain  that  this  firm  made  arms, 
though  a  flintlock  musket  is  known  with  lockplate  marked  with 
an  eagle,  "U.  S.,"  "BRIDGWATER"  and  dated  "1812."  James 
Perkins  of  Bridgewater,  in  association  with  Adam  Kinsley  had 
a  musket  contract  in  1808,  and  it  is  believed  that  this  lockplate 
was  their  product. 

BRIGGS,  J. — Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period 

BRIGGS,  N.  A. — Norwich,  Conn.  Flobert  action  target  pistol. 

BRIGGS,  William— Norristown,  Pa.,  1848-50. 

BRIGH,   Samuel — Pennsylvania.   Skilled  maker   of  Kentucky   rifles. 

BRISTOL  FIRE  ARMS  CO.— Bristol,  R.  I.,  makers  of  Burnside  car- 
bines. Organized  by  A.  E.  Burnside  in  1855.  The  government 
purchased  200  breech-loading  carbines  from  Burnside  April  21, 
1856,  at  $30.00  each,  and  709  from  Bristol  F.  A.  Co.,  Sept.  21, 
1858,  at  $35.00  each.  Taken  over  by  creditors  in  May,  1860,  and 
reorganized.  See  Burnside  Rifle  Co. 

BROCKWAY,  C,  JR.— Elk  Co.,  Pa.  Reported  maker  of  a  curly  maple, 
half  stock  rifle. 

BROCKWAY,  Norman  S.— Born  March  13,  1841,  in  South  Charles- 
town,  N.  H.;  moved  to  Bellows  Falls,  Vt.,  in  1844.  Worked  at 
Springfield  Armory  during  the  Civil  War;  in  February  1864  was 
put  in  charge  of  mainspring  work  at  Norwich  Arms  Co.,  Nor- 
wich, Conn.  In  March  1865  he  operated  a  turret  lathe  for  Smith 
&  Wesson.  Returned  to  Bellows  Falls  in  May  1866,  set  up  shop, 
and  began  making  rifles  May  1,  1867.  Made  many  fine  heavy 
match  rifles,  both  muzzle-loading  and  breech-muzzle-loading, 
regular  or  gain  twist.  Died  at  West  Brookfield,  Mass.,  July  25, 
1936.  Noted  as  a  match  shooter. 

BRONG,  Joseph — Lancaster,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

BRONG,  Peter— Also  Brang.  700  No.  Queen  St.,  Lancaster,  Pa., 
musket  maker.  Contracted  with  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  on 
April  17,  1801,  for  500  Charleville  pattern,  (Model  1795)  muskets. 
On  July  13,  1801,  in  association  with  Abraham  Henry  and  Henry 
DeHuff,  proposed  to  furnish  the  State  of  Virginia  with  7,075 
stands  of  arms  at  $11.00  per  stand,  and  1,000  pair  of  pistols  at 
$15.00  per  pair  delivery  at  Lancaster  in  three  years.  No  record 
of  contract  being  awarded. 

26  American  Gun  Makers 

BROOKE,  J.  J.  &  N.— Listed  in  contracts  as  I.  I.  &  N.  Brooke.  Penn- 
sylvania musket  makers.  Contracted  Nov.  1,  1808,  for  4,000  Model 
1808  muskets.  There  were  1,257  known  to  have  been  delivered  by 
Oct.  7,  1812.  Quite  likely  that  arms  were  made  for  the  Brookes' 
by  Owen  Evans  with  whom  the  Brookes  family  was  associated. 
The  Brookes'  were  probably  located  at  Guelph  Mills,  about  six 
miles  east  of  Valley  Forge.  It  was  at  Guelph  Mills  that  Washing- 
ton's army  was  encamped  for  about  a  week  in  December,  1777, 
just  prior  to  going  into  winter  quarters  at  Valley  Forge. 

BROOKLYN  FIRE  ARMS  CO.— Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  about  1863-64. 
Makers  of  a  front  loading  revolver  with  removable  cylinder 
under  Frank  P.  Slocum  patent  of  April  15,  1863,  No.  38,204.  The 
arm  was  produced  to  avoid  infringement  of  Smith  &  Wesson 

BROOKS,  J. — Marking  in  script  on  a  Lancaster,  Pa.,  carved  stock 
rifle  circa  1780. 

BROOKS,  Richard— (Or  Brookes)  Boston,  Mass.,  1675. 

BROOKS,  WM.  F.  MFG.  CO.— -New  York,  N.  Y.,  1861-65.  Makers  of 
Gibbs  patent  carbines,  1,052  of  which  were  purchased  by  the 
government  from  May  30  to  June  24,  1863. 

BROWN,  Andrew— Fremont,  N.  H.,  1866-72.  Son  of  John  Brown. 

BROWN,  Andrew  J. — Worcester,  Mass.,  in  1852.  Barrelmaker,  mem- 
ber of  firm  Allen,  Brown,  &  Luther   (q.  v.). 

BROWN,  C.  E. — Unlocated.  Over-under  percussion  rifle-shotgun. 

BROWN,  C.  L. — See  Morris  &  Brown. 

BROWN.  C.  W. — Unlocated.  Over-under,  mule  ear,  percussion  rifle. 
(Same  as  C.  E.  Brown?) 

BROWN,  Elisha— Providence,  R.  I.  Musket  maker,  active  1799-1801. 
Contracted  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern, 
(Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  775  were 
delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

BROWN,  F.  P.— (Or  F.  B.)  Lancaster,  Pa.,  late  flintlock  and  early 
percussion  rifle. 

BROWN  &  HIRTH— Enterprise  Gun  Works,  520-522  Wood  St.,  Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.,  1886.  "Proprietors  of  the  Enterprise  Gun  and  Machine 
Works,  and  the  only  dealers  in  Pittsburgh  or  Allegheny  County 
who  manufacture  their  own  gun  barrels,  and  being  the  only 
parties  who  make  the  Celebrated  Kentucky  Muzzle-Loading 
Rifle."  Successors  to  James  Bown  &  Son  (q.  v.).  Offered  a  com- 
plete line  of  muzzle-loading  and  other  arms,  barrels,  gunsmiths' 
tools  and  gun  parts,  ammunition,  and  sporting  goods.  See  Enter- 
prise Gun  Works;  August  Hirth,  and  James  Bown  &  Son. 

BROWN,  Ira— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1863-65. 

BROWN,  James — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  on  Front  St., 
above  Callowhill,  in  1829. 

BROWN,  J.  F. — Haverhill,  Mass.;  percussion  rifles. 

BROWN,  John— Fremont,  N.  H.,  1840-70.  Fremont  was  known  as 
Poplin  until  1857.  Percussion  hunting  and  target  rifles. 

BROWN,  J.  H. — Dayton,  Ohio,  percussion  rifle. 

BROWN,  J.  H.— See  Brown  Mfg.  Co. 

BROWN,  J.  N.— Dayton,  Ohio.  Percussion  Kentucky  type  rifle  with 
lock  by  Bixler  &  Iddings,  Lafayette,  Ind. 

BROWN,  Jos.  M.  Co. — San  Francisco,  Calif.  Importers  and  dealers. 

American  Gun  Makers  27 

Marking  on  a  fullstock  percussion  "Bear  Rifle"  made  by  Leman, 
Lancaster,  Pa. 

BROWN  MFG.  CO.— Newburyport,  Mass.,  1869-73.  Incorporated  Feb. 
18,  1869,  and  took  over  control  of  Merrimack  Arms  &  Mfg.  Co., 
makers  of  a  bolt  action  rifle  and  arms  under  the  Ballard  patents. 
Operated  by  J.  H.  Brown.  Also  made  "Southernor"  cartridge 
derringer,  manufactured  with  either  brass  or  steel  frames.  The 
company  went  out  of  business  July  23,  1873. 

BROWN,  Reuben — Nicholville,  N.  Y.;  percussion  rifles. 

BROWN,  W.  H.— Percussion  rifle  with  "T.  &  C.  NEAVE  EXTRA" 

BROWN,  W.  H.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle  with  lock  by  J.  V.  Hoff- 

BROWN,  WM.  &  SONS— Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  1850-60. 

BROWNING,  Abel  S.— Terra  Alta,  W.  Va.  Fine  late  Kentucky  per- 
cussion rifle,  auburn  maple  stock  German  silver  mounted;  Joseph 
Golcher  lock,  H.  E.  Leman  barrel. 

BROWNING,  August — San  Francisco,  Calif.,  gunsmith  and  rifle 
maker.  1887  before  and  after.  In  partnership  with  one  Heber 
made  the  Browning-Heber  rifles.  Member  of  Browning  &  Bremer. 

BROWNING  &  BREMER— 651  Clay  St,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  before 
and  after.  Gunsmiths.  Imported  Clabrough  &  Bro.,  shotguns. 

BROWNING,  Jonathan— Tennessee  gunsmith,  1805-1879.  In  his  youth 
moved  to  Kentucky  where  he  learned  the  gunsmith  trade  and 
opened  his  own  shop.  Later  joined  the  Mormons  and  established 
his  shop  at  Nauvoo,  Illinois.  Designed  and  forged  by  hand  his 
first  repeating  rifle  as  early  as  1831.  Later  moved  his  shop  to  Iowa, 
on  Musquito  Creek,  eight  miles  south  of  Kanesville  (near  Coun- 
cil Bluffs)  and  a  half  mile  south  of  Trading  Point.  Here  he 
located  for  two  years.  Advertised  in  the  Kanesville  "Frontier 
Guardian"  Sept.  19,  1849,  the  manufacture  of  "revolving  rifles 
and  pistols,  also  slide-guns  from  five  to  25  shooters."  Made  re- 
peating rifles  on  the  side  feed  and  on  the  revolving  cylinder 
principles.  Moved  to  Ogden,  Utah  where  he  opened  his  shop 
in  1851.  Here  his  famous  son,  John  Moses  Browning,  firearms 
inventor  and  designer  was  born  in  1855. 

BROWNING  JOHN  M. — John  Moses  Browning,  world  famed  arms 
inventor  and  designer.  Born  in  Ogden,  Utah,  son  of  Jonathan 
Browning,  arms  inventor  and  maker.  Designed  and  whittled 
breech  mechanisms  in  wood  at  fourteen  and  made  his  own  and 
his  brother's  rifles  before  he  was  twenty.  At  twenty-four  ob- 
tained his  first  patent  on  a  single-shot  breech-loader. 

With  his  brother  Matthew  Sandefur  Browning,  organized 
Browning  Brothers  Company,  the  J.  M.  &  M.  S.  Browning  Com- 
pany and  the  Browning  Arms  Company.  The  brothers  with  the 
aid  of  their  half  brothers,  J.  Edmund  and  T.  Samuel  Browning 
made  six  hundred  rifles  as  their  initial  stock.  These  along  with 
the  patents  was  acquired  by  Winchester  Arms  Company.  Subse- 
quent Browning  patents  covered  a  wide  field  of  repeating  arms — 
the  Winchester  Models  '86,  '90,  '92,  '94,  '95,  '06,  Remington 
Models  81  and  241;  repeating  shotguns,  Winchester  and  Rem- 
ington as  well  as  automatic  pistols,  machine  guns  and  machine 
rifles  names  after  the  inventor.  Browning  arms  were  also  made 
by  Colt's  and  Fabrique  Nationale  d'Armes  de  Guerre  of  Liege, 

28  American  Gun  Makers 

BROWNLOW'S  ESTABLISHMENT— Knoxville,  Term.,  steam-power 
printing  plant  seized  by  Confederates  about  Nov.  26,  1861  and 
converted  to  a  shop  for  "alteration  of  arms."  Parson  Brownlow 
(Brownslow  in  some  reports)  editor  of  Knoxville  Whig  and  Inde- 
pendent Journal,  a  strong  Union  man  "left  .  .  .  and  is  abetting 
the  enemy." 

BROWNOP,  James— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1779-80. 

BRUCE  &  DAVIS — Boston,  Mass.  Marking  on  double-barrel  percus- 
sion pistols  and  Allen  &  Thurber  type  pistols.  Believed  to  have 
been  distributors  who  so  marked  arms  which  they  handled  for 

BRUFF,  R.  P. — New  York,  N.  Y.,  percussion  derringers. 

BRUNKER,  Peter— Ottawa,  111.  Percussion  rifles. 

BRUNSON,  Peter— East  Trumbull,  O. 

BRUSH,  John — Gunsmith  and  armorer  in  Colonial  Williamsburg,  Va., 
after  1729.  Reportedly  in  London  ca.  1700.  Emigrated  to  Virginia 
with  Governor  Spotswood,  1729.  Brush  was  the  first  keeper  of 
the  Colony's  magazine  and  was  employed  to  fire  guns  at  the 
Governor's  Palace  in  celebration  of  King's  birthdays.  An  early 
inventory  lists  "1  bird  piece  by  Brush,  1/00/00."  His  home  is 
being  rebuilt  and  furnished  as  it  appeared  in  1730's. 

BRYAN,  Daniel— North  Carolina,  about  1800;  made  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifles.  Nephew  to  Daniel  Boone. 

BRYAN,  T.— Die  stamped  marking  "T.  BRYAN"  under  barrel  breech 
of  Pennsylvania  made,  smoothbore  "Kentucky  fowler"  circa 

BRYANT,  Silas— Walnut  St.,  bet.  5th  and  6th,  Cincinnati,  Ohio, 

BRYCE — Unidentified.  Percussion  revolver.  Barrel  swings  up  to  re- 
move cylinder  for  loading. 

BRYCE  &  BUDD— Unlocated.  1881.  Damascus  barrels,  early  hammer- 
less,  breechloading  cartridge  shotguns. 

B.  T. — Unidentified  marking  on  circa  1830  Kentucky  rifle. 

BUCHALEW — South  Rowlesburg,  W.  Va.,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

BUCHANAN,  L.— Unlocated.  Fine  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

BUCHMILLER,  R.— N.  Queen  St.,  Lancaster,  Pa.,  1869-70.  Made  per- 
cussion rifles  from  late  1840  or  so. 

BUCK,  Daniel — Pennsylvania;  early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

BUCK,  H.  A.  &  CO.— West  Stafford,  Conn.,  about  1883.  Manufactured 
Buck's  single-shot  breech-loading  rifle. 

BUCKINGHAM — Delhi,  N.  Y.,  high  grade,  decorated  percussion  rifles. 

BUCKLAND,  E.  H.  &  CO.— Springfield,  Mass.,  1866-68. 

BUCKLEY,  Anton— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1860-64. 

BUCKNER— Maquoketa,  Iowa. 

BUCKWALTER,  Abraham  and  Henry — Lampeter  Township,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  1771-79. 

BUCKWALTER,  David  B.— Active  at  Antes  Fort  (later  Jersey  Shore) 
Lycoming  Co.,  Pa.,  until  about  1885,  and  later  at  Houtsdale  until 
1895.  Maker  of  rifles,  shotguns  and  pistols.  Born  1850,  died  Bell- 
wood,  Pa.,  October,  1928. 

BUCKWALTER,  John — Lampeter  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1771. 
Brother  of  Abraham  and  Henry  Buckwalter. 

American  Gun  Makers  29 

BUDDENHAGEN,  John— Sandusky,  Ohio,  1869-86. 

BUELL,  Elisha — Hebron,  Conn.  Made  forty  muskets  for  Privateer 
Oliver  Cromwell;  Oct.  11,  1776. 

BUELL,  Elisha — Musket  maker  of  Marlborough,  Conn.,  established 
1797.  Made  Model  1795  and  Model  1808  muskets,  the  latter  under 
contract  of  Nov.  13,  1808.  Details  unknown. 

BUELL,  Enos — Son  of  Elisha  above.  Succeeded  his  father  about  1825 
and  active  until  about  1850. 

BUFFALO  NEWTON  RIFLE  CORP'N— Organized  by  Charles  Newton 
at  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  about  1923,  and  moved  to  New  Haven,  Conn., 
about  1925,  where  Newton  arms  were  made  until  about  1932, 
when  Charles  Newton  died  and  the  company  ceased  operations. 

BUJAC  &  BENNETT — New  Orleans,  La.,  shoulder  arms  machinery 
contractors  to  the  Confederacy.  In  1861  B.  K.  T.  Bennett  and 
Francis  Lurgess  were  proprietors  of  New  Orleans  Foundry  and 
Ornamental  Iron  Works,  corner  Magnolia  and  Erato  Streets,  New 
Orleans,  La.  Bennett  of  the  firm  with  Bujac  were  erecting  works 
with  view  to  the  manufacture  of  small  arms,  and  according  to  the 
testimony  would  not  take  contracts  for  heavy  guns.  About  April 
25,  1862,  in  order  to  avoid  capture  by  Union  forces,  the  machin- 
ery was  loaded  on  a  ship  and  taken  to  Montgomery,  Alabama, 
where  it  was  sold  to  the  Alabama  Arms  Manufacturing  Company 
on  June  3,  1862.  It  was  inspected  by  Col.  James  H.  Burton  of  the 
Confederate  Ordnance  Dept.,  on  June  14,  1862  with  view  to  pur- 
chase for  C.  S.  A.  Extract  from  Col.  Burton's  report:  ".  .  .  ex- 
amined the  machinery.  Found  it  all  exposed  to  weather,  without 
any  protection  whatsoever,  and  in  very  bad  order  in  consequence 
of  not  having  been  packed  and  boxed.  The  gun  machines  are  of 
very  cheap  construction  and  not  such  as  it  would  be  advisable 
to  introduce  into  a  permanent  Govt,  establishment.  .  .  .  Decided 
not  to  take  it."  See  Alabama  Arms  Mfg.  Co. 

It  would  appear  that  some  contractors  of  those  days  were 
also  not  above  making  a  "quick  dollar,"  even  if  a  Confederate 

BULL,  Elijah — On  Turkey  Creek,  Morristown,  Tenn.  Percussion 

BULL,  Elisha— North  Carolina  before  and  after  1821;  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

BURGEN,  F.  A. — Partner  with  George  Schoyen,  gunsmiths,  Denver, 
Colo.  1887-1897. 

BULLARD  REPEATING  ARMS  CO.— Springfield,  Mass.,  about  1886- 
90.  Makers  of  Bullard  patent  rifles.  Bullard  had  been  master 
mechanic  for  Smith  &  Wesson. 

BULOW,  Charles— Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1797. 

BUNGE,  C. — Geneva,  N.  Y.  Pill-lock  revolving  rifles  and  air  rifles. 

BURD,  C— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

BURDEN,  Calvin— Gunsmith.  Back  of  110  Race,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

BURDICK,  S.— Unlocated.  About  1850-60. 

BURGESS  GUN  CO.— Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1892-99.  Single  barrel  repeating 

BURKETT,  A.  H.— Fairfield,  Iowa,  1874.  Double  barrel  rifle. 
BURKHARD,  Wm.  R.— St.  Paul,  Minn.,  about  1850. 
BURNET,  William— Youngstown,  Ohio,  1880-82. 

30  American  Gun  Makers 

BURNETT,  F.  L.— Unlocated,  flintlock  period. 
BURNETT,  S.  F.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifles. 

BURNHAM,  Elisha — Cleaned  and  repaired  public  arms  for  Connecti- 
cut. Account  rendered  in  1781. 

BURNHAM,  Elisha— Hartford,  Conn.,  1777-81.   (Same  as  above?) 

BURNHAM,  George — Connecticut  gunsmith.  Worked  on  repair  of 
public  arms  for  the  State,  1777-79. 

BURNS,  Charles — Bluffton,  Ohio.  Modern.  Maker  of  heavy  percussion 
match  rifles. 

BURNS  &  CO. — Unlocated.  Heavy  barrel  Kentucky  type  percussion 

BURNS,  H. — Dayton,  Ohio.  Maker  of  a  brass  and  sliver  mounted,  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle  of  fine  workmanship. 

BURNS,  Henry— Lewisburg,  Ohio,  1873-75. 

BURNSIDE  RIFLE  CO.— Providence,  R.  I.  Organized  by  the  creditors 
of  the  defunct  Bristol  Firearms  Co.,  in  May,  1860.  Furnished  55,- 
567  Burnside  patent  carbines  to  the  government  during  the 
Civil  War.  The  firm  also  made  Spencer  carbines,  30,496  of  which 
were  furnished  to  the  government  from  April  15,  1865,  to  Oct.  31, 
1865,  too  late  for  use  in  the  Civil  War.  These  arms  were  used  in 
Indian  campaigns. 

BURR— See  Spiller  &  Burr. 

BURT,  A.  M. — Civil  War  musket  maker,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Contract  of 
Dec.  26,  1861,  for  50,000  Model  1861  Springfield  rifle  muskets  at 
$20.00  each.  Of  these  there  were  11,495  delivered.  Marked 

BURTON,  James  H. — Colonel  Confederate  Ordnance  Dept.  Employed 
at  Harpers  Ferry  Armory  in  1844  to  become  master  armorer  in 
1854.  Inventor  of  self-expanding  bullet.  Appointed  Lieut.  Colonel 
of  Ordnance  by  Virginia  in  June  1861,  and  to  same  rank  with 
title  of  Superintendent  of  Armories  by  the  Confederate  States 
in  December  of  that  year.  Erected  the  captured  Harpers  Ferry 
Armory  machinery  at  Virginia  State  Armory  and  went  into 
production  in  ninety  days.  Died  near  Winchester,  Va.,  Oct.  18, 

BURTON,  L.— Norwalk,  Ohio,  1871-83. 

BUSCH,  F.  L.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1770-1776.  Early  Kentucky  flint- 
lock rifles. 

BUSCH,  Oscar — Union,  Mo.  Reported  maker  of  a  fine  15V2-lb.  percus- 
sion, walnut  halfstock  German  silver  mounted  rifle  with  back 
action  lock.  Bought  in  St.  Louis  in  1869. 

BUSLER,  James — Lycoming  Co.,  Pa.  Late  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

BUSWELL,  J. — Glen's  Falls,  N.  Y.,  Over-under,  percussion  rifle  and 

BUSWELL,  M.  L. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Plains  rifle.  Also  super- 
posed rifle-shotgun. 

BUTLER,  John— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1775-78.  Musket  maker  to  Pennsyl- 
vania. Committee  of  Safety. 

BUTLER,  Joseph— 118  Randolph  St.,  Chicago,  111.,  1857-84. 

BUTLER,  Thomas — Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1775.  Succeeded  as  "public 
armourer"  in  April,  1778,  by  William  Henry  of  Lancaster. 

BUTLER,  William  S.— Unlocated.  1857.  Percussion  pistols. 

American  Gun  Makers  31 

BUTT,  D.  W. — Partner  of  George  Schoyen,  gunsmiths,  Denver,  Colo., 

BUTTERFIELD,  Jesse  S.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Manufacturer  of  Butter- 
field  patent  revolvers  during  the  Civil  War.  Patentee  of  the 
Butterfield  mechanical  disc  primer  used  on  the  revolvers.  The 
disc  primers  of  the  Butterfield  system  were  also  used  in  conver- 
sion of  flintlock  muskets  to  percussion. 

BUTTERFIELD,  L. — Lynn,  Mass.;  percussion  rifles. 

BUXTON,  Alfred  C. — Manufacturer  of  Buxton  single-trigger  over- 
and-under  shot  gun  and  rifle.  Born  Castleton,  Mich.,  April  23, 
1843;  died  Nashville,  Mich.,  Nov.  30,  1924. 

BYERS,  N.— Pennsylvania,  1800. 

BYRKIT,  A.  H.— Fairfield,  Iowa,  about  1874.  Two  barrelled  rifle. 

CADMAN,  A.— Columbus,  Ga.,  1861.  Advertised,  "Gun  and  Lock- 
smith, Crawford  St.,  one  door  west  of  Rankin's  corner  near  the 

CALDERWOOD,  William— Germantown  Road,  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
1807-19.  Pistol  and  rifle  maker.  Contracted  on  April  21,  1808,  with 
Tench  Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  for  60  pair  of  pistols. 

CALL,  G. — Pennsylvania  in  1780;  made  early  Kentucky  flintlock 

CALVERT,  James— McKean,  Pa.  Emigrated  from  the  Cheviot  Hills, 
Scottish  border;  died  about  1890. 

CALVERT,  W.  H. — Beloit,  Wis.  Mostly  percussion  hunting  rifles.  Made 
guns  from  1857  until  after  the  Civil  War,  but  operated  a  sport- 
ing goods  shop  until  1909. 

CAMEL  &  CO.— Troy,  N.  Y.,  1840;  Kentucky  rifles. 

CAMP,  Ben — Mt.  Pleasant,  Pa.  Plain,  unmarked,  percussion  hunting 
rifles.  Made  his  own  barrels;  used  Leman  locks. 

CAMPBELL— Gunsmith  sent  by  Federal  Government  to  Ft.  Wash- 
ington, Ohio,  in  1788. 

CAMPBELL,  Abner— Hamilton,  Butler  Co.,  Ohio,  1862. 

CAMPBELL,  Tristram— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  1842-1860,  "journeyman  gun- 
smith and  gunmaker."  Was  with  Christian  Hoffman  (Hoffman  & 
Co.)  1842-1855.  Percussion  walnut  stocked  rifle  with  iron  mount- 

CAMPBELL,  William— Annapolis,  Md.  The  Maryland  Council  of 
Safety  agreed  Dec.  11,  1780,  to  pay  him  17  shillings  6  pence,  for 
every  musket  stocked,  finished  and  delivered. 

CANADY,  Charles— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  20  Budd, 
in   1829. 

CAPRON,  Lyman— Williamstown,  Vt.  Before  1875. 

CARBOTT,  J.  A.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifles. 

CARDIS,  Thomas — Pennsylvania,  flintlock  period. 

CAREY,  M.— Lexington,  Ohio,  1866-69. 

CAREY,  Wm.  &  Co. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  shotgun  of  fine 

CARGILL,  Benjamin — Agreed  with  Elisha  Childs  and  Nathan  Frink 

32  American  Gun  Makers 

to  make  100  muskets  for  the  Committee  of  Safety  at  the  cost 
of  $15.00  each,  he  to  procure  the  stocks. 

CARLETON,  M.  &  CO.— Makers  of  Carleton  under-hammer  percus- 
sion pistols  about  1860. 

CARLISLE,  Henry— Carlisle,  Pa.  Extra  long  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 
8-lb.  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  39-inch  barrel. 

CARPENTER,  A.  B.— Unlocated.  Name  stamped  on  halfstock  per- 
cussion rifle  with  gain  twist  barrel. 

CARPENTER,  John— Earl  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1771-79. 

CARPENTER,  Nicholas— Marietta,  Ohio,  1788.  First  gunsmith  to  settle 
in  Marietta.  Killed  by  Indians  in  1791. 

CARR,  Samuel— Gunsmith.  Lolar's  Court,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

CARRINGTON,  James— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1826-1830. 
Inspected  arms  in  plants  of  P.  &  E.  W.  Blake  and  Nathan  Starr. 

CARRUTH,  Adam— Greenville,  S.  C,  musket  maker  1809-21.  On  Nov. 
14,  1816,  took  over  Elias  Earle's  government  contract  of  Feb.  16, 
1816,  for  10,000  muskets.  Of  the  contract  Carruth  delivered  only 
2,240  stands  before  Sept.  20,  1820,  thereafter  failing  on  his  con- 
tract. Also  furnished  arms  to  the  State  of  South  Carolina. 

CARTER,  C. — Fitchburg,  Mass.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

CARTER,  Frank   C— Concord,   N.  H.  Died   1830. 

CARTWRIGHT,  John— Ottowah,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1865. 

CARVER,  James  W.— Pawlet,  Vt.,  before  and  after  1885. 

CASE,  WILLARD  &  CO.— New  Hartford,  Conn.  Makers  of  underham- 
mer  percussion  pistols. 

CASSEL,  Lee — Celina,  Ohio;  percussion  rifles. 

CASWELL  &  DODGE— Springfield,  Mass.,  musket  makers  of  1806- 
1807.  Made  and  offered  for  sale  muskets  made  on  the  Charleville 
(Model  1795)  pattern. 

CASWELL,  E.  E. — Albany,  N.  Y.  Patent  breech,  percussion,  set  trig- 
ger,  engraved,  combination  match-hunting  rifle. 

CASWELL,  John  M. — Lansingburgh,  Albany,  and  Lewisburg,  N.  Y. 
Son  of  Thomas  Caswell;  taught  gunsmithing  to  Nelson  Lewis; 
retired  1836.  At  60  State  St.,  Albany,  in  1815.  Made  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifles,  4-shot  Ellis-type  repeating  flintlock  pistol,  6-shot 
flintlock  revolver,  percussion  holster  pistol,  understriker  rifle, 
percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

CASWELL,  John  M.,  Jr. — Lansingburgh,  N.  Y.  Son  of  John  M.,  grand- 
son of  Thomas  Caswell.  Heavy  halfstock  percussion  target  rifle 
with  double  rest  and  telescope  sight. 

CASWELL,  Thomas — Musket  maker  of  Lansingburgh,  N.  Y.,  and 
contractor  to  N.  Y.  State  for  Model  1808  muskets.  Established 
about  1812  with  three  shops  in  Lansingburgh,  employing  about 
twenty-five  workmen.  One  shop  was  on  State  Street  (now  Second 
Avenue)  and  the  other  two  on  Hoosick  Street  (now  Thirteenth 
Avenue).  The  plants  turned  out  between  twenty-five  and  thirty 
muskets  a  week.  After  Thomas'  death,  his  son  John  M.  Caswell 
continued  the  business  until  1836. 

CAUP,  Levi— West  Buffalo,  Snyder  Co.,  Pa. 

CAVE,  Christopher— Dock  Ward,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1779. 

C.  B. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  a  light,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

C.  D. — Long  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  Probably  Christian  Diirr. 

American  Gun  Makers  33 

C.  G. — Unidentified.  Curly  maple  full-stock,  octagonal  barrel,  flint- 
lock Kentucky  rifle.  Double  set-triggers;  cut  out  patchbox. 

C.  H.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

CHACON,  Paul— Concord  Street,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1817. 

CHAIN,  Bill — Near  Scottsdale.  Everson  area.  Pa.  percussion  period. 

CHAMBERLAIN,    E. — Southridge,    Mass.    Underhammer    percussion 

CHAMBERLAIN,  Lyman — Ellisburg,  N.  Y.;  percussion  rifles. 

CHAMBERS,  Joseph  G. — Contracted  with  Committee  of  Defense  of 
Philadelphia,  in  the  War  of  1812,  to  furnish  "repeating  guns." 

CHANDLER,  J.— Unlocated;  possibly  Highland  Co.,  Ohio.  Fullstock 
Kentucky  rifles  .34  to  .36  caliber  with  5-groove  barrels  marked 

CHANDLER,  Stephen — Musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety,  Con- 
necticut,  1776. 

CHAPIN,  A.  H. — Earlville,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

CHAPIN,  E.  R.— Earlville,  N.  Y.,  percussion  rifles. 

CHAPMAN,   C— Unlocated.   Confederate   arms. 

CHAPMAN,  C.  H.— Unlocated.  Over-under,  pill-lock,  rifle  and  shot- 

CHAPMAN,  James—Bucks  County,  Pa.,  1770-76.  Musket  maker  to 
Committee  of  Safety. 

CHAPMAN,  Josiah — Fredericktown,  Md.  Operator  of  a  large  gun 
factory  during  the  Revolutionary  War. 

CHAPPLE,  Thomas — New  York  City.  Percussion  sporting  rifles. 

CHARLOTTSVILLE  RIFLE  WORKS— Charlottsville,  N.  C.  From 
1740  through  to  the  Revolutionary  War.  Established  by  ex- 
employees  of  the  Lemans  of  Lancaster,  Pa.  Made  Committee  of 
Safety  muskets  and  pistols. 

CHARPIE,  P.  F. — Mt.  Vernon,  Ohio.  Cannon-barrel,  underhammer 
percussion  pistol. 

CHARRIER,  Jacques— 60  Market  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1812.  Listed  at 
35  Water  Street  in  the  1817  Directory. 

CHASE,  Anson— Enfield,  Mass.,  before  1830.  Hartford,  Conn.,  1830-34, 
later  New  London,  Conn. 

CHASE,  Anson — 44  Bank,  New  London,  Conn.,  gunsmith,  1870-71. 

CHASE,  William— Pandora,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1860. 

CHATENS,  Charles— Primrose  Alley,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1810. 

C.  H.  D. — Marking  under  barrel  breech  of  a  long,  flintlock,  Kentucky 
rifle  of  about  1775-1800.  Lock  plate  marked  "T.  D." 

CHERINGTON,  A.— Penna.,   1847.  Percussion  rifle. 

CHERINGTON,  T.  P.,  Sr.— Cattawissa,  Pa.,  flintlock  period.  Father 
of  Thomas  P.,  Jr. 

CHERINGTON,  Thomas  P.,  Jr. — Pistol  and  rifle  maker  of  Cattawissa, 
Pa.,  flintlock  and  percussion  periods.  Also  associated  with  George 
Schalk  at  Pottsville,  Pa.  Manually  operated,  early  revolving 
cylinder  7-shot  percussion  rifle. 

CHICAGO  ARMS  CO.— 637-8  Monadnock  Building,  1894  Distributors 
of  Protector  Palm  Pistols,  made  by  Ames  Sword  Co. 

CHICHESTER  RIFLE  CO.— 31   Montgomery  St.,  Jersey  City,  N.  J., 

34  American  Gun  Makers 

1879.  A  promotion  firm  selling  mail  order  revolver-rifles.  Closed 
by  action  of  postal  authorities. 

CHICOPEE  FALLS  CO.— Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.  Percussion  cadet 
musket  with  back-action  lock. 

CHILCOTE,  J.  A.— Dry  Run,  Pa.,  percussion  rifle. 

CHILCOTE,  W.  C. — Pennsylvania  percussion  rifle  maker. 

CHILD,  Elisha— With  Nathan  Frink  agreed  with  the  Committee  of 
Safety,  Connecticut,  "for  the  manufacture  of  100  arms,  but  can 
get  only  50,  and  those  are  not  yet  ready";  January,  1778. 

CHILD  &  PRATT— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  dealers  only.  A  fullstock  percus- 
sion rifle  made  expressly  for  Child  &  Pratt  by  Brown  &  Tetley 
Enterprise  Gun  Works,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  1848-62. 

CHILDS,  E.— See  Nichols  &  Childs. 

CHIPMAN,  Darius— Rutland,  Vt.  Musket  maker  active  1799-1801.  In 
association  with  Royal  Crafts,  Thomas  Hooker  and  John  Smith 
contracted  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern 
(Model  1795),  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  575  were 
delivered  before  June  10,  1801. 

Darius  Chipman  was  born  at  Salisbury,  Conn.,  in  1758.  Was 
admitted  to  the  Bar  in  1781  and  was  state's  attorney  in  1785. 
In  1816  he  moved  to  New  York,  where  he  died  in  1820. 

CHIPMAN,  Samuel — Associated  with  Thomas  Towsey,  musket  maker, 

in  the  contract  for  1,000  muskets  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  at 

$13.40  per  stand,  of  which  275  were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

Samuel  Chipman  was  the  town  clerk  of  Vergennes,  Vt.,  in  1789. 

CHITTENDEN,  Ebenezer— Connecticut  gunsmith  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Worked  on  repair  of  public  arms  in  1781.  Died  in  1783. 

CHITTLE,  Frederick— Court  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,   1832. 

CHNADER,  J.— Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifles. 

CHOATE,  N.  W.— Auburn,  N.  Y.,  1850-75.  Three-barrel  guns.  Experi- 
mented with  small  bore,  high  speed  combination. 

CHRISKEY,  Lewis— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1815.  Probably  same  as  L. 
Chrisky  or  Ghriskey,  q.  v.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

CHRISKY,  L.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Kentucky  rifles. 

CHRIST— Lancaster,  Pa.,   1772.  Kentucky  rifle. 

CHRIST,  Albert— Patentee  and  maker  of  Christ  18-shot  rim  fire 
cartridge  revolver  with  two  circles  of  chambers  and  superposed 
barrels.  About   1860. 

CHRIST,  D. — Marking  on  Kentucky  barrels,  usually  bored  smooth. 
Letter  "s"  is  reversed  in  the  die.  Probabilities  are  that  Christ 
was  a  barrel  worker  who  specialized  in  smooth-boring  worn 
rifle  barrels. 

CHRIST,  D. — Lancaster,  Pa.,  Kentucky  rifles. 

CHRIST,  Jacob — Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1800.  Flintlock  Kentucky 

CHRISTMAN,  J. — Unlocated.  Percussion  target  rifle,  walnut  fullstock 
with  forestock  projection  for  muzzle  rest. 

CHURCH,  J.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

CHURCHILL,  Josiah— Belle  Plaine,  Scott  Co.,  Minn.,  1864-66. 

CHURCHILL,  Otis— 9  Beaver  St.,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  1839-59.  Last  listed 
in  1859  directory  at  78  State  St.  Percussion  rifles. 

CLABROUGH   &   GOLCHER— 630  Montgomery   St.,   San   Francisco, 

American  Gun  Makers  35 

Calif.  1887,  before  and  after.  Gunsmiths.  Imported  Clabrough  & 
Bro.,  English  shotguns. 

CLAGETT,  Alexander — Hagerstown,  Md.  Musket  maker.  Contracted 
for  1,000  muskets  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795),  under  Act 
of  July  5,  1798,  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  433  were  delivered 
by  June   10,   1801. 

CLALLCH,  H.  M.— Pennsylvania,  period  of  1780;  flintlock  Kentucky 

CLAPHAM,  Josiah — Also  Clapham  Josiah  &  Co.,  musket  makers 
1776-77.  Contractors  to  the  State  of  Virginia. 

CLARK — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  derringers. 

CLARK,  Alvan — Cambridge,  Mass.  Patentee  of  the  false  muzzle  on 
April  24,   1840.  Pat.  No.  1565. 

CLARK  &  BLYMYER — Marking  under  barrel  breech  of  a  full  stock 
Kentucky  rifle,  probably  a  percussion  conversion  from  a  flint 

CLARK,  C.  C. — Percussion  pistol. 

CLARK,  Carlos  C— Windsor,  Vt,  1856-68.  Telescopic  rifle  sights. 

CLARK,  Charles  D. — Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

CLARK,  Ezra — Hartford  Co.,  Conn.,  rifle  maker  employing  19  work- 
ers in   1850. 

CLARK,  F.  H.  &  CO. — Memphis,  Tenn.  Made  derringer  type  percus- 
sion pistols. 

CLARK,  Frances — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety,  1776.  Frances  Clark  was  one  of  the  petitioners,  repre- 
senting Pennsylvania  gun  makers,  complaining  to  the  Commit- 
tee of  Safety  in  November,  1776,  against  the  high  cost  of  ma- 
terials and  labor  entering  into  arms  making,  and  quoting  ad- 
vances in  prices  within  one  year,  since  1775. 

CLARK,  H.  &  CO. — Memphis,  Tenn.,  makers  of  an  engraved,  silver 
mounted,  short  handled,   percussion   derringer. 

CLARK,   James— Hopewell  Township,   Bedford   Co.,  Pa.,    1821. 

CLARK,  James— Cincinnatti,  Ohio,  1807-1831.  "Guns,  pistols,  daggers." 

CLARK,  John— Canton,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio,  1821-36. 

CLARK,  Joseph — Danbury,  Conn.  Musket  maker.  Contracted  for  500 
Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795),  muskets  under  Act  of  July  5, 
1798,  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  325  were  delivered  by  June 
10,   1801. 

CLARK,  Joseph  Andre  dit — Detroit,  Mich.  Had  a  rifle  shop  on  the 
southeast  corner  of  Randolph  and  Lamed  Streets.  In  1814  was  a 
member  of  a  volunteer  company  raised  by  General  Gass  to  drive 
off  Indians  who  camped  too  close  to  town  and  stole  cattle.  The 
Detroit  city  map  lists  the  property  as  the  "Old  Clark  Claim." 

CLARK  &  LAMBE — Anderson  Lambe.  Deep  River,  near  Jamestown, 
Guilford  Co.,  N.  C.  Civil  War  period,  possibly  before.  Employed 
12-15  hands. 

CLARK,  L. — Unlocated.  Halfstock  percussion  rifles. 

CLARK,   N. — Pennsylvania,   percussion   period. 

CLARK,  N. — Curly  maple,  brass  mounted,  full  stock,  octagon  barrel, 
percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

CLARK  &  RANKIN — Stamping  under  barrel  breech  of  a  Kentucky 
rifle  barrel  marked  on  top  flat  "C.  &  J.  CRAIG  PITTSBURGH." 
Truitt  lock.   Possibly  Bedford   County,   Pa.  James  Clark? 

36  American  Gun  Makers 

CLARK,   R. — Albany,   N.   Y.,   percussion   period. 

CLARK,  S.— Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1810-1830.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

CLARK  &  SNEIDER— 214  Pratt  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1876-84. 

CLARK,  T.  H. — Lafayette,  Iowa.  Half  stock,  double  set  triggers,  per- 
cussion rifle  with  iron  furniture.  Barrel  marked  "T.  H.  CLARK 

CLARK,  W. — Unlocated.  Full  maple  stock  percussion  rifle  with 

CLARK,  William— Philadelphia,  Pa.,   1783. 

CLARKE,  John — Columbia,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

CLARKE,  N.— Columbia,  Pa.  1830-1869.  Flintlock  and  percussion 

CLARKE,  R.  S.— Unlocated.  Brass  barrel  flintlock  holster  pistol.  (Pos- 
sibly English.  Uncertain.) 

CLASPILL,  George  W.— Lancaster,  Fairfield  Co.,  Ohio,   1831-1850. 

CLAUSE,  Nathan — Pennsylvania.  Early  maker  of  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifles,  fine  craftsman;  handsome  over-under  flintlock  rifle-shotgun. 

CLEMENT,  John  W. — Tennessee,  pre-Civil  War.  Heavy  percussion 
match  rifles. 

CLEMENT  ARMS  CO.— Nickel-plated  .22,  "Baby  Bulldog"  revolver. 

CLEMENT,  W.  T.— Associated  with  S.  Norris  in  the  manufacture  of 
Civil  War  rifle  muskets  marked  "S.N.  &  W.T.C.  FOR  MASS." 

CLEVELAND,  W.  H.— Norwalk,   Ohio,   1882-83. 

CLEWFLIN,   W.— Unlocated.   Kentucky  rifles. 

CLINE,  C— See  Kline  C. 

CLING— Spring  Run,  Pa. 

CLOSSON,  Charles — Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  6  York  Court, 
in  1829. 

CLOUSE,  George— Woodbury  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1855. 

CLOUSE,  Henry — Broadtop  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  in  1852. 

CLOUSE,  Valentine— "Felty"  Clouse.  South  Woodbury  Township, 
Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,   1875.   Died  about   1927. 

CLOWE,  Henry  W. — Superintendent  Harpers  Ferry  Armory,  1857. 

CLUTZ,  Capt.  J.— Massillon,  Ohio,  1850-60.  Halfstock,  percussion 
target  rifle. 

C.  M.  H. — Unidentified.  Stamped  on  barrel  of  heavy  halfstock  Plains 
rifle  with  brass  tube  for  ramrod  socket. 

C.  N. — Unidentified.  Script  initials  on  barrel  of  late  Kentucky  .28 
cal.  rifle  with  brass  mounted,  curly  maple  full  stock  and  single 
trigger,  back-action  lock. 

COATES,  James— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1810-14.  Ex-employee  of  J.  J. 

COBB,  Nathan  &  Henry — Norwich,  Conn.  Musket  makers.  Contrac- 
tors under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  200  Charleville  pattern  (Model 
1795),  muskets.  All  200  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

COCHRAN,  John  W.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period.  "Coch- 
ran's many  chambered  and  non-recoil"  firearms,  called  "turret 
repeating  arms."  Mostly  made  by  C.  B.  Allen. 

COCKERAL,  G.  W.— Unlocated.  Half  stock  percussion  Kentucky 
rifle  marked  on  barrel  and  lock.  All  engraved  silver  mountings. 

American  Gun  Makers  37 

COCKLER,  P.— Lewisburg,  Pa.  Late  percussion  period  Plains  rifle. 
COCKLIN,  Nicholas— 24  Catherine  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.  1834-39. 
COESTEL,   (?)   C. — Unlocated.  Indistinct  stamping  inside  percussion 

hammers  of  converted  flintlock  shotgun  by  H.  Turner,  Albany; 

exquisite   custom  conversion  work. 
COFER,  Thomas  W. — Portsmouth,  Va.,  1861.  Maker  of  a  brass  frame, 

sheath  trigger  Confederate  revolver  patented  in  Richmond  Aug. 

12,  1861.  Operated  on  a  small  scale  employing  less  than  a  dozen 

hands.  Shop  was  closed  with  the  capture  of  Norfolk,  across  the 

river,  by  Union  forces. 
COFFERS,  Augustus — Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 
COGSWELL,   S.— Albany,  N.  Y.,  musket  maker.   Established   about 

1813  in  the  manufacture  of  Model  1808  muskets. 
COGSWELL,  S.— Troy,  Pa.,  about  1800. 

COLBURN,  D.  G.— Inventor  of  revolver,  patented  June  29,  1833. 
COLBY,   C.  D.— St.   Peter,  Nocolett  Co.,  Minn.,   1864-71.  Associated 

with  Frazer.  See  Frazer  &  Colby. 

COLE,  C.  W. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  a  heavy  sporting  rifle. 

COLDREN,  Samuel— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

COLEMAN,  Charles— About  1862.  Maker  of  Coleman  breech-loading 

COLEMAN,  H.— Boston,  Mass.,  before  and  after  1847. 

COLIMAN,  J.— Cedar  Falls,  Iowa,   1866-68. 

COLLIER,  Elisha— Boston,  Mass.,  1807-1812.  Inventor,  patentee  and 
maker  of  the  Collier  5-shot  revolving  flintlock  pistol,  manu- 
factured largely  in  England,  whither  he  moved  about  1813,  and 
where  the  arm  was  patented  in  1818. 

COLLINS,  Lindsey — Unlocated;  probably  Indiana.  Reported  maker 
of  curly  maple,  fullstock  percussion  Kentucky  rifle,  DST,  with 
brass  furniture   and  factory  lock. 

COLLMAN,  J. — Freeport,  111.  Halfstock  percussion  target  rifle  with 
name  and  location  stamped  on  barrel;  DST;  factory  lock  by 
Spies.  Reported  used  by  member  of  Buffalo  Bill's  meat  supply 
crew  for  railroad  construction  through  Hays,  Kansas.  Possibly 
identical  with  J.  Coliman,  Idaho  Falls,  Iowa,   1866-68. 

COLSON,  D.  H. — Eaton,  N.  Y.  Underhammer,  percussion  pistol. 

COLT,  Samuel — Inventor  and  manufacturer  of  the  Colt  revolver. 
Born  Hartford,  Conn.,  July  10,  1814;  died  Jan.  10,  1862.  See  Colt 
Patent  Fire  Arms  Co. 

COLT  PATENT  FIREARMS  CO.— Hartford,  Conn.  The  first  company 
organized  by  Samuel  Colt  for  the  manufacture  of  repeating  fire- 
arms under  the  Colt  patent  of  Feb.  25,  1836,  was  the  Patent 
Arms  Mfg.  Co.,  located  at  Paterson,  N.  J.  The  firm  was  active 
from  1836-42,  when  the  company  failed  due  to  lack  of  public  and 
government  support  and  sales,  the  patents  reverting  to  Samuel 
Colt.  The  Mexican  War  created  a  demand  for  arms  and  obtaining 
a  government  contract  for  1,000  army  revolvers  (Model  1847) 
Colt  had  them  manufactured  by  Eli  Whitney  at  Whitneyville, 
Conn.  Upon  receipt  of  additional  contracts  in  1847,  Colt  estab- 
lished the  plants  of  the  Colt  Patent  Fire  Arms  Mfg.  Co.,  at  its 
present  location  in  Hartford,  Conn.  The  manufacture  of  the  early 
dragoons  was  followed  by  subsequent  government  contracts  con- 
tinuing to  the  present  day  and  too  numerous  to  mention  here, 

38  American  Gun  Makers 

the  firm  having  supplied  the  government  with  all  types  of  arms 
in  peace  and  wars.  It  may  be  of  historical  interest,  however, 
to  mention  that  according  to  the  firm's  records,  during  the  Civil 
War  the  Colt  Armory  furnished  the  Union  forces  with  386,417 
revolvers,  about  7,000  revolving  rifles  and  carbines,  and  113,980 
muzzle-loading  rifle  muskets. 

COLTON,  W.  M. — Leominster,  Mass.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

COLUMBIA  ARMORY— Columbia,  S.  C,  also  known  as  McPhail's 
Armory.  Established  with  machinery  and  equipment  removed 
from  the  Asheville  Armory  at  Asheville,  N.  C.  The  plant  was 
located  in  a  warehouse  owned  by  Fred  W.  Green,  on  the  south 
side  of  Gervais  Street,  opposite  Gist,  and  probably  produced 
muzzle-loading  rifles,  though  it  was  said  to  have  made  breech- 
loaders "just  like  the  Yankees  had."  The  plant  was  operated 
as  a  unit  of  the  Confederate  arsenal  located  a  few  blocks  away, 
which  had  been  removed  from  Charleston,  S.  C,  and  was  in 
charge  of  Major  J.  T.  Trezevant,  C.  S.,  formerly  of  Memphis, 
Tenn.  On  Sherman's  approach,  the  machinery  was  packed  up 
and  taken  to  the  railroad  depot  but  could  not  be  removed  for 
lack  of  cars.  The  armory  was  shelled  by  Federal  batteries  on 
Feb.  15,   1865,  and  destroyed. 

A  Federal  report  by  Lt.  McCahill  showed  the  capture  of 
10,410  stands  of  arms  and  6,000  unfinished  arms  at  Columbia, 
S.  C,  in  February,  1865. 

COLUMBUS  FIRE  ARMS  MANUF.  CO.— Columbus,  Ga.  Established 
by  Louis  and  Elias  Haiman,  swordmakers  and  equipment  manu- 
facturers in  the  plant  of  the  Muscogee  Iron  Works  at  the  north- 
east corner  of  14th  and  Oglethorpe  Streets,  which  works  they 
had  purchased  April  1st,  1862.  On  Aug.  26,  1862,  the  firm  con- 
tracted with  the  Confederate  States  for  10,000  navy  pistols, 
$50,000.00  being  advanced  by  the  Confederacy  on  the  contract. 
The  plant  employed  some  385  hands  in  all  departments,  and 
had  produced  between  300  and  500,  round  barrel,  iron  frame 
revolvers  of  the  Colt  navy  type,  before  the  plant  and  machinery 
were  destroyed  by  General  Wilson's  cavalrymen  in  a  raid  on 

Louis  Haiman,  born  at  Colmar,  Prussia,  came  to  United  States 
as  a  child  with  his  family,  who  settled  in  Columbus.  At  the 
outbreak  of  the  Civil  War,  Haiman,  a  tinsmith,  opened  a  sword 
factory  next  to  Dr.  Ware's  Drug  Store,  and  with  the  purchase 
of  the  Muscogee  Iron  Works,  expanded  his  facilities  to  include 
the  manufacture  of  bayonets,  saddlery,  mess  equipment,  etc. 

After  the  Civil  War,  the  Haimans,  under  the  name  of  Phoenix 
Foundry  &  Machine  Shop,  and  later  the  Southern  Agricultural 
Works,  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  agricultural  and  mill 

COLVIN,  M.  S.— Salamanca  and  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after 
1872.  Fine  percussion  shotguns  and  target  rifles  with  accessories. 

COMINS,  Loren— 114  Washington  St.  and  73  Davis  St.,  San  Francisco, 
Calif.,  1856.  Lived  with  and  related  to  P.  B.  Comins. 

COMINS,  Paschal  B.— 125  Commercial  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1852- 
53.  70  Front  St.,  1854,  and  69  Jackson  St.,  1858-61. 

COMPTON,  Phineas  M.— Berlin,  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.  Gunsmith  and 
tinner.  Born  June  1,  1804,  near  Brunswick,  N.  J.  Grandparents 
came  from  France.  Father  came  to  Berlin  in  1813.  Reared  in 
Salisbury   (Elk  Lick),  Pa.  Died  July  4,   1858. 

COMPTON,  Samuel— Son  of  Phineas.  Entered  his  father's  shop  at 
age  of  13.  Died  Nov.  27,  1902. 

American  Gun  Makers  39 

CONDO— Milesburg,  Pa.;  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

CONDRY,  W.  P. — Portsmouth,  Va.  Back-action  lock  percussion  rifle. 

CONE,  Alfred  Marion— Born  in  Panama,  N.  Y.,  Dec.  21,  1831;  died 
April  1,  1903.  A  cooper  by  trade,  took  up  gunsmithing  at  Co- 
lumbus, Pa.;  later  on  North  Centre  St.,  Corry,  Pa.,  and  331  Penn- 
sylvania Ave.  West,  Warren,  Pa.  Made  very  accurate,  finely 
engraved  hunting  and  match  rifles,  some  side-hammers. 

CONE,  D.  D.— Washington,  D.  C,  1864-67.  Inventor  of  a  cartridge 
revolver  under  his  name.  Probably  manufactured  by  Sharps 
and  Hankins. 

CONE,  R.  M.— Corry,  Pa.  Percussion  rifle. 

CONESTOGA  RIFLE  WORKS— Trademark  of  Henry  E.  Leman,  Lan- 
caster, Pa.,  1834-1887;  used  on  inferior  or  flawed  products.  Mark- 
ing reported  on  flintlock  and  percussion  Kentucky  rifles,  rifle 
locks,  trap  gun. 

CONFEDERATE  STATES  ARMORY— Columbus,  Ga.  (next  to  Grant's 
factory).  Arms  as  well  as  artillery  harness,  ordnance  materiel 
and  infantry  accoutrements  are  believed  to  have  been  made 
and  repaired  at  this  armory,  established  with  machinery  removed 
from  Baton  Rouge,  La.,  in  spring  of  1862  as  well  as  from  De- 
mopolis,  Ala.,  in  1864  and  Atlanta,  Ga.,  when  threatened  by  Sher- 
man. The  armory  operations  were  under  Major  F.  C.  Humphrey, 
C.A.S.  Ord.  Dept.,  who  had  been  a  lieutenant  in  charge  of  the 
Federal  Arsenal  at  Augusta,  Ga.,  and  resigned  his  commission 
at  the  outbreak  of  the  war.  A  contemporary  letter  states  that 
"Jeff  Davis  has  stopped  the  manufacture  of  arms  at  Columbus, 
Ga.,  for  if  they  whip  Grant  they  would  have  all  the  guns  they 
wanted,  and  if  they  didn't,  they  would  want  no  more  made 
there."  Though  the  manufacture  of  arms  may  have  been  dis- 
continued towards  the  end  of  the  war,  other  ordnance  activities 
continued  for  on  Feb.  21,  1865,  Gen.  Gorgas  placed  the  C.  S. 
Armory  at  Columbus  (as  well  as  those  of  Macon,  Ga.,  Athens, 
Ga.,  and  Tallassee,  Ala.)  under  jurisdiction  of  Col.  James  H. 
Burton,  C.S.  Ord.  Dept.,  with  directive  that  "all  orders  for  the 
officer  in  immediate  charge  of  the  Columbus  Armory  must  pass 
thro'  Col.  M.  H.  Wright." 

CONKLE,  F. — Unlocated.  Probably  southwestern  Pa.  Percussion  rifle 
with  James  Bown  &  Son  lock. 

CONKLIN,  H.  M.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle  with  lock  by  G. 

CONNECTICUT  ARMS  CO.— Norfolk,  Conn.  About  1864.  Made  a  .28 
caliber  front  loading,  cartridge  revolver. 

CONNECTICUT  ARMS  &  MFG.  CO.— Naubuc,  Conn.,  1866-68.  Ham- 
mond carbines  and  Hammond  Bull  Dog  pistols.  See  also  Welch, 
W.   W. 

CONRAD,  Sam— Gunsmith,  Berlin,  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.,  1837.  Plain 
rifles  of  good  workmanship. 

CONRAD,  T.— Barrel  marking  of  a  slim,  early  percussion  period 
Kentucky  rifle. 

CONSTABLE,  R.— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  88  S.  2nd  St., 
in  1829. 

CONSTABLE,  Richard— 88  S.  2nd  St.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1817-51. 
Gunmaker.  Flintlock  and  later  percussion  duelling  pistols  and 
derringers.  Also  imported  many  arms  from  England. 


American  Gun  Makers 

CONTER — Unlocated.  Walnut  full-stock,  octagonal  barrel,  percussion 
Kentucky  rifle. 

CONTINENTAL  ARMS  CO.— Norwich,  Conn.,  1866-67.  Manufactured 
Converse  5-shot  cartridge  pepperboxes. 

CONVERSE,  William  H.— Colorado  Springs,  Col.,  1875-80. 

COOK— Rhode   Island,    flintlock   period. 

COOK,  Ashabell — Clayton,  N.  Y.  Ten-pound  percussion  hunting  and 
target  rifle. 

COOK  &  BRO.— New  Orleans  1861-62,  Athens,  Ga.,  1863-64.  Makers 
of  Confederate  rifles,  carbines,  and  military  equipment.  The  firm 
was  organized  by  Ferdinand  W.  C.  Cook,  engineer  and  architect, 
and  his  brother  Francis,  in  June  1861,  with  plant  at  Novelty 
Works  No.  1,  Canal  Street,  New  Orleans,  La.  Operations  began 
with  27  men,  with  expected  output  of  eight  to  ten  rifles  per  day. 
By  August  1861  two  shifts  of  workmen  were  employed.  April 
25,  1862,  on  approach  of  the  Federal  fleet,  the  machinery  was 
loaded  on  S.S.  NEWSBOY  and  left  for  Vicksburg,  thence  across 
country  to  Selma,  Ala.,  and  then  to  Athens,  Ga.  At  Athens  the 
firm  acquired  Hodgson's  Grist  Mill  with  24  acres,  purchased  249 
adjoining  acres  and  erected  a  stone-and-brick  armory  with  cas- 
tellated walls  and  flanking  towers.  The  scant  machinery  brought 
from  New  Orleans  was  supplemented  by  boring  and  rifling 
machinery,  drill  presses,  shapers,  milling  and  other  machines 
made  by  Athens  Foundry  &  Machine  Works.  The  plant  employed 
a  force  of  about  500  men  producing  rifles  of  Enfield  pattern,  artil- 
lery musketoons,  cavalry  carbines,  triangular  bayonets,  bayonet 
scabbards  and  cartridge  belts  and  boxes.  Attempt  was  also  made 
to  manufacture  sabers — "crude  affairs  with  an  iron  hilt  of  Revo- 
lutionary  War    type." 

Colonel  James  H.  Burton  of  Confederate  Ordnance,  on  a  visit 
to  the  Armory  in  April  1864,  stated  that  it  was  the  best  fitted 
and  operated  armory  he  had  inspected  in  the  Confederate  States. 
.  .  .  "600  rifles  and  carbines  were  manufactured  last  month." 
Towards  the  end  of  the  War  manpower  shortage  being  critical, 
the  Cook  Armory  as  well  as  the  Athens  Foundry  &  Machine 
Works  were  closed  down  and  their  personnel  formed  into  a  home 
defence  force  under  Major  Ferdinand  Cook.  The  unit  participated 
at  the  battle  of  Griswoldsville,  near  Macon,  in  June  1864.  In  Dec. 
1864  Major  Cook  was  shot  through  the  head  and  killed  at  Goose 
Pond,  near  Hardeeville,  S.  C. 

In  January  1865  the  plant  was  valued  at  $425,000  including 
land  and  buildings.  After  the  War,  Francis  Cook,  as  a  British 
subject,  managed  to  obtain  a  pardon  and  retain  the  property 
which  was  sold  to  various  foundries  and  shops,  the  land  and 
buildings  being  purchased  by  Athens  Mfg.  Co.,  and  converted 
into  a  cotton  mill. 

COOK,  E.  W.— Lockport,  N.  Y.,  1849.  Percussion  rifles. 

COOK,  F.  W.  C. — Engineer  and  gunsmith,  Calliope,  between  Benton 
and  Hercules,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853.  (Of  Cook  &  Bros.,  Con- 
federate armorers?) 

COOK,  Roswell  F. — West  Potsdam,  N.  Y.;  over-under  percussion 

COOKE,  Jacob— Also  Cook.  Contractor  Dec.  9,  1807,  with  Tench 
Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  for  25  pair  of  pistols  at  $10.00 
the  pair.  On  Feb.  1,  1808  was  given  an  additional  contract  for 
50  pairs  of  pistols. 

American  Gun  Makers  41 

COOKSON,  John— Boston,  Mass.,  active  1727-62.  Inventor  and  maker 
of  the  famous  Cookson  repeating  flintlock  arms. 

COOLEY,  D.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles,  before  1800.  Fine  work- 

COON,  D. — Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  son  of  Levi  Coon.  Percussion  sporting  rifles. 

COON,  Levi   (Sr.)—  Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  1821.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

COON,  Levi,  Jr. — Ithaca,  N.  Y.  Son  of  Levi  Coon.  Percussion  sport- 
ing rifles. 

COON,  S. — Unidentified.  Percussion  alarm  pistol  patented  Sept.  22, 

COONS — Unidentified.  Maker  of  early  American  shotguns. 

COONS,  E.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Kentucky  rifles. 

COONS,  Joseph— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  after  1810. 

COOPER— Philadelphia,  Pa.,   1805. 

COOPER  FIREARMS  CO.— Located  at  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  about  1852- 
1860,  and  at  Frankford,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1860-1869.  Made  per- 
cussion revolvers  at  both  places. 

COOPER,  Henry  T.— New  York  City,  before  and  after  1845.  Percus- 
sion pistols.  "H.  T.  Cooper"  is  marked  on  the  lock  of  a  percussion 
match  rifle  by  A.  C.  Stevens. 

COOPER  &  HEWITT— Trenton,  N.  J.  Arms  makers  to  the  govern- 
ment during  the  Civil  War. 

COOPER,  J. — Flint,  gooseneck  hammer,  lock  with  roller  frizzen 
spring  bearing,  on  a  Kentucky  rifle  stamped  "J.  FORDNEY 
LANCASTER."  Possibly  connected  with  English  firm  B.  &  J. 
Cooper,  19  Partition  St.,  New  York  City  in  post-Revolution 

COOPER,  J.  M.— Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Percussion  locks  on  W.  McCullough 
over-under  rifle.  Same  as  James  Maslin  Cooper  Firearms  Co.? 

COOPER,  James  Maslin — Patentee  and  manufacturer  of  the  Cooper 
revolver.    See   Cooper   Firearms   Co. 

COOPER,  J.  R.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after  1849.  Probably 
agent  for  British  arms. 

COOPER,  R.  F.— West  Potsdam,  N.  Y.  Percussion  over-and-under 

COOPER,  Walter— Bozeman,  Montana.  Reported  in  1892  as  a  "prac- 
tical rifle  manufacturer."  Gunsight  inventor.  Went  west  in  1858 
and  for  18  years  was  almost  constantly  in  camp.  Established 
sporting-goods  house  at  Bozeman  in  1869. 

COPE,  Jacob — Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

COPELAND,  T.— Worcester,  Mass.,  about  1860.  Revolvers. 

CORNS,  Abraham— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

CORMAN.  H. — Unlocated.  A  24-lb.  percussion  match  rifle  stamped 
"H.  CORMAN  on  48"  barrel  and  "H.  CORMAN  for  F.  BAKER" 
on  silver  cheekpiece  inlay.  Iron  mounted,  curly  maple  halfstock, 
Leman  bar  lock. 

COSMOPOLITAN  ARMS  CO.— Hamilton,  Ohio.  Civil  War  Cosmo- 
politan carbines,  and  Gross  Patent  Arms.  See  Gwyn  &  Campbell. 

COSTER,  Abram — Philadelphia,  Pa.  1810-14.  Gunsmith  to  Committee 
of  Defence. 

COTTON,  W.  M. — Leominster,  Mass.  Half  stock  percussion  rifle  with 

42  American  Gun  Makers 

octagon  barrel  marked  "W.  M.  COTTON  LEOMINSTER  MASS." 
Lock  by  Wm.  Reid,  Boston. 

COUCH,  John  D. — Middlesex  Co.,  Conn.,  pistol  maker  employing 
three  workmen  in  1860.  That  year's  output  800  pistols.  (Re- 
volvers? ) 

COULANOY,  J.— Armorer.  Was  paid  $1,280,  New  Emission  Currency 
(at  rate  of  exchange  four  for  one,  equal  to  $320,  specie)  for 
cleaning  and  repairing  160  muskets  and  bayonets  at  Phila., 
June  13,   1781. 

COULTHARD,  J.— Natchez,  Miss.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

COUTTY,  Samuel— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  pistol  maker,  paid  tax  in  Chest- 
nut Ward  in  1779.  Listed  in  the  City  Directories  from  1785  to 
1794,  as  residing  at  25  Spruce  St.,  in  '85,  82  Chestnut  St.,  in  '91, 
87  Front  St.,  in  '93,  and  41  So.  Water  St.,  in  '94.  Made  arms  for 
private  sale  and  worked  on  public  arms  for  Commonwealth  of 

COWELL,  Ebenezer — Allentown,  Pa.,  musket  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety  in  1775.  Made  and  repaired  arms  at  the  State  Gun  Fac- 
tory in  1778.  Later  located  at  Philadelphia,  1779-82.  Was  paid  $280, 
New  Emission  Currency  (at  rate  of  exchange  four  for  one,  equal 
to  $72,  specie)  for  cleaning  and  repairing  60  rampart  muskets 
at  Phila.,  June  25,  1781. 

COWELL,  Joseph— Boston,  Mass.,   1745. 

COWELL,  P.— Pennsylvania,  prior  to  1783. 

COWLES    &    SMITH— Chicopee,   Mass.,    1868.   Pistol   manufacturers. 

COWLES,  W.  W.  DEANE  &  CO.— Chicopee,  Mass.  Single-shot,  .22 
cal.   rim-fire  cartridge  pistols. 

COX  &  SON— Atlanta,  Ga.,  1847. 

COX,  George — Mifflin  County,  Pa.,  late  percussion  period. 

COX,  Martin— Gunsmith.  Oak  above  Noble  (N.L.),  Phila,  Pa.,  1819. 

COX,  R.  C.  GUN  CO.— Milwaukee,  Wis.  1894-95.  Gunmakers  at  326 

COXE,  Tench— Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies  1803-1812.  Negotiated 
arms  contracts  until  1812. 

C.  P. — Letters  to  denote  ownership  by  Commonwealth  of  Pennsyl- 

CRABB,  Thomas— Frederick  Town,  Md.  Musket  maker,  1799-1801. 
Associate  of  Nicholas  White,  Jacob  Metzger  and  Christopher 
Barnhizzle  in  a  contract  under  Act  of  July  5.  1798,  for  1,000 
Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795),  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand, 
of  which  235  were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

CRABTREE,  Absalom— Buffalo  Creek,  Tenn.,  later  migrated  to  Mc- 
Cracken  Co.,  Ky.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

CRAFT,  George  W.— Craft  Creek,  Morris  Township,  Washington  Co., 
Pa.  About  1860-1875.  Had  served  apprenticeship  under  Abe  Wil- 
liams. Made  unmarked,  half  stock  percussion  rifles. 

CRAFT,  P.  W. — Columbia,  S.  C,  maker  of  percussion  duelling  pistols 
and  of  a  half  stock,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

CRAFTS,  Royal— Rutland,  Vt.  Musket  maker,  active  1799-1801.  In 
association  with  Darius  Chipman,  Thomas  Hooker  and  John 
Smith,  contracted  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  muskets 
Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  at  $13.40  per  stand,  of  which 
575  were  delivered  before  June  10,  1801. 

American  Gun  Makers  43 

CRAIG,   Andrew— Richland   County,    Ohio.   Prior   to    1812,   with   his 

brother  David,  had  been  gunsmith  to  the  Indians  in  the  "Indian 

Country."  In  the  War  of  1812  they  were  at  stockade  and  fort 

at  Mansfield. 
CRAIG,  David — See  Craig,  Andrew. 
CRAIG,   C.  &   J.— Pittsburgh,  Pa.   Top  flat  marking  of  an  original 

percussion    Kentucky    rifle    with    barrel   marked    under    breech 

"CLARK  &  RANKIN."  Truitt  lock. 
CRAIG,  J.— Philadelphia,    Pa.    Fullstock   percussion    Kentucky   rifle. 

(Probably  J.  Craig  of  C.  &  J.  Craig.) 
CRAIG,  J.  W. — Unlocated.  Percussion  sporting  rifle. 
CRAIG,  Robert — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Gun-lock  maker  to  Committee  of 

Safety  1775-76. 
CRAIG,  William— Pittsburgh  and  Alleghany,  Pa.,  about  1850. 
CRAMER,  Phillip — Pennsylvania,  period  of  1820;  flintlock  Kentucky 

CRANDALL,  Jos. — Unlocated.  Percussion  period. 
CRANDALL,  Marion  F. — Towanda,  N.  Y.,   late  flintlock  and  early 

percussion  rifles. 
CRAVALTY  &  DUGAN— Maryland,  Committee  of  Safety. 
CRAWFORD,  Alexander— Lock  filer  at  Springfield  Armory.  Filed  the 

first  musket  lock  in  1795  in  3  days  labor. 
CREAMER,  B.— Phila.,  Pa.  Flintlock   Kentucky  rifles   and  flintlock 

duelling   pistols. 
CREEDMORE  ARMORY— Miles  City,  Mont.  See  A.  D.  McAusland. 
CRESCENT  FIRE  ARMS  CO.— Norwich,  Conn.  Modern. 
CRISSEY,   Elias— Hooversville,   Pa.    1835-1915.  Lightweight  flintlock 

squirrel  rifles.  Had  been  apprenticed  to  Samuel  Border  in  1854. 
CROCKETT,  Thomas— Bath  Co.,  Ky.;  came  from  Virginia.  Working 

in  1800.  Made  rifles  for  Gen.  Harrison's  troops  in  the  Indian  wars. 
CROFT,  P.  W.— Columbia,  S.  C.  Percussion  duelling  pistols. 
CROMWELL,  Levi— 265  Ann  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1860. 
CROMWELL,  Oliver— 118  Thames  St,  Baltimore,  Md,  1860. 
CRONER— Cross  Creek  Village,  Washington  Co,  Pa. 
CROSBY,  C— Massachusetts,   1867.  Half-stock,  percussion  rifles. 
CROSBY,     J.— Springfield     Armory     lockmaker,     1807-1818.     Name 

stamped   inside    some    Springfield    Armory    goose-neck   hammer 

pistols  dated  1818.  Also  lock  on  Springfield  musket  dated  1818. 
CROSBY,  L.— Unlocated.  Possibly  N.Y.S.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 
CROSMAN  ARMS  CO.— 903  Monroe  Ave,  Rochester,  N.  Y.  Crosman 

air  rifles.  Modern. 
CROSSLAND,  I.  M.— Kentucky  rifle  barrel  marked  "I.  M.  CROSS- 
LAND"  and  dated  "1865." 
CROSSLAND,  John— Uniontown,  Pa.  Made  Bedford  Co,  style  rifles. 
CROSSLAY,  J.  M.— Uniontown,  Pa.  Percussion  rifle. 
CROW,  C.  A.— Lima,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1870. 
CROYSDALE,    Thomas— Bond    Street,    Baltimore,    Md,    1810. 
CRUM,  D. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle.  Same  as  Crumm? 
CRUM,  T. — Unlocated.   Early   Kentucky   flintlock   rifle,   Roman   nose 

butt,  name  acid-etched  on  barrel. 

44  American  Gun  Makers 

CRUMM — Huntingdon  County,  Pa.,   late   percussion  period. 

CRYTH,  John — Lancaster,  Pa.,  Kentucky  rifles. 

CULLEN,  T.— 87  Battery,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1859-60. 

CULLMAN,    G.— Cleveland,    Ohio,    1840. 

CULLMANN,  Charles — Columbus,  Ohio,  shotgun,  rifle  and  pistol 
maker.  Active  about  1850  to  1894. 

CULLOUGHM,  William— Brookville,  Pa.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

CUMMINGS,  Charles  A.— Worcester,  Mass.,  1866-69.  Later  Cum- 
mings  &  Lane. 

CUMMINGS   &  LANE— Worcester,  Mass.,   1869-71. 

CUMMINGS,  O.  S.— Lowell,  Mass.  Top-up  .22  revolver. 

CUMMINGS,  William — Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  45  Green,  in 

CUNKLE,  L.  G. — Unlocated.  Revolutionary  period.  Early  flintlock 
Kentucky  pistol  with  hand-forged  lock,  name  stamped  on  barrel. 

CUNKLE,  George — Percussion  period. 

CUNNINGHAM,  John— Harford  County,  Md.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety.  With  Isaac  Thomas,  agreed,  March  4,  1776, 
"for  making  a  parcel  of  musquets  which  they  oblige  themselves 
to  do,  agreeably  to  directions  which  they  have  and  are  to  re- 
ceive from  the  Committee,  as  may  be  directed  by  the  Council 
of  Safety,  at  the  price  of  Musquets  are  made  for  at  Baltimore, 
to  be  complete  with  steel  ramrod  and  bayonet  ..."  A  company 
of  riflemen  was  raised  in  Harford  County  during  the  War  of 

CUNNINGHAM,   W.   A.— Mt.   Vernon,   Ohio,    1857-59. 

CURRY,  C.  &  CO.— San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1852-1863.  Succeeded  by 
sons  J.  and  N.  Curry  in  1863  as  N.  Curry  &  Bro.  or  N.  Curry  & 
Co.  Agents  for  Colt,  Remington,  Deringer,  and  British  arms. 

CURRY,  N. — San  Francisco,  Cal.  Maker  of  an  all  metal  derringer 
type  percussion  pistol  and  a  cartridge  revolver.  See  C.  Curry 
&  Co. 

CURTIS,  Jesse — Waterbury,  Conn.  Musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Received  payment  for  sixteen  muskets  with  bayonets, 
June  15,  1778.  Later  furnished  seven  more.  On  Jan.  22,  1779, 
in  association  with  Thomas  Fancher  was  paid  for  twenty-six 
muskets  with  bayonets. 

CURTIS,  Russell— Arms  stoker,  Springfield  Armory,   1818. 

CUSHING,  Alvin  D.— Troy,  N.  Y.,  1829-1834.  Kentucky  rifles.  Probably 
related  to  A.  B.  Cushing. 

CUSHING,  A.  B.— Troy,  N.  Y.  About  1840-70. 

CUTCHALL,  I.  W.— Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

CYPHERS,  M.  B.— Skowhegan,  Maine,  1866-69. 

C.  W. — Initials  of  Charles  Williams,  U.S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 
1808-1814.  Inspected  arms  (sabers)  at  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

C.  W.  H.— Initials  of  C.  W.  Hartwell,  U.S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within 
years  1831-1850. 


DADE  &  REYNOLDS— Mobile,  Ala.  Flintlock  match  rifles. 
DALE — Marking  inside  lock  of  undated  Springfield  musket.  (Made  in 

American  Gun  Makers  45 

DALE,  Samuel — Armorer,  Springfield  Armory,  1817.  (Same  as 

DALBY — Brothers  Enoch,  Alexander  and  James.  Millsboro,  Washing- 
ton Co.,  Pa.  Percussion  rifles  with  silver  alloy  sights. 

DALL,  Joshua— Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifle  dated  1840. 

DALLAM,  Richard— Hartford  Town,  Md.,  1775-76.  Musket  maker  to 
Committee  of  Safety. 

DANA  D. — Unlocated.  Pin-fastened  barrel,  flintlock  musket. 

DANA,  I. — Or  possibly  J.  Canton,  Mass.  Flintlock,  Kentucky  type, 
match  rifle,  full  curly  maple  stock.  Flintlock  fowling  piece. 

DANA  &  CO. — Marking  on  a  fine  quality,  engraved  percussion  lock 
of  a  percussion  match  rifle  by  James  &  Ferris,  Utica,  N.  Y. 

DANCE  BROS.  &  PARKS— Makers  of  revolvers  in  imitation  of  Colts, 
for  the  Confederacy.  The  firm  consisted  of  James,  David  and 
George  Dance,  of  Nash  County,  North  Carolina  and  later  of  Bells 
Landing,  Texas.  The  arms  were  made  in  a  shop  on  Brazos  River, 
near  Marion,  in  1863-64,  where  the  plant  foundations  and  the 
Dance  home  are  still  to  be  seen.  In  1864-65,  the  plant  is  reputed 
to  have  been  moved  to  Anderson,  Texas. 

Dance  revolvers,  identified  by  the  absence  of  a  recoil  shield, 
were  produced  in  .44  dragoon  and  .36  caliber  Navy  sizes.  Number 
324  is  the  highest  serial  number  known. 

The  relationship  of  Parks  to  the  firm  is  unknown. 

DANIELS,  A. — Unlocated.  Late  flintlock  and  early  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifles  of  North  Central  Penna.  style,  circa  1840-50. 

DANIELS,  Adam— "A.  D."  Lancaster,  Pa.  Late  flintlock  and  early  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifles.  Initials  "A.  D."  marked  on  a  boy's  brass 
and  silver  mounted,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

DANINGERFIELD,  L.  H.— West  Virginia;  very  heavy  match  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

DANNE,  John  W.— Mobile,  Ala.,  1860-68. 

DANNER,  Jacob— Canton,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio,  1818  or  earlier. 

DANTZ,  H.  A.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1874-76. 

DARLING,  Barton  &  Benjamin  M. — Bellingham,  Mass.,  and  Woon- 
socket,  R.  I.,  Patentee,  April  13,  1836,  and  makers  of  the  Darling 
pepperbox  percussion  pistols.  Markings:  H,  A.C.S.,  AIS,  IEH, 
or  JENGh.  Also  made  single  and  double  barrel  pistols  that  closely 
resembled  the  pepperboxes. 

DARLING,  W.  K.  &  HARRIS,  C.  H.— Otsego,  Mich.  Percussion  mule- 
ear,  over-under  rifle. 

DARROW,  L.  F. — Mayville,  N.  Y.  Heavy  halfstock  percussion  target 
rifle  with  Golcher  lock. 

DAUB,  J.— Berks  County,  Pa.,  flintlock  period. 

DAVENPORT,  W.  H.,  FIRE  ARMS  CO.— Norwich,  Conn.,  about 
1880-1910.  Single  shot  rifles.  The  Davenport  Arms  Co.  was  or- 
ganized in  May,  1880,  with  a  capital  of  $25,000,  for  the  purpose 
of  manufacturing  firearms  under  patents  owned  by  William  H. 
Davenport.  The  officers  were  M.  S.  Taft,  president,  J.  W.  Coffin, 
treasurer,  and  W.  H.  Davenport,  superintendent.  Operations  were 
begun  at  79  and  81  Orange  street,  the  company  occupied  four 
floor  of  a  building  30  x  70  feet  in  size,  and  employed  about  40 
men  in  the  various  departments  of  its  work. 

DAVIDSON,  T.  &  CO.— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1850-53.  Made  gunlocks. 
Operated  by  Tyler  Davidson. 

46  American  Gun  Makers 

DAVIES,  E.— Bouckville,  N.  Y.,  and  Solsville,  N.  Y.,  percussion 

DAVIS,  A. — Deposit,  N.  Y.  Over-under,  flintlock,  swivel  Kentucky 

DAVIS,  A.  R. — Deposit,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period.  Son  of  Davis  A.? 

DAVIS  &  BOZEMAN— Henry  J.  Davis  and  David  W.  Bozeman,  rifle 
contractors  to  the  Confederacy.  Located  three  miles  west  of 
Central  and  12  miles  north  of  Wetumpka,  Alabama.  Made  for  the 
State  of  Alabama  between  1st  October  1863  and  1st  November 
1864,  a  total  of  882  Mississippi  rifles  (M.1841)  and  89  carbines. 
Specimen  known  marked  "D  and  B  Ala  1864."  After  the  war 
the  shop  was  used  by  Davis  to  manufacture  machines  to  thrash 
grain  and  cotton  gins. 

DAVIS,  BRUCE  &  DAVIS— Webster,  Mass.,  percussion  rifle. 

DAVIS  &  COSAT— Perrysville,  Ind.,  percussion  rifle. 

DAVIS,  C.  A. — Holcollville,  Pa.,  percussion  period. 

DAVIS,  E.  L.— Hinckley,  111.  Percussion  rifles. 

DAVIS,  Henry  J. — See  Davis  &  Bozeman. 

DAVIS,  Isaac — Revolutionary  War  period  gunsmith  of  Acton,  Mass. 
Was  Captain  of  the  Acton  Militia  Company  which  led  the 
American  charge  at  Concord  Bridge  April  19,  1775.  Davis,  lead- 
ing the  company,  was  killed  by  the  first  British  volley.  Believed 
to  have  been  30  or  32  years  old  at  the  time. 

DAVIS,  John — Employed  as  musket  barrel  maker  by  O.  &  E.  Evans 
in  1810. 

DAVIS,  J.  N. — New  Paris,  Pa.  Percussion  period. 

DAVIS,  J.  S. — Indiana.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  full  curly 
maple  stock. 

DAVIS,  N.  R.  &  SONS— Assonet,  Freetown,  Mass.,  established  1853. 
Makers  of  percussion  shotguns  and  rifles. 

DAVIS-WARNER  ARMS  CORPORATION— Assonet,  Mass.  "Infallible" 
hammerless  .32  automatic  pistols.  Davis  of  the  firm  is  probably 
R.  N.  Davis  of  Assonet. 

DAVIS,  Zemp — Nevada  City,  Calif.,  about  1850;  dealer  and  gunsmith. 

DAY — Unidentified.  Percussion,  under-hammer  cane  gun. 

DAY,  James — Louisville,  Ky.  In  1843  at  Joseph  Griffith's  shop,  on 
Market  between  5th  and  6th.  1845-46  at  52  Fifth  St.  18-?  8  ri 
Griffith's  shop,  294  Green  St.  1848-49,  with  J.  Griffith,  Walnut  St., 
between  Campbell  and  Wentzel.  1855-60,  corner  Brook  and 
Market.  1865-67,  Gun  Store  at  31  E.  Market.  1869  and  1873,  James 
Day  &  Co.,  guns,  rifles,  pistols.  In  sporting  goods  business  until 
about  1890. 

DAY,  J.  C. — Unlocated.  About  1855.  Percussion  breech-loading  self- 
capping  rifle. 

DAY,  John— Boulder,  Col.,  1875-80. 

D.  B. — Unidentified.  Late  period  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  lock  by 
Henry  Parker. 

DEBOLT,  Henry— Established  about  1852  at  Boothsville,  W.  Va.  Shop 
burned  and  he  moved  to  Mt.  Morris,  Green  Co.,  Pa.  Later  moved 
to  Mapletown  and  became  associated  with  Barney  Engle,  whose 
apprentice  he  may  have  been.  Continued  making  fine  rifles  after 
Engle's  death  until  the  breech-loading  era. 

American  Gun  Makers  47 

D.  C.  &  CO. — Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Percussion  rifle  locks. 

DEASHNER — Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  percussion  over-and-under  rifles  and 
mule-ear  rifles. 

DEBERIERE,  Henry — Also  Debarrier.  Mulberry  Ward,  Philadelphia, 
Pa.,  1769-74. 

DECHARD,  Jacob — Also  spelled  Decherd,  Dechert,  Dickert,  Deschard, 
Deckert  and  Digert.  Philadelphia,  1732;  Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  and 
after  1753,  Lancaster  County,  1777-82. 

DECKERT,  Jacob — Kentucky  rifles.  Mentioned  in  History  of  Lan- 
caster, Pa.,  as  gun-maker  "with  40  years  experience"  in  the  year 
of  1795.  Same  as  Dechard,  Jacob  or  same  family?  Possibly 
identical  with  Dickert,  Jacob,  musket  maker  to  State  of  Penn- 

DEEDS,  Henry — Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Made  finished 
rifle  barrels. 

DEEDS,  H.  W. — Reading,  Penna.  Maker  of  heavy  barrel  .80  caliber 
flintlock  goose  gun. 

DEEDS,   W. — Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles  and  smooth-bores. 

DEFIBAUGH,  Dave — Southern  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.  Son  of  William, 
brother  of  Milton. 

DEFIBAUGH,  L.— Bedford,  Pa.,  1871. 

DEFIBAUGH,  Milton— Everett  Borough,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1860.  Son 
of  William,  brother  of  Dave. 

DEFIBAUGH,   William— Monroe   Township,   Bedford   Co.,   Pa.,    1850. 

DeHAVEN,  Hugh — Also  Dehaven.  Assistant  to  Peter  De  Haven, 
Superintendent  of  the  State  Gun  Factory  at  French  Creek,  Pa., 

DeHAVEN,  Peter— Also  Dehaven.  Before  and  after  1769-79.  With 
Benjamin  Rittenhouse  established  the  State  Gun-lock  Factory 
at  Philadelphia  for  the  State  of  Pennsylvania.  Later  the  factory 
was  expanded  to  include  gun  manufacture.  About  Dec.  12,  1776, 
on  the  approach  of  the  British  to  Trenton,  the  shops  were 
moved  to  French  Creek,  Chester  Co.,  near  Valley  Forge,  and 
later  again  to  Hummelstown.  The  State  Gun  Factory  was  dis- 
continued in  December,  1778,  and  Peter  DeHaven  applied  for 
the  position  of  Wagon  Master  in  January,  1779,  in  view  of  the 
loss  of  his  position  at  the  factory.  He  was  appointed  Health 
Officer  for  the  Port  of  Philadelphia  on  March  12,  1779.  See 
Pennsylvania  State  Gun  Factory. 

Four  brothers  of  the  DeHaven  family,  Jacob,  Samuel, 
Edward  and  Peter,  emigrated  from  France  to  America  in  the 
first  part  of  the  18th  Century,  and  settled  in  Pennsylvania,  in 
Montgomery  and  Chester  Counties,  where  they  bought  land 
for  vineyards,  tanneries  and  "plants  for  making  muskets." 
Among  the  purchases  was  a  tract  of  land  on  which  the  Village 
of  Centre  Square  was  laid  out,  which  had  been  sold  by  Rees 
Thomas  and  Anthony  Morris  to  Peter  de  Haven,  in  1730. 

In  view  of  the  passage  of  years,  probabilities  are  that  Peter 
de  Haven,  the  superintendent  of  the  State  Gun-lock  Factory  was 
the  son  of  one  of  the  DeHaven  brothers. 

DEHUFF,   Abraham — Lancaster   Borough,   Lancaster   Co.,   Pa.,   1779. 

DEHUFF,  Henry — Also  Dehulf.  Lancaster,  Pa.,  musket  maker.  Con- 
tracted with  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  for  500  Charleville  pat- 
tern muskets  on  April  17,  1801.  Petitioner  to  the  7th  Congress 

48  American  Gun  Makers 

on  Jan.  28,  1803,  for  the  non-removal  of  import  duties  on  arms. 
In  association  with  Peter  Brong  and  Abraham  Henry  proposed 
July  13,  1801,  to  furnish  the  State  of  Virginia  with  7,075  stands 
of  arms  at  $11.00  per  stand  and  1,000  pair  of  pistols  at  $15.00 
per  pair,  delivery  at  Lancaster  in  three  years.  No  record  of  the 
contract  being  awarded. 

On  Dec.  9,  1807,  DeHuff,  in  association  with  Jacob  Dickert 
and  Peter  Gonter,  contracted  with  Tench  Coxe,  Purveyor  of 
Public  Supplies  for  600  rifles. 

DEISINGER— Phila.,  Pa. 

DELANEY — Sussex  Co.,  N.  J.  Over-under  percussion  rifles. 

DELANEY,  Nelson— Reading,  Berks  Co.,  Pa,  about  1845-72.  Half- 
stock  percussion  hunting  rifle. 

DELLET,  Peter— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

DELONG,  Ebenezer — Parishville,  N.  Y.;  percussion  rifles. 

DELVEY,  John — Gill,  Mass.  Heavy  percussion  match  rifle. 

DEMING,  H. — Unlocated.  Cherry  full-stock,  octagonal  barrel,  flint- 
lock Kentucky  rifle. 

"an  arsenal  where  they  make  a  great  many  small-arms."  Equip- 
ment reported  Feb.  16,  1864,  to  have  been  moved  to  the  Con- 
federate States  Armory  at  Columbus,  Ga. 

DEMSTER,  B. — Zanesville,  Muskegum  Co,  Ohio. 

DeMUTH,  S. — Pennsylvania.  Over-under,  flintlock  and  percussion 
Kentucky  type,  swivel  breech  rifles  of  fine  workmanship.  Flint- 
lock rifle  marked  "DEMUTH*". 

DENNISON — Haverhill,  Mass,  percussion  period. 

DENSLANS  (or  Denslars),  R. — Unlocated.  Half  stock  percussion 
Plains  rifle,  brass  and  German  silver  mounted;  Remington  barrel, 
converted  H.  &  W.  Aston  lock. 

DENSLOW  &  CHASE— Hartford,  Conn,  about  1847.  (Slate  &  Brown 
Shop.)  Made  1,000  barrels  and  cylinders  for  Model  1847,  Whitney- 
ville  Colt  revolvers  on  sub-contract. 

DEPREZ,  J.  M.  &  CO. — Unidentified  5-shot  cartridge  revolver. 

DeREINER,  Michael— Lancaster,  Pa,  before  and  after  1773-77.  Ken- 
tucky rifles  and  muskets  to  Committee  of  Safety.  Excused  by 
the  Executive  Council  from  performance  of  military  duties  Dec. 
5,  1777,  for  the  making  of  arms  for  the  State  of  Pennsylvania, 
in  the  employ  and  under  direction  of  William  Henry  I. 

DERINGER,  Henry,  Sr.— Richmond,  Va.  17— to  1806,  then  Phila- 
delphia, Pa.  Colonial  gunsmith  of  German  descent,  maker  of 
Kentucky  rifles.  Father  of  Henry  Deringer.  Listed  in  Frankford 
Township,  Philadelphia  Co,  in  1769. 

DERINGER,  Henry — Son  of  Henry  Deringer,  Sr,  Colonial  gunsmith, 
maker  of  Kentucky  rifles.  Young  Henry  was  born  Oct.  26,  1786, 
at  Easton,  Pa,  and  as  a  youth  was  apprenticed  to  a  firearm  maker 
at  Richmond,  Va,  where  he  made  rifles  and  other  firearms,  until 
he  settled  in  Philadelphia  in  1806,  and  established  an  arms  manu- 
facturing plant  of  his  own. 

He  is  known  to  have  made  martial  pistols  of  1808  pattern 
and  later  obtained  the  following  contracts  in  addition  to  a  con- 
tract of  July  23,  1819,  the  details  of  which  are  not  available: 
March  17,  1814—?  Model  1814  rifles. 

American  Gun  Makers  49 

April  3,  1821—2,000  rifles  at  $15.50  each 
Aug.  28,  1823—3,000  rifles  at  $14.50  each. 

December,  1828 — 600  "old  pattern"  rifles,  ("common  rifles,"  Model 
1817),  later  changed  to  400  muskets. 
Nov.  7,  1837—2,500  rifles  for  Indians  at  $13.50  each. 
March  7,  1840 — 6,000  rifles  at  $14.50  each.  Delivery  over  5  years. 
The  Deringer  Armory  also  made  Navy  box-lock  Model  1843 
pistols  and  later  became  well  known  for  the  small  percussion 
pistols  manufactured  by  the  firm,  one  of  which  was  used  by 
Booth  to  assassinate  Lincoln. 

The  factory  was  located  for  many  years  on  Front  Street  in 
Philadelphia.  In  1819  Henry  Deringer  is  listed  at  370  N.  Front. 

Deringer  was  content  with  the  percussion  system  and  stub- 
bornly refused  to  manufacture  breech-loaders,  which  he  despised. 
He  died  in  1868,  and  not  many  years  after  his  death  his  factory 
went  out  of  existence. 

DERINGER,  J. — Phila.,  Pa.  Imitation  Deringer  derringer  pistols  al- 
leged to  have  been  made  by  former  employees  of  Henry  Deringer 
to  order  of  A.  J.  Plate  of  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  Deringer  agent, 
who  was  unable  to  receive  adequate  stocks  of  genuine  Deringer 

DERR,  John— Lancaster  and  Oley  Valley,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  1810-1831. 
Extensive  maker  of  flintlock  and  early  percussion  Kentucky  rifles 
and  rifled  Kentucky  pistols;  a  flintlock  rifle  dated  1831. 

DESVERNEYS— Charleston,  S.  C.  Maker  of  a  double  barrel,  flintlock 
shotgun  of  plain  but  fine  workmanship.  Top  of  left  barrel  marked 
in  gold  inlay  "DESVERNEYS  CHARLESTON."  Under  breech 
appears  "AMERICA  FRISE"  .  .  .  and  fleur-de-lys;  also 
"FEPEIOFF  TORDU"  and  "P-I."  The  locks  are  marked  outside 
"DESVERNEYS"  in  script  and  inside  "P-I."  Though  American 
made,  shows  strong  French  influence. 

DETERER,  Adam— Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  1774-77.  Musket  maker 
to  Committee  of  Safety.  Excused  by  the  Executive  Council  Dec. 
5,  1777,  from  military  duties,  for  the  making  of  arms  for  the 
State  of  Pennsylvania,  in  the  employ  and  under  direction  of 
William  Henry  I. 

DETROIT  RIFLE  CO.— See  Heal  Rifle  Co. 

DETWILER,  Anthony— Woodbury  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1870. 

DETWILER,  Chris— Bellville,  Pa.  Late  Kentucky  rifles. 

DEVANE,  James— New  Hanover  County,  N.  C.  Served  the  State  as 
arms  maker  for  one  year  from  June,  1776,  then  re-entered  the 
military  service.  Born  Aug.  1,  1757,  active  until  1832. 

DEVANE,  John— Also  DeVane.  With  Richard  Herring  established 
a  Public  Gun  Factory  authorized  by  Act  of  April  24,  1776,  in 
the  Wilmington  District,  North  Carolina.  After  production  of 
some  one  hundred  long  arms  the  factory  was  destroyed  by  Tory 

DEVAUX,  F. — Maker  of  a  half  stock  plains  or  Indian  rifle  of  in- 
different quality.  Barrel  stamped  "F.  DEVAUX"  and  held  to  stock 
only  by  the  ramrod  and  a  wood  screw  at  tang.  Lock  marked 

DEVENDORF,  Louis— Cedarville,  N.  Y.,  percussion  target  rifles. 

DEWARSON,  R.— Boston,  Mass.,  1847. 

DEWEY,  Ebenezer — Amber,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles  and  rifle  scopes, 
(Also  made  clocks  and  musical  instruments.) 

50  American  Gun  Makers 

DEWEY,  Samuel — Hebron,  Conn.,  1775-76,  musket-barrel  and  bayonet 
maker  to  Committee  of  Safety.  Petitioned  for  payment  for  46 
gun  barrels  21  bayonets  made  to  May  15,  1776. 

DEWITT,  D.  G. — Elmira,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  half  stock,  brass  trim  per- 
cussion smooth  bore,  sporting  gun. 

DEWITT,  W.  P. — Elmira,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period.  Over-under  rifle- 

D.  G. — Barrel  marking  of  a  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  of  about  1800. 

D.  G.  &  CO. — Cincinnati,  Ohio,  percussion  period. 

DICK,  Major  Charles — With  Col.  Fielding  Lewis,  operator  of  an 
Arsenal  at  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  for  the  manufacture  of  small 
arms  to  equip  Continental  Line  regiments  raised  in  Virginia. 
Fielding  Lewis  and  Charles  Dick  were  appointed  Commissioners 
to  build  and  operate  the  Government  Gun  Factory  of  the  Com- 
monwealth of  Virginia,  by  the  Second  Virginia  Revolutionary 
Convention  Commissioners,  in  July  1775. 

DICKENS,  Fowler— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  Lilley  Alley,  in 

DICKENS,  John— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  31  New  Market, 
in  1829. 

DICKENSON,  John— Russell  Co.,  Va.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  His 
slave  succeeded  him  in  business. 

DICKERMAN — Unknown,   1886.  Hammerless  single  barrel  shotgun. 

DICKERT,  Jacob— Lancaster  Borough,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1779-1803. 
Musket  maker;  in  association  with  Mathew  Llewellin,  contracted 
on  April  17,  1801,  with  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  for  1,000 
Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets.  One  of  the  petitioners 
to  the  7th  Congress,  on  Jan.  28,  1803,  for  non-removal  of  import 
duties  on  arms. 

Jacob  Dickert  in  association  with  Peter  Gonter  and  John 
Groff,  contracted  for  "rifle  guns"  in  1792,  $3,200.00  being  paid 
on  account.  On  Dec.  9,  1807,  Jacob  Dickert  in  association  with 
Peter  Gonter  and  Henry  DeHuff,  contracted  with  Tench  Coxe, 
Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  for  600  rifles. 

DICKINSON— Erie,  Pa.,  active  as  late  as  1900;  Negro  gunsmith. 

DICKINSON,  E.  L.— Springfield,  Mass.  Rim  fire  revolvers.  (Connected 
with  J.  &  L.  Dickinson?) 

DICKINSON,  J.  &  L.— Springfield,  Mass.  Rim-fire  pistols  and  Sterling 
Bull  Dog  revolvers. 

DICKSON,  M.  &  GILMORE,  J.— Louisville,  Ky.,  1840's  and  1850's. 
Moses  Dickson.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

DICKSON,  NELSON  &  CO.— Makers  of  Confederate  shoulder  arms, 
1862-65.  Made  Mississippi  type  (Model  1841)  rifles  and  muzzle 
loading  carbines.  Furnished  the  State  of  Alabama  645  Mississippi 
rifles  between  Oct.  1,  1863  and  Nov.  1,  1864.  Also  known  as 
Shakanoosa  Arms  Mfg.  Co.  The  firm  consisted  of  Owen  O.  Nelson, 
Tuscumbia,  Ala.,  attorney,  then  Judge  for  Court  of  Common 
Pleas;  William  Dickson,  planter  and  extensive  land  owner  in 
Tennessee  Valley,  Ala.,  and  Dr.  Lewis  Sadler  of  Leighton,  Ala., 
an  elderly  physician  who  furnished  considerable  financial  aid. 

The  plant  was  originally  located  at  west  end  of  Tennessee 
Valley,  at  Dickson,  Ala.,  about  twenty  miles  west  of  Tuscumbria, 
on  the  Memphis,  Charleston  R.R.  (now  Southern).  After  fall  of 
Ft.  Henry  and  gain  of  control  of  Tennessee  River  by  Union  forces, 

American  Gun  Makers  51 

the  plant  was  moved  for  greater  safety  to  Rome,  Ga.,  thence  to 
Adairsville,  Ga.,  and  finally  in  1863  to  Dawson,  Terrill  County, 
Ga.,  where  it  operated  until  the  end  of  the  War.  The  shops, 
foundry  and  other  buildings  of  the  plant  at  Dawson  occupied 
27  acres  on  the  Central  of  Georgia  R.R.  Some  work  was  done  by 
sub-contractors,  one  of  whom  had  a  machine  shop  at  Hopwell, 
Ark.,  opposite  Memphis. 

After  the  War,  in  1866,  Judge  Nelson  and  his  associates 
acquired  the  properties  of  the  firm  and  under  the  name  of 
Dawson  Manufacturing  Company  went  into  manufacture  of 
builders  supplies  and  passenger  and  freight  railroad  cars.  In  1885 
the  property  was  sold  to  Dawson  Works.  In  1929  one  of  the 
warehouses  still  had  a  good  many  of  the  unfinished  walnut 
gun  stocks,  leftovers  from  arms  manufacturing  period. 

DICKSON,  William— See  Dickson,  Nelson  &  Co. 

DIEMAR,  R.— Taunton   (Mass.  or  Minn.?).  Horn  inlaid,  half  stock, 

German  style,  target  rifle  marked  "R.  DIEMAR  TAUNTON"  on 

barrel  and  "R.  DIEMAR"  on  lock. 

DIEMER,  I. — Taunton,  Mass.  Maker  of  a  light  weight,  muzzle  load- 
ing, percussion,  target  rifle.  Marked  "I.  DIEMER"  on  lock. 

DIESBOCK,  John — (Probably  same  as  Dieschbach  or  Disbock,  prob- 
ably also  Dresbach).  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

DIESINGER — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Full  maple  stock  muzzle  loading  per- 
cussion rifle  marked  on  barrel  "DIESINGER  PHILADA."  Lock 

DIETS — Pennsylvania,  Kentucky  rifles. 

DIETTRICH,  J.  F.— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  1840-60.  Famous  maker  of  Buffalo 

DIFFENDERFER,  John  and  Michael— Earl  Township,  Lancaster  Co., 
Pa.,  1779. 

DIFFENDORF,  Lewis— Cedarville,  N.  Y.  Late  Kentucky  rifles. 

DIKE — Bridgewater,  Mass.,  Revolutionary  War  period. 

DILLON,  James— Bedford  Borough,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1844. 

DIMICK  &  FOLSOM— See  H.  E.  Dimick. 

DIMICK,  H.  E.— Born  in  Vermont.  Established  in  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  in 
1849,  at  42  North  Main  Street.  Became  associated  with  H.  Folsom, 
the  firm  becoming  Dimick  &  Folsom.  Later  changed  again  to  H. 
E.  Dimick  &  Co.  Active  1849-73,  died  in  August,  1874.  Percussion 
derringers.  Percussion  revolvers  bearing  his  name  were  manu- 
factured for  him.  Probably  by  Manhattan  Firearms  Co. 

DIMOND,  Levi — South  Fork,  near  Johnstown,  Penna.  Full  stock  per- 
cussion rifle. 

DINGLER,  J.— Easton,  Pa.  Curly  maple,  fullstock,  flintlock  Kentucky 

DINSNION,  John— Gunsmith.  404  No.  Third,  Phila.,  Pa.  1819. 

DISBOCK— Pennsylvania,  Kentucky  rifles. 

DISH,  R. — New  York,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

DITTRICH,  J.  P.— Mobile,  Ala.  Lock  marking  of  a  Confederate 

DIXIE  WORKS— Canton,  Miss.  Said  to  have  made  rifles  for  the  Con- 
federacy. On  July  18,  1863  the  Federals  destroyed  5  locomotives, 
30  cars  of  all  kinds,  2  turn-tables,  13  railroad  buildings,  includ- 

52  American  Gun  Makers 

ing  engine-house  for  7  engines,  with  repair  shops  filled  with  fine 
machinery  attached;  1  machine-shop,  depots,  offices,  &c,  300  feet 
of  trestle  and  bridge  work,  and  2  miles  of  rails  burned  and  bent. 

DIXON,  C.  M. — Unlocated.  Silver  inlaid,  curly  maple  halfstocked 
percussion  rifle  with  Truitt  Bros.  &  Co.  lock. 

DIXON,  W. — Adams,  N.  Y.,  silver  mounted  over-under,  percussion 

D.  K. — Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle,  stock  finely  inlaid  with 
ivory,  silver,  and  brass;  forestock  in  two  sections. 

D.  L.  G. — Initials  of  D.  Le  Gro,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within  years 

DODT,  F. — Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle  maker. 

DOELL,  Frederick  G. — 11  Dock  square,  Boston,  Mass.  Born  in  Duchy 
of  Saxony,  Germany,  Sept.  9,  1842,  where  he  was  apprenticed  to 
the  gunsmith  trade  in  1856.  Emigrated  to  U.  S.  in  1872  and  after 
working  for  Wm.  Schaefer,  in  Boston  until  1884,  opened  his  own 
shop  making  custom  arms  and  gun  stocks.  Succeeded  by  son, 
Frederick  H. 

DOHERTY  &  EVANS— Petersburg,  Va.  Makers  of  a  walnut  half 
stock,  German  silver  trim,  back  action  lock,  double  set  triggers, 
percussion  rifle.  Also  of  half  stock,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  of 
good  workmanship. 

DOHERTY,  J. — Petersburg,  Va.  Maker  of  a  half  stock,  Kentucky 
type,  percussion  rifle  with  double  set  triggers,  and  percussion 
shotgun.   (Same  as  Doherty  of  Doherty  &  Evans  above?) 

DOLBY — Vicinity  of  Morgantown,  West  Va.  Percussion  rifles. 

DOLL,  Jacob — York,  Pa.,  musket  and  rifle  maker,  associated  with 
Henry  Pickell  and  Conrad  Welshanze  in  a  contract  of  April  17, 
1801,  with  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  for  1,000  Charleville 
pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets. 

Contractor  of  1792  for  .50  coliber,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles 
with  33%  inch  barrels  with  muzzles  turned  down  to  take  a 
bayonet,  at  $10.00  each. 

DONACK,  George — New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 

DONHAM,  Lewis  N.— "L.  N.  D."  Greensboro,  Greene  Co.,  Pa.;  also 
West  Virginia.  Born  April  1,  1833,  between  Greensboro  and 
Mapletown.  Adopted  initial  N.  after  maturity.  In  early  1870's 
began  apprenticeship  under  his  uncle,  Barney  Engle,  Greens- 
boro, along  with  E.  L.  Pancost.  Moved  to  Bowlby  (10  miles 
south  of  Morgantown),  West  Virginia.  Made  full  and  half  stock 
guns;  expert  at  engraving,  especially  in  German  silver.  Bought 
most  of  his  barrel  blanks,  locks  and  triggers  in  Pittsburgh,  Pa., 
but  made  and  case-hardened  his  own  tubes.  Moved  to  West 
Virginia  in  1890;  sold  out  and  returned  in  1900,  then  did  some 
arms  work  until  his  death  August  6,  1902.  Two  German  silver 
mounted  Kentuckies  and  a  fine,  silver  mounted,  superposed 
double  barrel  revolving  rifle,  known.  Used  script  initials  "L.  N. 
D."  Taught  school  for  twenty-odd  years.  Had  been  married  twice 
and  fathered  14  children. 

DONN,  James  &  Bro.— Canton,  111.,  1880-84. 

DOOLEY — Scranton,  Pa.,  percussion  period. 

DOOLITTLE — Homerville,  Ohio,  percussion  period. 

DOOLITTLE,  Isaac — Worked  on  repair  of  public  arms  for  Connecticut, 

American  Gun  Makers  53 

DOOLITTLE,  Milton— Homerville,  Medina  Co.,  gunsmith,  1857-1897. 
Born  in  Coatsville,  N.  Y.  1837.  Came  to  Ohio  in  1880.  Died  1904. 

DOPLIER,  Robert — Wheeling,  W.  Va.,  percussion  period. 

DORAN,  J.  E.— Ashtabula,  O.;  working  in  1910. 

DORCHESTER— Colonial  period,  1633-37. 

DORLEY — Scranton,  Pa.  Percussion  period. 

DORMAN,  Robert — Belltown,  Mifflin  Co.,  Pa.  Late  Kentucky  rifles. 

DORN— Huntington,  Pa.,  1830;  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

DOUGLAS,  D. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

DOUGLAS,  J. — Huntington,  Ky.  Maker  of  an  inlaid,  curly  maple 
stock,  percussion  rifle. 

DOUGLAS,  J. — Tyrone,  Pa.  Late  maker  of  fine  Kentucky  rifles;  one 
numbered  28. 

DOUGLAS,  Jacob— East  Springfield,  Jefferson  Co.,  Ohio.  1830-40. 

DOUGLAS,  John — Connecticut  arms  maker  of  Colonial  and  Revolu- 
tionary War  period.  Repaired  arms  for  the  Connecticut  Commit- 
tee of  Safety,  1777-78.  Gooseneck  hammer,  three  banded,  .75 
caliber  musket  known,  equipped  with  42  Vs  inch  British  Brown 
Bess  type  barrel  (formerly  pin  fastened)  marked  on  top 
"DOVGLAS."  Iron  furniture  except  brass  butt  plate. 

DOUGLAS,  Robert— East  Springfield,  Jefferson  Co.,  Ohio,  1830. 

DOUGLAS,  Thomas — Maple  full  stock,  brass  patchbox,  octagon  barrel 
barrel  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  marked  "THOMAS  DOUGLAS" 
on  barrel  and  "T.  DOUGLAS"  on  engraved  lock.  Probably  the 
same  as  Thomas  Douglass. 

DOUGLAS,  Thompson— East  Springfield,  Jefferson  Co.,  Ohio,  1850. 

DOUGLASS,  D. — Unlocated.  Curly  maple,  full-stock  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifles.   (Same  as  D.  Douglas?). 

DOUGLASS,  John— Huntington,  Pa.,  1830. 

DOUGLASS,  John — Jonesboro,  Tenn.  Percussion  rifles. 

DOUGLASS,  Thomas— Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with 
silver  inlays. 

DOULAR,  John — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  174  Coates, 
in  1829. 

DOW,  Eli  S.— Dayton,  Ohio,  1874-77. 

DOWLER,  John — Gunsmith.  N.W.  corner  Green  and  Rose  Alley, 
Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

DOWNEY,  John— Jackson  Co.,  Ohio,  1851-76. 

DOWNEY,  Nathaniel— Jackson  Co.,  Ohio,   1869-86. 

DOWNY,  M. — Harrisonville,  Ohio.  Full  curly  maple  stock,  brass 
mounted,  heavy  octagon  barrel  percussion  rifle. 

D.  P.— Initials  of  Daniel  Pettibone,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms,  1808- 

D.  P. — Initials  stamped  inside  the  lock  plate  and  under  barrel  of  a 

fine   Penna.   type,    relief   carved,    flintlock   Kentucky   rifle   circa 

DOYLE,  John — Lancaster,  Pa.,   1784.  Plain,  neat  flintlock  Kentucky 

DRAKE,   Dolphus — Adolphus   Drake,   gunsmith   of  Everett,   Bedford 

Co.,  Pa.,  celebrated  his  one  hundredth  birthday  Aug.   18,   1952. 

He  was  born  near  Cumberland,  Md.,  Aug.   18,   1852  and  settled 

54  American  Gun  Makers 

in  the  Everett  area  in  1873.  Had  been  miner,  tanner  carpenter 
and  as  a  sideline  repaired  guns  and  made  muzzle-loading  per- 
cussion rifles. 

DRAKE,  Malherd— 35  Water  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1817. 

DRASHER,  S. — Unlocated.  Over-under,  swivel  breech,  percussion, 
Kentucky  type  rifle  marked  "S.  DRASHER."  Period  about  1840- 

DREPERT,  H. — Same  as  Henry  Dreppert,  Drepperd  or  Drippard.  In- 
side lock  marking  of  a  U.  S.  Model  1795  musket.  Also  lock  mark- 
ing of  a  Model  1808  type  flintlock  pistol  by  I.  Guest. 

DREPPARD,  John— Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1830.  May  be 
same  as  John  Drepperd. 

DREPPERD,  Andrew— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

DREPPERD,  Henry — Also  spelled  Drepert,  Dreppert  and  Drippard. 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  1775  and  later.  See  Drepert. 

DREPPERD,  John — South  Mulberry  and  West  King  Streets,  Lan- 
caster, Pa.,  1857.  Also  listed  as  John  Dreppard  at  the  same  ad- 
dress in  1869-70.  Maker  of  cherry  wood  stock,  long  barreled, 
percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  Jos.  Golcher  lock. 

DREPPERT,  Henry — Also  spelled  Drepert,  Drepperd  or  Drippard. 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  1775  and  later.  See  Drepert. 

DRESBACH,  John — Pennsylvania,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  See  Dies- 

DRESBACH,  John  Jr.— Mifflinburg,  Pa.  Probably  son  of  John  Dres- 
bach  above. 

DREYAC,  A.— 36  Light  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1817. 

DRIGGS-SEABURY  ORDNANCE  CO.— Utica,  N.  Y.,  World  War  I 
arms.  Associated  with  Savage  Arms  Co. 

DRIPPARD,  Henry — Also  spelled  Dreppert  and  Drepperd.  Lancaster, 
Pa.,  1775.  Kentucky  rifles. 

DRIPPARD,  F.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1767-73. 

DRISBACH,  G.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

DRICOLL— Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifles. 

DRISCOLL,  J.  B.— Springfield,  Mass.  Maker  of  single-shot,  metallic 
cartridge  pistols  with  ratchet  ejector  under  barrel. 

D.  T. — Initials  of  Lieut.  Daniel  Tyler,  Ordnance  Dept.  U.  S.  Army, 
Chief  Inspector  of  arms  made  at  National  Armories  after  1831. 
Had  been  stock  inspector  in  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

DUDLEY,  Geo.— 2002  Mission  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  Gunsmith, 

DUERR,  Christian— Fine  18th  century  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with 
Roman  nose  stock,  gooseneck  hammer. 

DUFF,  Geo.  J.— Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Member  of  firm  Whitmore,  Wolff  & 
Co.,  later  Whitmore,  Wolff,  Duff  &  Co. 

DUFORT,  A.— Charleston,  S.  C,  1867. 

DUHART,  A. — Gunsmith  and  lightning  rod  maker.  Elysian  Fields, 
New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

DULL,  Jacob— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1802. 

DUMOND — Unidentified.  Half  stock  percussion  rifle. 

DUNCAN  &  BROS.— Philadelphia,  Penna.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

DUNGAN — East  Tennessee.  Kentucky  flintlock  rifles. 

American  Gun  Makers  55 

DUNHAM,  A.  C. — Under  hammer  percussion  pistol. 

DUNKLE,  William — Pennsylvania.  Percussion  rifles. 

DUNKLE,  G.— Path  Valley,  Franklin  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1790.  Long, 
ornate  Kentucky  flintlock  rifles. 

DUNLAP— Salisburg,  N.  H. 

DUNLAP,  G. — Percussion  period.  Owner  of  Pennsylvania  Rifle  Works. 

DUNLAP,  R. — Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Percussion  rifles.  Perhaps  related  to 
G.  Dunlap  of  Penna.  Rifle  Works. 

DUNMEYER,  Jonathan— Sipesville,  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.  Early  19th 
Century.  Light,  half  stock  boy's  rifle  with  silver  inlays  and  brass 
patch  box  and  Bedford  Co.  percussion  lock.  Also  made  plain, 
crude  rifles. 

DUNMIER,  J.— Penna.  Fine,  slow-twist  rifles. 

DUNN,  James— Swan  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1832-35. 

DUNSETH,  A.— St.  Louis,  Mo.;  making  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  in 

DUNSETH,  Andrew— Gunsmith  sent  to  Fort  Washington,  Ohio,  by 
the  Federal  Government  prior  to  1790.  At  Zanesville,  Ohio,  1804. 
Was  also  a  silversmith. 

DUNWICK,  William— Also  Dunwicke.  Chester  County,  Pa.,  Musket 
maker  to  Committee  of  Safety.  Forty  firelocks  made  and  de- 
livered Jan.  3,  1776.  William  Dunwick  was  one  of  the  petitioners, 
representing  Philadelphia  gun  makers,  complaining  to  the  Com- 
mittee of  Safety  in  November,  1776,  against  the  high  cost  of 
materials  and  labor  entering  into  arms  making,  and  quoting 
advances  in  prices  within  one  year,  since  1775. 

DURBEE,  James— New  Bedford,  Mass.  Active  in  period  1828-1868. 
Veteran  lance  maker  (for  whaling  purposes)  and  during  a  forty 
year  period  made  58,517  of  them  by  actual  record. 

DURHAM  IRON  WORKS— Easton,  Pa.,  prior  to  1783.  Owned  and 
operated  by  Richard  Backhouse. 

DURKEE,  J.  H. — Lebanon,  N.  H.  Percussion  sporting  and  heavy  target 

DURKEL,  G.  F.  S.— St.  Louis,  Mo.  At  No.  32  3rd  St.  in  1864. 

DURR,  Christian — Penna.  rifle  maker.  Arrived  Phila.,  Sept.  27,  1752 
from  Rotterdam,  Holland.  Served  in  Penna.  rifle  regiment  in 
Revolution.  Underside  of  one  of  his  rifles  stamped  "CHD." 

DURST— Unidentified,  1885. 

DURYEA  &  HEYER— Makers  of  a  Kentucky  type,  full  curly  maple 
stock,  brass  trim,  light  weight,  single  barrel,  percussion  fowling 
pieces,  rifles;  underhammer  rifles.  Employed  W.  W.  Whitmore 
and  Tarrington. 

DUTTON,  John  B. — Jaffey,  New  Hampshire,  rifle  maker  well  known 
locally  for  accuracy  of  his  arms.  Born  at  Dutton  homestead, 
Jaffey,  Jan.  16,  1820.  Moved  to  East  Jaffey  Village  in  1876.  Died 
March  22,  1881. 

DWARA — Pennsylvania;  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

DWIGHT,  H.  D.— Belchertown,  Mass.,  1847. 

DWIGHT,  Spencer— West  Hartford,  Conn. 

56  American  Gun  Makers 


EAGLE  ARMS  CO.— New  York  City.  Incorporated  Nov.  20,  1865, 
for  the  manufacture  of  the  Eagle  revolver  made  under  patents 
of  Willard  C.  Eliss,  No.  24,726,  July  12,  1859,  and  N.  White,  No. 
39,318,  July  21,  1863,  which  were  taken  over  by  the  Eagle  Arms 
Company  from  the  Plant  Manufacturing  Co.,  who  had  manu- 
factured the  Plant  revolver  under  the  same  patents. 

EAGLE  MFG.  CO.— Eagleville,  Mansfield,  Conn.,  Makers  of  Spring- 
field rifle  muskets  marked  "U.  S.  Eagleville"  during  the  Civil 
War.  Contract  of  Dec.  26,  1861,  for  25,000  at  $20.00  each  of  which 
20,000  were  delivered. 

EAGLE  RIFLE  WORKS— Percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  name  on 
barrel,  H.  Elwell  lock,  and  name  Jos.  Golcher  inside  cast  brass 
patch  box  cover. 

EALER,  Lewis  W.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

E.  A.  M. — Initials  of  E.  A.  May,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within  years 

EARL,  Thomas— Leicester,  Mass.,  1770-76 

EARLE,  Elias — Centerville,  S.  C.  Contracted  with  government  on 
Feb.  16,  1815,  for  10,000  muskets  at  $15.00  per  stand  to  be  de- 
livered at  Centerville,  S.  C.  Earle  having  been  elected  to  Con- 
gress, the  contract  was  taken  over  by  Adam  Carruth  on  Nov.  14, 

EARLY,  Jacob — Atcheson,  Kansas  gunsmith  and  frontiersman.  Born 
in  Tennessee  in  1816;  trapped  in  Rocky  Mountain  area  in  1839; 
served  in  Mexican  War;  was  government  employed  gunsmith  to 
Sac  and  Fox  Indians  in  1853-60  and  opened  his  own  shop  in  1864. 
Died  1886.  Flintlock  rifle  marked  "J.  EARLY." 

EARNEST,  John  &  Peter— Gunsmiths,  cousins,  of  Delmont,  Pa.,  19th 
Century.  Rifles  known  marked  "S.  P.  EARNEST."  Peter  may  be 
Simon  P.  Earnest  whose  grave  is  so  marked  in  the  Delmont 
cemetery.  John  was  born  1827,  died  1904. 

EARNHEART,  Wm.— Unlocated.  Fine  18th  century  Kentucky  rifle 
with  40  inch  barrel,  about  .38  cal.  Engraved,  long  brass  patch- 
box  incised  butt  carving,  silver  inlays.  Name  on  barrel.  Also 
pair  of  Penna.  construction  circa  1812,  flintlock  pistols  marked 
on  barrels  "W*M*EARNHART." 

EARNEY,  C— Unlocated.  Flintlock  rifled  target  pistol. 

EARPS  &  McMAIN— Walnut  full  stock,  German  silver  inlaid,  flint- 
lock (converted  to  percussion)  sporting  musket,  Kentucky  style. 

EASTERN  ARMS  COMPANY— Double  action  pocket  revolvers. 

EASTMAN,  A.  G.— Rochester,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

EASTMAN,  George — Concord,  N.  H.  Percussion  rifles. 

EASTMAN,  J.  I.— Jaffrey,  N.  H.,  1863-1868.  Underhammer  arms,  tele- 
scope-sight match  rifles,  long-barreled  pistols. 

EATON,  D.  S.— Moravia,  N.  Y. 

EATON,  E.  E.— Chicago,  111.  Double  barrel,  hammer,  10  g.  shotgun. 

EATON,  J.— Boston,  Mass.,  1847. 

EATON,  J.— Concord,  N.  H.,  1874-1916. 

EATON  &  KITTRIDGE— 236  Main  St.,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  before  and 
after  1851.  Percussion  rifle  makers. 

American  Gun  Makers  57 

E.  B. — Unidentified.  Script  marking  on  superposed,  percussian  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

EBBERT,  D. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

EBERLE,  A.— 545  Vine  St.,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1861-63. 

EBERLE,  Charles — Phila.  cutler.  Acted  as  inspector  of  sabers,  con- 
tract of  Dec.  9,  1807,  for  2,000  horsemen's  sabers,  awarded  to 
William  Rose  &  Sons,  Blockley  Township,  Phila.,  Pa.,  by  Tench 
Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies. 

EBERLY,  John— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1775-77.  Excused  by  the  Executive 
Council  from  military  duty  Dec.  5,  1777,  for  the  making  of  arms 
for  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  in  the  employ  and  under  direction 
of  William  Henry  I  of  Lancaster. 

EBERSOLE,  W.  H. — Vicinity  of  Duncannon,  Pa.  Gunsmith.  Born  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  1846.  Died  1920. 

EBNER,  Ferdinand — Burlington,  Iowa.  Born  in  Baden,  Germany, 
October  22,  1831,  son  of  Joseph  and  Anna  Zimmerman  Ebner.  In 
1853,  having  served  apprenticeship  in  gunsmith  trade,  on  death  of 
father,  emigrated  with  mother,  three  brothers  and  sister,  to  U.  S. 
Lived  for  a  short  time  in  New  York  City,  then  Newburg-on-the- 
Hudson.  Came  to  Burlington  in  1855,  to  work  for  Mr.  Ebersoll, 
gunsmith,  whom  he  bought  out  a  year  later.  Married  locally  in 
1857  and  later  took  sons  Charles  and  Rollie  into  business,  the 
firm  becoming  F.  Ebner  &  Sons. 

Ferdinand  Ebner  had  reputation  for  fine  work;  octagon  bar- 
rel, heavy,  schuetzen  butt  target  rifle  with  micrometer  sights 
adjustable  for  elevation  and  windage.  Reported  by  Mrs.  Charles 
F.  Ebner:  "I  have  seen  several  of  his  guns  but  didn't  pay  much 
attention,  they  were  single  barrels  (I  think)  &  heavy  with  his 
initial  on  end  of  barrel." 

ECKHART,  H.,  &  FLOHR,  Charles— Sacramento,  Calif.,  after  1870. 
Schuetzen  rifles. 

ECKEL,  Charles— 518  Vine  St.,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1840-1860. 

ECKENRODE,  David— Upper  Amberson,  Pa. 

ECKHART,  Henry  and  William— St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  1863-69. 

ECKLES,  H.— Pennsylvania,  about  1820.  A  53-inch  flintlock  Kentucky 

E.  D.  &  CO. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  a  Model  1795  musket  lockplate. 

EDDY,  James— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1812-14. 

EDGERTON,  H.  S.— German,  N.  Y.  and  Chenango,  N.  Y.,  percussion 

EDGINGTON,  D.— Unlocated.  Beautiful  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  The 
only  Edgington  family  in  the  1790  Pennsylvania  census  was  in 
Washington  County. 

EDMONDS,  J.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

EDGAR  &  SMITH— Wm.  Edgar  and  B.  M.  Smith,  Mineral  Point,  Wis. 
Marking  on  a  percussion  "duckfoot"  revolver  firing  three  shots  at 
a  time. 

EDWARDS,  A.  G.— Corunna,  Mich.,  1869.  Half  stock  percussion  rifle. 

EDWARDS  &  GOODRICH— New  Haven,  Conn.,  musket  makers. 
Executors  and  trustees  for  Eli  Whitney,  deceased.  Musket  con- 
tract of  March  21,  1830,  details  unknown.  Contract  of  Jan.  8, 
1840,  for  7,500  muskets  at  $12.45  per  stand.  Duration  five  years, 
1,500   per  annum.   Edwards   of   the   firm   is   believed  to   be   ex- 

58  American  Gun  Makers 

governor  Edwards,  one  of  the  Whitney  trustees  from  1835  to 

EDWARDS,  H. — Unlocated.  Fancy  inlaid  and  relief  carved  Kentucky 

EFFLEBACH — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  percussion  derringers. 

EGE,  Frederick — Detroit,  Mich.  Percussion  rifles. 

EGGERS,  Samuel— New  Bedford,  Mass.,  about  1840-65. 

EHLERS— Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifles. 

EHRMON,  H. — Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

EICHOLTZ  &  BRO.— 31  Queen  St.,  Lancaster,  Pa.,  flintlock  period 
to  1888. 

EICHOLTZ,  Robert  L.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857  Lancaster  Directory. 

EICHORN,  Charles— Lock  and  gunsmith,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  1848. 

EISTER,  J.— York  County,  Penna.  Revolutionary  War  period.  Skilled 
rifle  maker  of  fine  arms.  Uncle  of  H.  Aultland. 

E.  L. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifle. 

ELDREDGE,  J.  W. — Unidentified.  Making  on  mule-ear  percussion 

ELLER.  H.  O. — Cairo,  111.  Heavy  percussion  match  rifle. 

ELLIOTT,  Mathew  and  Nathan— Kent,  Conn.  Musket  makers.  Con- 
tractors under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  500  Charleville  pattern 
(Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  235  were 
delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

ELLIS,  J.  A. — Canandiagua,  N.  Y.,  percussion  over-under,  mule-ear 

ELLIS,  Reuben— Albany,  N.  Y.  Contracted  July,  1829,  for  500  Hall 
breech-loading  flintlock  rifles.  Failed  on  his  contract.  Maker  of 
flintlock  repeating  rifles  on  sliding  lock  principle  using  S.  North, 
Model  1817  rifles. 

ELLIS,  S.— Unlocated.  1855-60. 

ELLS,  Josiah— Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  about  1854-57.  Maker  of  "Ells"  patent 
pocket  revolver,  patents  of  1854  and  1857. 

ELLSWORTH,  Joseph— Present  Richland  Co.,  Ohio,  1800. 

ELWELL,  H.— Seneca  Co.,  Ohio,  before  1812.  Made  gunlocks  for 

ELWELL,  H.— Pennsylvania.  Though  reported  as  maker  of  a  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle,  probably  was  a  lock  maker  only,  of  late  period 
flintlocks  with  reinforced  hammers  and  roller  frizzens  spring 
bearings  and  of  original  percussion  locks.  Variously  marked  H. 
ELWELL  WARRANTED.  Probably  identical  with  Henry  Elwell 
and  N.  Elwell,  (misread)?  Handsome  Kentucky  pistols  known 
marked  "H.  Elwell"  on  lock  plates. 

ELWELL,  Henry — Unidentified.  Marking  on  the  percussion  lock  of  a 
rifle  by  G.  W.  Harvel  &  Bros.  Elwell  locks  are  also  found  on  rifles 
by  James  Golcher. 

ELWELL,  N. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  lock  of  a  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

ELY,  A.  F.— Mt.  Vernon,  Ohio,  1830-56. 

ELY,  Martin — Springfield,  Mass.,  about  1770-75.  Musket  maker  to 
Committee  of  Safety. 

EMERY,  N.— Chatfield,  Fillmore  Co.,  Minn,  1864-65. 

American  Gun  Makers  59 

EMMES,  Nathaniel — Washington  Street,  South  End,  Boston,  Mass. 
1796-1825.  Advertised  "The  Gunsmith's  Business  carried  on  in 
its  various  branches  with  neatness  and  dispatch." 


ENGLE,  Barney — B.  E.  script  initials.  Greensboro,  Greene  Co.,  Pa. 
Before  and  after  1870.  Maker  of  a  late  percussion  Kentucky 
marked  "B.  E."  with  H.  Elwell  lock.  Taught  the  trade  to  nephew 
Lewis  N.  Donham  and  E.  L.  Pancost. 

ENGLE,  E.  E.— Greensboro,  Greene  Co.,  Pa.  Flintlock  rifles.  Reputed 
to  have  been  the  first  gunsmith  in  Greene  County.  Father  of 
Barney  Engle. 

ENGLEHART,  J.— Nazareth,  Pa.,  about  1830-36.  Rifle  maker,  also 
made  Darling  brass  pepperbox  pistols  marked  E.  Engh. 

ENSLEY,  M.— Unidentified.  Percussion  rifles. 

ENTERPRISE  GUN  WORKS— 136-138  Wood  St.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 
Established  1848  by  Bown  &  Tetley.  In  1862  James  Bown  be- 
came sole  proprietor;  in  1871  his  son  William  H.  Bown  was  ad- 
mitted to  partnership  and  the  firm  became  James  Bown  &  Son, 
until  at  least  1879.  Firm  trade  mark  was  "KILL"  over  a  buck 
deer.  Rifles  bearing  the  Enterprise  Gun  Works  marks  are  known 
marked  "BROWN  &  HIRTH,"  successors  to  James  Bown  &  Son. 
The  following  extracts  from  "Industries  of  Pittsburgh  1879." 
"For  more  than  thirty  years  the  name  of  Mr.  Bown  has  been 
identified  with  the  gun  business  in  the  Iron  City,  The  Enterprise 
Gun  Works  having  been  established  in  1848  by  Bown  &  Tetley. 
In  1862,  Mr.  James  Bown  became  the  sole  proprietor,  and  in 
1871,  Mr.  Wm.  H.  Bown,  his  son,  was  admitted  and  the  firm  be- 
came James  Bown  &  Son,  under  which  style  it  has  continued  to 
the  present  day.  They  occupy  three  floors  of  the  large  double 
store,  30x60,  at  Nos.  136  and  138  Wood  street,  employing  twenty- 
six  skilled  workmen,  and  their  weekly  pay-roll  amounts  to  about 
$275.  Their  stock,  which  is  full  and  complete  in  every  variety  of 
Guns,  Rifles,  Revolvers,  Fishing  tackle,  Sportsmen's  articles  in 
General  .  .  .  While  they  are  large  manufacturers  of  rifles,  Rifle 
Barrels,  Shot  Guns,  etc.,  they  also  deal  extensively  in  the  best 
articles  of  foreign  and  American  make  .  .  .  Mr.  James  Bown  was 
born  in  England  in  1823  and  at  the  age  of  ten  years  came  to  this 
country  with  his  parents,  and  in  1843  became  a  resident  of 
Pittsburgh.  Mr.  Wm.  H.  Bown  was  born  in  the  Iron  City  and 
has  never  lived  in  any  other  place. 

ENTERS,  Lewis — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  inn-keep  and  gun  stock 
manufacturer  at  54  Callowhill,  in  1829. 

ERICHSON,  H. — Houston,  Texas.  Percussion  derringers. 

ERNST,  Jacob— Frederick,  Md.  Working  in  1770,  probably  until  1820. 
Carved,  silver  inlaid  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  engraved, 
hand-forged  lock;  one  rifle  numbered  125. 

ERRIES,  Francois — Gunsmith,  175  Ursulines,  New  Orleans,  La,,  1853. 

E.  S. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  an  over-under,  percussion  rifle. 

E.  S.  A. — Initials  of  E.  S.  Allin,  Master  Armorer  Springfield  Armory. 

Inspected  arms  made  at  Springfield  Armory  in  the  1850's — 60's. 

Inventor  of  the  Allin  breech-block  as  used  on  Springfield  Models 

1865  to  1889. 

ESCHERICH,  Anton,  Ferdinand  and  Francis— Also  Escherick.  Balti- 
more gunsmiths,  brothers,  who  came  to  Maryland  from  Pennsyl- 

60  American  Gun  Makers 

vania  just  before  the  Civil  War.  In  addition  to  making  and  re- 
pairing long  arms  and  pistols,  Anton  ran  a  restaurant  as  a  side 
Line  in  his  shop  on  Baltimore  Street,  near  Greene.  Mr.  Hetrick 
reports  an  A.  Escherich  double  barrel  percussion  pistol  notable 
for  its  exquisite  engraving  and  bas-relief  work. 

ESPICH,  Charles — Agersville,  and  New  Philadelphia,  Tuscarawas  Co., 
Ohio.,  1828. 

ESTABROOK,   J.  M. — Milford,  Mass.,   early  percussion  rifles 

ESTABROOK,  Wm.  W.— Armada,  Mich.,  maker  of  2-barrel,  super- 
posed percussion  rifles. 

E.  T. — Initials  of  Elisha  Tobey,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 
1818-1830.  Inspected  arms  in  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Simeon 
North,  Nathan  Starr  and  Asa  Waters. 

EVANS — Of  Doherty  &  Evans,  Petersburg,  Va.  Makers  of  a  walnut 
half  stock,  German  silver  trim,  back  action  lock,  double  set  trig- 
gers, percussion  rifle. 

EVANS — The  Evans  family,  Pennsylvania  gun  makers  of  Evansburg, 
five  miles  north  of  Valley  Forge,  originally  settled  in  Limerick 
Township,  Pa.  They  intermarried  into  the  Lane  family  of  Lower 
Providence  Township,  who  had  settled  in  that  locality  in  1698. 

EVANS,  Brooke— Hardware  merchant  of  120  High  St.,  Philadelphia, 
Pa.  In  association  with  John  Rogers  (who  owned  the  Valley 
Forge)  on  March  21,  1821,  took  over  the  defunct  contract  of 
July  28,  1817,  for  10,000  muskets  at  $12.25  per  stand,  which  had 
been  awarded  to  Alexander  McRae  of  Richmond,  Va.  Brooke 
Evans  remodelled  the  old  forge  and  iron  works  into  a  gun 
factory,  and  is  known  to  have  delivered  5,730  muskets  by  Dec. 
31,  1823.  These  arms  are  marked  "B.  Evans — Valley  Forge"  in 
two  lines  surrounding  an  eagle.  It  is  believed  that  after  the  con- 
tract was  fulfilled,  the  partnership  was  dissolved,  as  in  1825, 
Rogers  alone  obtained  a  contract  for  5,000  muskets. 

EVANS,  Edward — Musket  maker  of  Evansburg,  Pa.  Associated  with 
James  Evans  in  a  contract  of  May  2,  1801,  with  the  Common- 
wealth of  Pennsylvania  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern  (Model 
1795)  muskets  at  $11.00  per  stand.  See  O.  &  E.  Evans. 

EVANS,  James — Musket  maker  of  Evansburg,  Pa.  Associated  with 
Edward  Evans  in  a  contract  of  May  2,  1801,  with  the  Common- 
wealth of  Pennsylvania  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern  (Model 
1795)  muskets  at  $11.00  per  stand. 

EVANS,  James  E. — Philadelphia  maker  of  percussion  duelling  and 
derringer  type  pistols  and  fine  double  shotguns.  Listed  at  25 
North  2nd  St.,  in  1850,  86  South  St.,  in  1855,  and  at  230  South 
St.,  in  1860-65. 

EVANS,  Owen— Born  in  Limerick  Township,  Pa.,  July  12,  1758.  Son 
of  Thomas  Evans.  Resided  and  made  arms  at  Perkiomen  Bridge, 
Pa.,  (now  Collegeville).  The  barrels  for  his  arms  were  probably 
made  at  Pechin's  Mill,  about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  south  of 
Perkiomen  Bridge.  Had  contract  with  Commonwealth  of  Penn- 
sylvania of  Dec.  7,  1797,  for  1,200  muskets  made  after  the  Charle- 
ville pattern,  to  be  stamped  "CP."  Died  in  1812.  Evansville  was 
named  after  him.  See  O.  &  E.  Evans. 

EVANS,  O.  &  E. — Pennsylvania  musket  makers  Owen  and  Edward 
Evans,  (see  above)  in  partnership,  contractors  on  Oct.  25,  1808, 
for  4,000  Model  1808  muskets,  to  be  delivered  in  a  period  of  five 
years.   Of  these   1,960  are  recorded  to  have  been  delivered  by 

American  Gun  Makers  61 

Oct.  7,  1812.  The  firm  obtained  an  additional  contract  of  Aug. 
14,  1815,  for  25  muskets,  probably  to  close  the  account  of  pre- 
vious contract.  At  this  time  the  firm  was  managed  by  Edward 
Evans,  Owen  having  died  in  1812.  Made  French  M.1805  type 
flintlock  pistols  of  which  a  specimen  was  reported  marked  1814 
on  barrel. 

EVANS,  Thomas— Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1779. 

EVANS,  William  L. — Sixth  child  of  Owen  Evans,  William  L.  Evans 
was  born  May  28,  1797,  at  Evansburg,  Montgomery  Co.,  Pa.  In 
1825,  he  became  associated  with  John  Rogers,  who  had  purchased 
Valley  Forge  in  1814.  William  L.  Evans  made  pistols  patterned 
after  the  Model  1826  North  Navy  arms,  and  on  May  3,  1831,  con- 
tracted for  1,500  muskets  at  $12.45  per  stand,  to  be  delivered  in  a 
period  of  two  years  from  Jan.  1,  1832.  It  is  believed  that  barrels 
mostly  were  made  at  Valley  Forge,  the  rest  of  the  arm  being 
made  at  the  factory  at  Evansburg.  William  L.  Evans  arms  are 
known  marked  "W.  L.  Evans  V.  Forge"  and  "W.  L.  Evans  E. 
Burg"  on  the  lock-plates.  William  Evans  died  Aug.  6,  1861,  and 
is  buried  in  the  family  plot  in  the  old  church-yard  of  St.  James 
Parkiomen  Church  at  Evansburg. 

EVANS  REPEATING  RIFLE  CO.— Mechanic  Falls,  Maine,  about 
1871-80.  Manufacturers  of  the  Evans  repeating  sporting  and  mili- 
tary rifles  and  carbines  using  a  spiral  tube  magazine  extending 
through  the  stock.  The  plant,  which  was  operated  by  Merwin  & 
Hulbert,  ceased  operations  in  1880. 

EVATT,  Columbus— 56  Light  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1840. 

EVATT,  Edward— 35  Light  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1804-1818. 

EVATT,  Ellen,  Mrs.— Baltimore,  Md.,  1842. 

EVATT,  John— Baltimore,  Md.,  1831. 

EVERETT,  Edward— 36  Ellicott  Wharf,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1804. 

EVERSON,  L.— Unidentified.  Maker  of  a  curly  maple  full  stock, 
muzzle-loading,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

EWBANK— See  Strohecker  &  Ewbank. 

F. — Marking  inside  a  Charleville  type  musket  made  without  a  lock 
strap,  believed  by  historical  association  to  have  been  made  by 
Richard   Falley  under  contract  of   1798. 

FAHNESTOCK — Kentucky  percussion  target  rifle.  Hooded  front,  ad- 
justable open  and  peep  rear  sights;  name  on  odd-shaped  lock- 

FAINOT,  F.  &  J.— See  Farnot,  Frank  and  Jacob. 

FAIR,  James— Dayton,  Ohio,  1872-76. 

FAIRBANKS,  A.  B.— Boston,  Mass.,  prior  to  1841.  All  metal  (brass 

frame)  percussion  pistols  and  derringers. 
F.  A.  M. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifle. 

FALLEY,  Richard — Montgomery,  Mass.,  musket  maker,  active  1774- 
1801  and  later.  Contractor  under  act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,600 
Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of 
these  750  were  known  delivered  by  June  10,  1801.  Falley  had 
served  in  the  French  and  Indian  War,  and  in  the  Revolutionary 
War,  having  been  a  company  commander  in  the  Battle  of  Bunker 

62  American  Gun  Makers 

Hill.  After  the  War,  was  armorer  to  State  of  Massachusetts  and 
later  superintendent  at  Springfield  Armory.  Born  in  Maine,  Jan. 
31,  1740;  died  at  Westfield,  Sept.  3,  1808.  In  addition  to  service 
with  the  armed  forces,  Falley  is  believed  to  have  made  arms  at 
Montgomery,  Mass.,  during  the  Revolutionary  War. 

FANCHER,  Thomas — Connecticut  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  In  association  with  Jesse  Curtis  of  Waterbury,  furnished 
26  muskets  with  bayonets.  Earlier  delivery  of  three  muskets  with 
bayonets  is  recorded  as  having  been  paid  for  July  29,  1776. 

FARNOT,  Frank— Also  Fainot.  Lancaster,  Pa.  Active  1779-83. 

FARNOT,  Frederick — Lancaster  Borough,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  before 
and  after  1779. 

FARNOT,  Jacob— Also  Fainot.  Lancaster,  Pa.,  active  1779-83. 

FARQUET,  E.— Gunsmith.  New  Orleans,  La.,  1861. 

FARRINGTON,  William  H.— Concord,  N.  H.,  percussion  period. 

FARROW  ARMS  CO.— Holyoke,  Mass.,  about  1885-90,  then  at  Mason, 
Tenn.  Target  rifles.  Operated  by  Wm.  Milton  Farrow. 

FARVER,  W. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

FAULK,  Adam — Or  Foulk.  Unidentified.  Maker  of  Kentucky  rifles 
about  1775. 

FAUST,  Joseph  H.— Alsace,  Pa.  Born  about  1818.  Active  1845  to  about 
1880.  Gun  stocker  and  rifle  maker.  Learned  his  trade  watching 
John  Derr  and  Henry  Schaner,  Oley  Valley  gunsmiths.  Bought 
his  barrels  from  gun  barrel  makers  on  Wyomissing  Creek,  and 
gun-locks  at  Reading.  Made  all  other  parts  by  hand. 

FAUST,  W.  Ed. — La  Fontaine,  Ind.  Percussion  rifles. 

FAVIER,  Peter  A.— 67  West  Pratt  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1845. 

FAY,  E. — Albany,  N.  Y.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

FAY,  Edwin — Hartford,  Conn.  Learned  under  Edwin  Wesson;  later 
president  of  J.  Stevens  Arms  &  Tool  Co.,  Chicopee  Falls,  Mass. 
A  fine  percussion  buggy  rifle  with  12-inch  barrel. 

FAY,  George — 2120  Third  Ave.,  Altoona,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  in 
1890  directory.  Late  percussion,  full-stock,  Kentucky  rifles,  some 
Bedford  Co.  type,  others  with  purchased  locks.  May  have  worked 
in  Bedford  Co.,  and  later  in  Cambria,  near  Altoona. 

FAY,  George  W. — 1000  Green  Ave.,  Altoona,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith 
in  1890  Directory.  (Related  to  George  Fay?) 

FAYETTEVILLE  ARSENAL— Fayetteville,  N.  C.  Captured  U.  S. 
Arsenal  established  as  Confederate  armory  in  1861,  partly  with 
machinery  and  material  salvage  from  the  burning  of  the  Harpers 
Ferry  Armory.  Made  Confederate  rifle  muskets  similar  in  appear- 
ance to  the  Springfield  Model  1861,  but  largely  with  brass  furni- 
ture which  was  easier  to  machine  than  iron  or  steel. 

In  March,  1865,  with  the  end  of  the  Civil  War  in  sight, 
(April  1865),  the  arsenal  machinery  was  loaded  on  flat  cars  of 
a  coal  company  and  taken  to  Egypt,  Chatham  Co.,  where  it  was 
hidden.  Egypt  was  the  site  of  extensive  Confederate  coal  mines. 
In  May,  1865,  the  government  having  heard  of  the  secreted 
machinery,  sent  ninety-six  six-mule  wagons,  repossessed  it  and 
removed  it  to  Raleigh  whence  it  was  shipped  by  rail  to  Washing- 
ton. Among  other  equipment  retaken  was  the  musket  lock-plate 
die  from  the  Harpers  Ferry  Armory,  in  which  the  U.S.  had  been 
replaced  by  C.  S.  A. 

American  Gun  Makers  63 

FEDER,  G. — Pennsylvania,  about  1810.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

FEHR — Four  members,  three  of  them  gunsmiths,  at  Easton,  Filetown, 
Nazareth,  and  Allentown,  Pa.  Set  triggers  made  at  Filetown,  also 
at  Nazareth. 

FEHR,  J. — Nazareth,  Pa.,  1835;  Kentucky  rifle  so  dated.  Extensive 
maker  of  set  triggers. 

FEHR,  M.  M. — Set  triggers  on  N.  Shennefelt,  late  percussion,  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

FELOUX,  Peter— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  190  South, 
in  1829. 

FENNER,  Thomas— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  on  North  Front,  below 
Master,  in  1829  and  on  Second  Street  in  1839.  Gunsmith  and  pis- 
tol maker. 

FENSEL,  Peter — After  apprenticeship  at  Kenton,  Ohio,  returned  to 
Union  County,  Ohio,  where  he  was  born  (1842),  and  established 
himself  in  business  in  1887. 

FERGUSON,  Charles— Troy,  N.  Y.,  1837;  Kentucky  rifles. 

FERREE,  Jacob — Lancaster,  Pa.,  powder  manufacturer  and  gunsmith. 
Born  August  8,  1750.  Was  twice  married.  In  1785,  Jacob  Ferree 
moved  from  Lancaster  to  the  mouth  of  Peters  Creek,  Jefferson 
Township,  Allegheny  Co.,  where  with  his  son  Joel  he  erected  a 
powder  mill  and  gun  shop.  Later  in  1800,  he  purchased  330 
acres  of  land  where  Coraopolis  now  stands,  (Moon  Township, 
west  of  Pittsburgh).  The  day  after  his  arrival  at  his  new  home- 
stead, Jacob's  brother,  Joel,  was  killed  by  Indians  while  hunting 

During  the  Revolutionary  War,  Jacob  Ferree  had  charge 
of  the  French  Creek  Powder  Mill  at  Kimberton,  Pa.  He  died 
in  1807,  at  the  age  of  57. 

The  Ferree  family  of  Pennsylvania  descended  from  Mary 
Ferree  (nee  Warimbere,  or  Warembiere)  a  Protestant  of  French 
Huguenot  descent  from  Bittingheim,  High  Bailiwick  of  Germer- 
sheim,  Bavarian  Palatina,  who  emigrated  to  America  by  way  of 
Holland  and  England  in  December,  1708.  Though  her  original 
application  for  passport  applied  for  emigration  to  the  "Island 
of  Pennsylvania,"  she  first  came  to  Esopus,  (now  Kingston)  N.  Y., 
then  in  1712  settled  on  a  grant  of  2,300  acres  along  the  Pequea, 
in  Paradise  Township,  Lancaster,  Co.,  Pa.  With  Mary  Ferree 
(twice  married  widow  of  Daniel  Ferree,  then  John  Ferree,  slain 
in  France)  came  her  six  children,  three  sons  and  three  daughters, 
among  them  Isaac  Ferree,  the  father  of  Jacob  of  this  entry. 

Jacob  Ferree  had  three  sons,  Joel,  Isaac  and  William  P., 
the  youngest.  Of  these,  two  elder  sons  followed  their  father's 
gunsmith  trade. 

FERREE,  Joel— Gunsmith.  Son  of  Jacob  Ferree  and  his  first  wife, 
Rachel.  Worked  with  his  father.  Born  Jan.  26,  1771;  died  in 
April,  1813.  Was  a  colonel  of  militia  in  the  War  of  1812. 

FERREE,  Isaac — Son  of  Jacob  Ferree  and  his  second  wife  (nee 
Alice  Powell).  Born  Jan.  9,  1776.  Active  as  gunsmith  at  Baton 
Rouge,  La.,  from  1818  until  his  death  in  1822. 

FERREE,  Joel  Thornton  and  George  Spencer — Gunsmiths.  Sons  of 
Isaac  Ferree.  Active  in  Alleghany  County  before  and  until  1840. 

FERREE,  Joel — Son  of  Philip  Ferree  (one  of  the  three  sons  of  Mary 
Ferree)  and  Leah  Dubois  of  Esopus,  (now  Kingston)  N.  Y.,  where 
his  parents  were  married  May  10,  1712,  and  shortly  after  moved 

64  American  Gun  Makers 

to  Leacock  Township,  Lancaster,  Co.,  Pa.  Joel  Ferree  was  born 
in  1731,  and  more  than  likely  learned  the  gunsmith  trade  to 
which  he  was  apprenticed  at  the  age  of  14,  from  his  relative, 
Philip  Lefevre.  In  1752,  upon  reaching  his  maturity,  Joel  re- 
ceived land  from  his  father,  set  up  a  rifle  making  shop,  and  was 
active  until  1778  and  later.  During  the  Revolutionary  War,  he 
was  a  musket  and  rifle  maker  to  the  Committee  of  Safety,  for 
whom  he  produced  30  to  40  arms  weekly. 

FERREE,  Joel — Cumberland,  Guernsey  Co.,  Ohio,  1869-70. 

FERREE,  Manuel— Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  1779. 

FERRIS,  Fred  G.— Utica,  N.  Y.,  in  1859-60.  Changed  spelling  to 
Ferriss;  probably  related  to  Geo.  H.  Ferris(s).  Percussion  rifles. 

FERRIS,  Geo.  H.— Utica,  N.  Y.,  1848-1875;  40  Lansing  St.  in  1850. 
Apprenticed  under  Morgan  James;  associated  as  James  &  Ferris, 
making  rifles  and  telescope  sights  until  1859.  Awarded  Utica 
Mechanics  Association  medal  for  prize  rifles,  1859.  Name  spelled 
Ferriss  after  1863;  last  listed  in  Utica  Directory  for  1866.  Prob- 
ably related  to  Fred  G.  Ferris(s). 

FESIG,  Conrad— Or  Feasig.  Reading,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  1779-85. 

FETTER,  William — Pennsylvania  arms  maker  in  the  employ  of  Lewis 
Prahl,  musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety.  On  June  12,  1776, 
Fetter  was  ordered  discharged  or  furloughed  from  the  army  in 
order  to  return  to  gun  making  under  Prahl. 

FIDLER,  Squire — Near  Tunnelton,  Ind.  Curly  maple,  halfstock  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle  (possibly  originally  fullstock),  brass 
mounted  with  German  silver  bat  wing  escutcheons.  Lock  stamped 

FIEHL  &  WEEKS  FIRE  ARMS  MFG.  CO.— Phila.,  Pa.,  "Perfect" 
hammer  less  revolvers  in  imitation  of  Smith  &  Wesson. 

FIELD,  I.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  flintlock  rifles. 

FIFIELD  &  RICHARDSON— Boston,  Mass.  Double  barrel  percussion 

FIGTHORN,  Andrew— Reading,  Berks,  Co.,  Pa.,  1779-85. 

FILLINGER,  J.— On  barrel  of  .68  calibre  militia  rifle-musket,  OHIO 
burned  into  sycamore  stock  opposite  lock  and  on  wrist. 

FILLMAN,  W. — Unlocated.  Early  percussion  rifles  of  fine  workman- 
ship. (Same  as  W.  A.  Filman?). 

FILMAN,  W.  A. — Unlocated.  Maker  of  a  full  stock,  curly  maple,  brass 
trim,  Kentucky  type  percussion  rifle. 

FINCH,  Joseph— New  York,  N.  Y.,  before  1828. 

FISCHER,  George — Unidentified.  Maker  of  a  combination  rifle  and 

FISCHER,  Gustav— New  York,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after  1860.  Breech- 
loading  sporting  or  target  rifles. 

FISH— New  York  City,  before  and  after  1845. 

FISHEL,  Jacob— Hopewell  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1850. 

FISHER,  D. — Unlocated.  Percussion  sporting  rifle. 

FISHER,  E. — Fostoria,  Ohio.  Back-action  lock  percussion  rifle. 

FISHER,  Elam  J.— Detroit  gunsmith.  Member  of  firm  of  Fisher  & 

FISHER,  F.  G.— Greeley,  Col.,  1876-80. 

FISHER,  H. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  sporting  rifle. 

American  Gun  Makers  65 

FISHER,  J.  H.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

FISHER,  Jacob — Canton,  Ohio.  Skilled  riflesmith.  Percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle  halfstocked  in  burl  walnut  with  browning  mottled  to 
match.  Brass  mountings,  back-action  lock. 

FISHER,  James— 8  Calvert  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1817. 

FISHER  &  LONG— Detroit  Gunsmiths  from  1867.  Took  over  William 
Wingert's  gun  shop  and  extended  it  to  the  main  street,  and  sold 
sporting  goods  as  well.  A  double  percussion  shot  gun  marked 
"FISHER  &  LONG"  is  in  existence. 

FISHER,  S.— New  York.  Maker  of  a  walnut  half  stock,  double  set 
triggers,  well  made  percussion  sporting  rifle. 

FISHER,  Uriah — Rice's  Landing,  Greene  Co.,  Pa.  Learned  the  trade 
under  Bruce  Medeer,  Brownville,  Pa.  Bought  parts  from  J.  H. 
Johnston,  Pittsburgh.  Son  of  a  Civil  War  veteran.  Still  active  in 

FISHER,  Wm.  B. — Lynchburg,  Va.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with 
sun-shade  tube  sight. 

FISKE  &  TUTTLE— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1874-75. 

FITCH,  James  P. — Unidentified.  Maker  of  Jas.  P.  Fitch  cartridge 

FITCH,  John— Trenton,  N.  J.,  1769-1776.  Born  in  1743;  gun  maker  and 
metal  worker  on  King  St.,  Trenton,  after  1769.  Manufactured  files 
at  Trenton  with  steelmaker  Stacy  Potts.  Gunsmith  or  armorer  to 
Committee  of  Safety;  contracted  to  repair  arms  and  make  metal 
buttons  for  the  Army.  His  shop  burned  by  the  British  in  1776, 
Fitch  moved  to  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.  Inventor  of  first  steamboat,  which 
operated  between  Trenton  and  Philadelphia  1788-1790.  Mapped 
the  Northwest  Territory;  died  1798  at  Bardstown,  Ky.  A  flintlock 
militia  musket  marked  "FITCH"  and  "S.  P."  (State  Property). 

FITCH  &  WALDO— New  York  City.  Makers  of  5-shot  percussion 

FITZPATRICK— Maker  of  a  half  stock,  octagonal  barrel,  flintlock 
plains  rifie  with  double  set  triggers. 

FITZPATRICK,  Reese — Natchez,  Miss.  Gunsmith  to  Bowie  Brothers. 
Had  been  in  their  employ  a  number  of  years  when  the  first  famed 
Bowie  knife  was  forged  by  James  Bowie  in  the  early  1820's. 

F.  J.  H. — Marking  on  a  percussion  Kentucky  target  rifle. 

FLAGG,  B.  &  CO.— Millbury,  Mass.  Makers  of  Model  1842  percussion, 
smooth-bore  muskets,  marked  on  lock-plate,  eagle,  "US"  and 
"B.  FLAGG  &  CO.,  MILLBURY,  1849."  No  details  as  to  contract. 

FLEEGER,  John — In  association  with  his  son,  Wm.  A.  Fleeger,  op- 
erated the  Alleghany  Gun  Works,  Alleghany  (now  a  suburb  of 
Pittsburgh),  Pa.  The  works  were  established  in  1831,  at  Diamond 
Street,  for  over  30  years,  whence  they  were  moved  to  49  Ohio 
St.,  in  1877.  The  firm  made  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  and  later 
sporting  and  target  rifles  to  order. 

FLEEK— Barrville,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

FLEGEL,  George— Armorer,  U.  S.  Arsenal,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1815.  Listed 
as  "Fleegal,"  Master  Armourer  in  1819.  Inspector  of  Contract 
Arms,  1823,  at  plant  of  Asa  Waters.  Probably  the  "GF,"  in- 
spector of  arms  at  the  Henry  Deringer  plant  in  1814. 

FLEGEL,  J.  G.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  221  St.  John, 
in  1829. 

66  American  Gun  Makers 

FLEMING,  I.  W.— Unlocated,  possibly  Ohio.  Plain  fullstock  percus- 
sion rifle,  Joseph  Manton  lock. 

FLEMING,  Silas  M. — Exhibited  a  "fine  rifle  gun  of  his  own  manu- 
facture" at  the  county  fair  at  Richmond,  Indiana,  1852. 

FLOHR,  A.— Sacramento,  Calif.,  1851-1870.  Fine  muzzle  and  breech- 
loaders, false-muzzle  Schuetzen  rifles. 

FLOHR,  Charles — See  Eckhart  &  Flohr. 

FLOHR  &  WENDLER — Sacramento,  Calif.  Muzzle-loading,  needle- 
fire  14  gauge  shotgun. 

FLOWERS,  Charles — Harmony,  Pa.  Beautiful  percussion  Kentucky 
rifles;  never  made  flintlocks. 

FOEHL,  Chas. — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Maker  of  a  schuetzen  type,  per- 
cussion target  rifle.  Swiss  type  butt  cap  with  long  under-arm 
projection.  German  silver  furniture. 

FOGELSANG,  John— Richland  Co.,  Ohio.  Early  period  of  Ohio. 

FOGERTY  REPEATING  RIFLE  CO.— Boston,  Mass.,  about  1867. 
Renamed  American  Rifle  Co.  prior  to  1869,  when  it  sold  out  to 

FOGG,  Gilman  E. — Manchester,  N.  H.  Designed  spade-shaped  rear 
sight  aperture.  Sixteen-pound  percussion  match  rifle;  small  under- 
hammer  smoothbore. 

FOGLE,  Heinrich— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

FOHRER,  Ludwig— Pennsylvania,  1775-76.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety. 

FOILKE,  Adam— Also  Foulke.  Lehigh  District,  Pa.,  1773-94.  In 
association  with  John  Young,  supplied  the  Council  of  Safety 
with  130  rifles  in  1776.  Same  as  Faulk,  Adam,  maker  of  Ken- 
tucky rifles?  See  Foulke,  Adam. 

FOLGER,  W.  H.— Barsville,  Belmont  Co.,  Ohio,  1834.  Came  from 
Winchester,  Va.  "Gunsmithing  in  the  wintertime." 

FOLK,  William— Brian.  Williams  Co.,  Ohio,  1880-90.  Operator  of 
Folk's  Gun  Works. 

FOLK'S  GUN  WORKS— Bryan,  Ohio,  before  1880-90  and  after  .22 
cal.  target  rifles.  Shotguns. 

FOLLECK,  John— Johnstown,  N.  Y.,  rifle  makers,  1769-1775.  One  of 
four  rifle  makers  induced  by  Sir  William  Johnson  to  come  out 
and  settle  in  New  York  State  by  grants  of  buildings  and  tools. 
By  1775  rifle  making  had  become  an  enterprising  industry  with 
most  of  the  settlers  and  Indians  trading  their  smoothbores  for 
rifled  arms  and  New  York  was  second  only  to  Pennsylvania  in 
their  manufacture.  By  1770  the  population  of  Johnstown  had 
grown  to  about  five  hundred  people  and  the  village  comprized 
about  one  hundred  dwellings,  including  stores,  a  gunsmith,  a 
blacksmith  shop,  a  carpenter's  shop,  two  saw  mills,  a  flour  mill, 
a  wagon  shop,  an  Episcopal  Church  and  a  manor  school. 

FOLLECT— Or  Follecht.  Lancaster,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles,  about  1770. 

FOLSOM,  H.  &  CO.— 620-622  North  Main  St.,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  mid- 
19th  century.  Gunsmith  and  sporting  goods  dealer;  for  a  time 
in  partnership  with  H.  E.  Dimick  as  Dimick  &  Folsom. 

FONCANNON,  M.  B.— Columbus,  Ohio,  1848.  New  Lexington,  1852-54. 

FONDERGRIFT— Pennsylvania.  Prior  to  1783.  Possibly  same  as  John 
Vondergrift,   Bucks   County,  Pa. 

FONDERSMITH,  John  and  Son— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1749,  to  about  1800. 

American  Gun  Makers  67 

Strasburg  to  about  1802.  Made  arms  for  the  Pennsylvania  troops 
during  the  Revolutionary  War.  Jan.  14,  1799,  contracted  with 
Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  for  500  Charleville  pattern, 
(Model  1795)  muskets.  On  April  16,  1801,  John  Fondersmith, 
listed  as  of  Strasburg,  Pa.,  contracted  for  additional  500  muskets. 

FONDERSMITH  KENTUCKY  TYPE— Marking  on  the  barrel  of  a 
heavy  percussion  rifle  with  bullet  starter  and  back-action  lock. 

FONDERSMITH,  Ludwig  and  Valentine — Strasburg  Twp.,  Lancaster 
Co.,  Pa.,  1771-79.  Also  Fundersmith. 

FONSHILL,  John— Baltimore,  Md.,  Union  Street  in  1816,  North  Street 
in  1819. 

FOOT,  A. — Master  Armorer  Springfield  Armory,  1818. 

FOOT,  N.— Marking  inside  lock  of  Springfield  musket  dated  1810. 

FORBES,  Gilbert— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1767-75. 

FORBES,  Nathan— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms,  1799-1801. 

FORD — Unlocated.  Barrel  marking  of  a  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle 
marked  "F.  LEAMING,  PHILA.  WARRANTED"  on  lock. 

FORD,  D.— Abbeyville,  Medina  Co.,  Ohio,  1862-65. 

FORD,  J. — Virginia,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

FORD,  P.  J. — Torrington,  Conn.  Percussion  rifle. 

FORD,  R.  E.  L.— Great  Smokey  Mountains,  Tenn.  Fullstocked,  per- 
cussion, octagonal  barrel  "hog  rifle"  marked  "Yellow  Jacket 
Poison  to  Crossmarks,  R.E.L.  Ford,  1905." 

FORDNEY,  C— Cumberland,  Md.,  about  1800-1830;  flintlock  Kentucky 

FORDNEY,  I.— Unlocated,  Kentucky  rifles. 

FORDNEY,  Jacob — Lancaster,  Pa.,  gunsmith  whose  shop  had  been 
located  at  corner  of  Orange  and  Prince  Streets.  Born  1808,  died 
at  the  age  of  70.  The  family  was  of  French,  Huguenot,  descent, 
from  the  Swiss-French  border  area.  The  name  originally  was 
Fortenieux,  then  Fortenee  and  finally  became  Fordney.  Listed  in 
Lancaster  Directory  in  1857.  Had  contracted  with  the  govern- 
ment Nov.  7,  1837,  for  250  rifles  for  Indians  at  $13.00  each. 

FORDNEY,  JAMES— Unlocated.  Flintlock  and  percussion  Kentucky 

FORDNEY,  Melchior— Lancaster,  Pa.,  early  19th  century.  Taught 
Henry  E.  Leman  (q.v.)  1828-1831.  Fine  silver-mounted,  relief 
carved  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

FORESTER— Bristol,  R.  I.  Maker  of  a  "mule  ear"  lock,  muzzle- 
loading,  percussion  rifle. 

FOREHAND  ARMS  CO.— Worcester,  Mass.,  1890-1900.  Renamed  from 
Forehand  &  Wadsworth.  Makers  of  revolvers  and  sporting  rifles. 
Sold  out  to  Hopkins  &  Allen  Mfg.  Co.,  of  Norwich,  Conn.  See 
Allen  &  Wheelock  and  Forehand  &  Wadsworth. 

FOREHAND  &  WADSWORTH— Worcester,  Mass.,  1871-November, 
1890.  Sullivan  Forehand  and  H.  C.  Wadsworth,  sons-in-law  of 
Ethan  Allen  of  the  old  firm  of  Ethan  Allen  &  Co.,  and  Allen  & 
Wheelock  before  that.  Revolvers  and  sporting  rifles.  See  Allen  & 

Sullivan  Forehand  was  born  in  Croyden,  N.  H.,  Oct.  10,  1831. 
He  became  connected  with  Allen  &  Wheelock  in  1860,  and  was 
admitted  into  the  firm  in  1865  as  a  partner.  Mr.  Forehand  died  in 
Worcester,  June  7,  1898. 

68  American  Gun  Makers 

Henry  C.  Wadsworth  came  to  Worcester  at  the  age  of  21, 
entered  the  employ  of  Ethan  Allen,  and  married  his  daughter, 
Laurette.  Had  served  nine  months  during  the  Civil  War  in  Co. 
"C,"  51st  Massachusetts  Volunteers  and  was  discharged  as  Ser- 
geant. With  Forehand,  was  admitted  to  the  firm  as  a  partner  in 
1865.  Upon  retirement  from  business  was  appointed  vice-consul 
at  Santos,  Brazil,  where  he  died  of  yellow  fever  in  March,  1892. 

FORKER,  J. — Mercer,  Pa.  Percussion  plains  rifle. 

FORKER,  William — Meadville,  Pa.,  late  percussion  period. 

FORKER,  W.  H. — Ohio.  Maker  of  a  percussion  sporting  rifle. 

FORREST,  Casper— Lancaster,  Pa.  1857. 

FORRKER,  Samuel— Meadville,  Crawford  Co.,  Pa.;  flintlock  rifles. 
Father  of  Wm.  Forker. 

FORTNEY,  Peter— Chillicothe,  Ross  Co.,  Ohio,  1804. 

FORTUNE,  Thomas  L.— Mt.  Pleasant,  Kan.;  1850-60.  Breech-loading 

FOSDICK,  S.  J. — Laporte,  Laporte  Co.,  Indiana.  Half  stock  plains  rifle 
with  Hunter  lock,  L.  Warfield  &  Co.  barrel,  and  J.  Fehr,  Naza- 
reth, Pa.,  triggers.  Non-professional  maker? 

FOSTER,  George — Unlocated.  Late  period  flintlock  and  percussion 
Kentucky  rifles. 

FOSTER,  George  P. — Taunton,  Mass.,  later  Providence  and  Bristol, 
R.  I.  Made  percussion  Plains  and  Kentucky  rifles  for  western 
trade,  1850-  1855;  made  Klein's  Patent  (1849)  bolt-action  needle 
gun,  aided  development  of  Volcanic  rifle,  and  made  Porter  turret 
rifles.  Employed  Horace  Smith,  D.  B.  Wesson,  and  C.  D.  Schu- 
barth  (q.  v.) 

Failed  in  1855  and  went  to  Providence,  there  assembled  and 
sold  Porter  rifles;  Schubarth  continued  business  for  the  assignees. 
Foster  later  was  associated  with  Burnside  at  Bristol,  making 
Klein  rifles  and  Burnside  carbines  (patented  1856).  Lacking 
capital  they  moved  to  Providence,  and  made  Burnside  carbines 
1856-1857.  Foster  manufactured  Howard  patent  breech-loading 
carbines  after  1865. 

FOSTER,  John— York  Co.,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

FOSTER,  Joseph— Pennsylvania,  1766-76.  Musket  maker  to  Committee 

of  Safety. 
FOSTER,  "White"— Columbia,  Ohio,   1848-69.  Limited  production  of 


FOTE,  J.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

FOTTRELL,  Patrick— Musket  maker  at  the  Pennsylvania  State  Gun 
Factory,  1776-78. 

FOULKE — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Marking  on  the  lock  of  a  Kentucky  type 
flintlock  pistol  by  J.  Sees.  "FOULKE  PHILADELPHIA."  May  be 
Adam  Foulke. 

FOULKE,  Adam— Also  Foilke.  Lehigh  District,  Pa.,  1773-94.  In  asso- 
ciation with  John  Young,  supplied  the  Council  of  Safety  with 
130  rifles  in  April,  1776.  Located  variously  at  Easton,  Allentown 
and  Philadelphia.  May  be  the  same  as  Faulk,  Adam,  maker  of 
Kentucky  rifles  about  1775. 

FOULKS,  Wm. — Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifle  maker  and  scholar. 

FOWLER,  J.  S.— Unlocated.  Plain,  half-stock  percussion  rifle. 

American  Gun  Makers  69 

FOWLER,  L.  Jr.— Unlocated.  Conn.  1835-1838.  Percussion  pistols 
made  in  Connecticut  State  Prison. 

FOWLER,  STACY— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  at  St.  John,  near  Poplar 
in  1829. 

FOX,  B.  &  CO. — Lancaster,  Pa.  Over-under  percussion  rifle-shotgun. 

FOX,  H. — Frewsburg,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

FOX,  H.  A.— 69  Jackson  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1858,  (with  P.  B. 
Comins?),  112  Washington  St.,  1859-60,  (with  Bogart  Bros.?). 

FOX,  Horace — Hydetown,  Pa.;  also  Corry  and  Fredensburg,  Pa.  A. 
3-barrel  revolving  percussion  arm. 

FOX,  R. — Corry,  Penna.,  making  Kentucky  rifles  in  1837.  Fine  per- 
cussion target  rifle. 

F.  &  P. — New  Haven,  (?)  1818.  Musket  makers.  Believed  to  have  as- 
sembled arms,  using  in  part  at  least,  units  manufactured  for  them 
or  purchased  from  others.  Musket  examined  is  of  1812  type  with 
Whitney  Model  1812  lock  bearing  the  typical  Whitney  marking 
of  "NEW  HAVEN"  within  a  ribbon  scroll  between  hammer  and 
frizzen  spring.  Other  markings  are  "F.  &  P.,"  above  the  ribbon 
scroll  and  "US"  and  "1818"  behind  the  hammer. 

FRAILEY,  Andrew  J*— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

FRAIZER,  A. — Pennsylvania  riflesmith,  late  18th  and  early  19th  cen- 
tury; believed  to  have  spent  the  latter  part  of  his  life  in  Ohio. 
Fine  Kentucky  flintlock  rifles. 

FRANCE,  J.  A. — Cobbleskill,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

FRANCK— Lancaster,  Pa.,  Kentucky  rifles  about  1775. 

FRANK,  I. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  No.  Penna.  percussion  Kentucky 

FRAVEL,  J.— -Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle. 

FRAZIER  &  COLBY— St.  Peter,  Nicolett  Co.,  Minn.,  1864-65. 

FRAZIER,  Henry— Gunsmith.  Bronx  Township,  Knox  Co.,  Ohio,  1840- 

FRAZIER,  John — Gunsmith  and  licensed  Indian  trader  of  Scotch 
birth.  A  former  resident  of  Lancaster  County  in  1750,  he  settled 
at  Venango  (now  Franklin),  Venango  Co.,  Pa.  In  the  spring  of 
1753,  he  warned  the  traders  of  the  French  invasion  and  moved 
to  the  mouth  of  Turtle  Creek  at  its  confluence  with  the  Monon- 
gahela.  The  Braddock  massacre  was  within  sight  of  his  house. 

FREDERICK,  John— Gouglarsville,  Pa.,  1859-1879. 

FREDERICKSBURG  ARMORY— See  Virginia  Public   Gun  Factory. 

Lock  Manufactory  in  Frederick  Town.  Believed  to  have  been 
established  as  a  gun  lock  factory  late  in  1775  or  early  in  1776. 
Reported  to  have  been  able  to  turn  out  rough  gun  lock  forgings 
faster  than  it  could  put  the  finish  on  them.  John  Yost,  musket 
and  rifle  contractor  to  Committee  of  Safety  asked  the  Committee 
for  authority  to  purchase  from  the  Manufactory  300  rough  locks 
to  be  finished  in  his  own  shops. 

FREDRIC,  F.  op  J.— Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles. 

FREEMAN,  Austin  H. — Patentee  of  percussion  revolvers  made  at 
Hoard's  Armory,  Watertown,  N.  V. 

FREEMAN,  Robert— Sequatchie  Valley,  Tenn.  20th  century  mountain 
gunsmith;  expert  gunstocker. 

FREEMAN,  W.  C— Worcester,  Mass.,  maker  of  Joslyn  patent  per- 

70  American  Gun  Makers 

cussion  revolvers  marked  "B.  F.  JOSLYN,  WORCESTER,  MASS." 
See  Joslyn  Fire  Arms  Co. 

FRENCH,  BLAKE  &  KINSLEY— Thomas  French,  .  .  .  Blake  and 
Adam  Kinsley,  musket  makers.  Contractors  of  Oct.  20,  1808,  for 
4,000  Model  1808  muskets.  Duration  five  years.  Of  these  2,175 
were  reported  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

FRENCH,  THOMAS — Canton,  Mass.,  1778-1825.  Musket  and  pistol 
maker.  In  association  with  .  .  .  Blake  and  Adam  Kinsley  con- 
tracted for  4,000  muskets  Model  1808  on  Oct.  20,  1808.  See  French, 
Blake  &  Kinsley.  Born  1778,  died  1862. 

FRESH,  J. — Altoona  region,  Pa.  Curly  maple,  full  stock,  percussion 

FREUND,  Frank  W Jersey  City,  N.  J.,  about  1880;  later  Cheyenne, 

Wyo.,  Denver  and  Durango,  Colo.,  and  (?)  Casper,  Wyo.  Inventor 
of  hammerless  breech-loading  sporting  rifle  with  dummy  ham- 
mer; remodeled  Sharps  rifles  with  patent  breechlock. 

FREUND,  George  C. — Flintlock  rifle  with  lock  on  left  side  and  wood 
patch  box. 

FRIAR  NEWLIN  &  CO.— Unlocated.  Full  stock  smoothbore  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

FRICKEY,  Samuel— Charlotte  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.  1801. 

FREE,  Wm.  H.  &  Son— Bellvue,  Iowa,  1870-1923. 

FRISH,  A.  D.— Unlocated.  Rifle  maker,  (or  Frist?) 

FRONG,  E.  ML  &  TAYLOR — Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Breech-loading  rifle 
with  barrel  turning  left  to  load. 

FROCK,  J. — Pennsylvania.  Fine,  highly  decorated  Kentucky  rifles. 

FROST,  Gideon — Committee  of  Safety  musket  maker  of  Massachu- 
setts, 1775-76.  Employed  eight  hands  in  1775. 

FRY,  Francis — Doniphan  County,  Kan.,  1855. 

FRY,  George— Hopewell  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1840. 

FRY,  John — Washington  Furnace,  Westmoreland  Co.,  Pa.  Rendered 
bills  in  1853  for  repairing  guns  and  for  a  "smoth  rifle"  at  $12.00. 
Same  as  John  Fry  of  Ligonier? 

FRY,  John — Ligonier,  Westmoreland  Co.,  Pa.,  gunsmith.  Born  in 
1820,  east  of  Ligonier.  Worked  with  his  brother  Joseph  in 
Ligonier  in  rear  of  301  E.  Main  Street.  Later  (about  1868-70) 
moved  to  Johnstown,  Pa.,  where  he  worked  at  gunsmithing  for 
several  years,  started  pulling  teeth  and  making  dental  instru- 
ments and  eventually  became  a  dentist.  Preferred  to  make  full- 
stock  rifles,  7-groove,  bar  action  locks.  Made  his  own  locks, 
triggers  and  mountings.  Marked  his  rifles  "J.  FRY"  in  script  on 
top  of  barrel.  Died  before  the  Johnstown  flood  of  1889. 

FRY,  Joseph — Ligonier,  Westmoreland  Co.,  Pa.  Brother  of  John  Fry. 
Worked  with  his  brother  in  rear  of  301  E.  Main  St.,  sharing 
equipment.  Preferred  to  make  half  stocked  rifles  rifled  with  8 
grooves.  Made  his  own  locks  and  mountings.  Bought  English 
smooth  bored  barrel  blanks  from  J.  H.  Johnston  in  Pittsburgh, 
at  $3.00  each.  Signed  his  barrels  "JOS  FRY"  first  in  script,  later 
in  block  letters.  Eventually  purchased  a  farm  on  hillside  border- 
ing Ligonier  and  moved  his  equipment  there,  into  building  he 
had  erected.  Born  1825,  died  in  the  spring  of  1891. 

FRY,  Edward — Son  of  Joseph  Fry  born  about  1870.  Born  July  16, 
1869.  Still  living  on  his  father's  farm.  Does  some  gun  work  using 
his  father's  equipment. 

American  Gun  Makers  71 

FRY,  M. — Probably  Pennsylvania  and  believed  related  to  John  and 
Joseph  Fry.  Early  flintlock  rifle  with  bayonet  stud.  Also  marked 
inside  a  "LETHER  &  CO,"  "CP"  Penna  contract  of  1798,  musket 
lock.  Also  marking  on  M.1808  contract  pistol,  "M.FRY." 

FRYE,  Martin— Contractor  with  Tench  Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public 
Supplies  for  54  horsemens  pistols,  2nd  quarter  1809.  Probably 
identical  with  M.FRY. 

FULCHER,  G.  G.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifle. 

FULERTON,  F.  W.— St.  Paul,  Minn.  1920.  .22  cal.  Target  pistol. 

FUNDERSMITH,  Ludwig  and  Valentine— Strasburg  Township,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  1771-79.  Also  Fondersmith. 

FUNK,  Jacob — Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio,  prior  to  1812.  Armorer,  sword- 

FUNK,  M. — Cove,  Pa.  Over-under  percussion  rifle. 

FURNEY,  William— Mahoning  Co.,  Ohio,  1815.  Repaired  arms. 

G.  A. — Unidentified.  Late  flintlock  period. 

GABLE,  H.— Unlocated.  Early  percussion  Kentucky  rifles.  Probably 
Henry  Gable. 

GABLE,  Henry — Williamsport,  Pa.  Flintlock  and  early  percussion 
rifles.  Later  Henry  Gable  and  Son. 

GABLE,  Henry  and  Son — Williamsport,  Pa.,  19th  Century.  Percussion 
Kentucky  rifles. 

GABNECHT— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

GAFFORD,  John— Cumberland  Row,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1816. 

GAGE,  J.  E.— Ontario,  Wayne  Co.,  N.  Y.,  and  Concord,  N.  H.  Born 
Feb.  18,  1850,  died  1924.  Learned  gunsmithing  under  Wm.  Billing- 
hurst  at  Rochester;  made  buggy  rifles,  etc.  Located  1900-1924  in 

GALBRAITH,  JAMES  &  CO.— Phila.,  Pa.,  1792.  Bill  for  24  pairs  of 

GALBREATH,  J.  H.— Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1840-1860.  Percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

GALENBECK,  J.— Lebanon,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

GALL,  G.— Unlocated.  About  1780  Kentucky  rifles. 

GALL,  John — Lancaster,   Pa.,    1857. 

GALLAHER,  JOHN,  S.  &  CO.— Gunmakers,  1861. 

GALLATIN,  Albert — Fayette  County.  Contracted  with  the  Common- 
wealth of  Pennsylvania,  Feb.  5,  1799,  for  2,000  Charleville  pat- 
tern, (Model  1795)  muskets.  The  Gallatin  factory  in  Nicholson 
Township  was  quite  extensive  for  that  time,  employing  from  50 
to  100  men  and  making  swords  as  well  as  muskets.  With  Gallatin 
was  associated  Melchior  Baker. 

GAL  YON — Sevier  Co.,  Tenn.  Made  guns  carried  by  the  few  Con- 
federates from  Sevier  County,  "and  every  gun  made  by  him 
bears  his  name." 

GANDER,  Peter— Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1782. 

GARCIA,  A.  D.  E.— Gunsmith,  State  Arsenal,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

GARDNER,  C— Lima,  Allen  Co.,  Ohio,  1855-61. 


72  American  Gun  Makers 

GARDNER,  Charles  L.— Rochester,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

GARDNER,  G.— Geneva,  N.  Y.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  of  New 
England-New  York  style. 

GARDNER,  G.— Lima,  Ohio,  1855-61. 

GARDNER,  John— Columbus,  Ohio.  Active  1866-88.  Died  1892. 

GARDNER,  J.  N. — Scranton,  Pa.,  percussion  period. 

GARDNER,  M.  H. — Indiana.  Reported  maker  of  17  pound,  walnut 
half-stock,  percussion  bench  rifle  with  Pfeiffer  barrel  and  Leman 

GARDNER,  W.— Geneva,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  full  stock,  Kentucky  type, 
"mule  ear,"  engraved  lock  rifle. 

GARRET,  Herman— Boston,  Mass.,  1650. 

GASPARD— Lancaster,   Pa.,   about   1775.  Kentucky   rifles. 

GAULT,  M.  &  BRO.— Washington,  D.  C.  Makers  of  percussion  der- 

GAUMER,  Jacob— Saleto  Township,  Muskegum  Co.,  Ohio,  1811-1823. 

GAUNY,  Nicholas— Gunsmith.  174  So.  Second,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

GAUYLER,  George— Unlocated.  Early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

GAY,  Calvin — Forged  breech  pins,  Springfield  Armory,  1818. 

G.  B. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

G.  C.  B. — Unidentified.  Script  marking  of  a  circa  1820  Penna.  type 
Kentucky  rifle. 

G.  D.  &  CO. — Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Percussion  rifle  locks. 

GEARSON,  Joseph— Philadelphia,  Pa.  listed  as  gun  lock  filer  at  85 
Dillwyn,  in  1829. 

GEDDY,   James — Williamsburg,   Va.,   Colonial   period.   Died    1744. 

GEHRETT,  J.  F. — Huntingdon  County,  Pa.,  late  percussion  period. 
Kentucky  rifles. 

GEHRETT,  J.  W.— Unlocated.  Double  barreled,  swivel-breech,  curly 
maple  stock  percussion  rifle. 

GEHRETT,  Jacob— Orbisonia,  Pa.;  Kentucky  rifles.  Family  later  op- 
erated in  West  Virginia. 

GEHRETT,  James— Huntington,  Pa.,  about  1810;  flintlock  Kentucky 

GEIGER,  V.— Towanda,  Pa.,  late  flintlock  period. 

GEMMEL,  G.  W. — Troy,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period.  Probably  identical 
with  G.  Gemmill. 

GEMMER,  John  P. — St.  Louis,  Mo.,  rifle  maker.  Purchased  and  oper- 
ated the  Hawken  gun  shop  from  1862  until  1915,  when  the  old 
establishment  closed  its  doors.  Mr.  Gemmer  was  born  in  the 
village  of  Lolschied,  Grand  Duchy  of  Nassau,  Germany,  June 
21,  1838,  and  came  to  the  United  States  with  his  father  in  1855. 
They  landed  in  New  Orleans,  and  travelled  up  the  Mississippi, 
locating  at  Boone ville,  Mo.,  where  they  remained  four  years, 
during  which  time  John  Gemmer  learned  the  gunsmith  trade.  In 
1860,  after  a  year  in  the  gun  shop  of  Emanuel  Kleinhenn,  Gem- 
mer entered  the  employ  of  the  Hawken  shop,  which  was  then 
under  management  of  William  Watt,  in  the  absence  of  Samuel 
Hawken.  In  1862,  after  some  service  in  the  Ordnance  Depart- 
ment as  armorer  with  grade  of  corporal,  at  the  St.  Louis  Arsenal, 
Gemmer  bought  out  the  Hawken  establishment  on  Washington 

American  Gun  Makers  73 

Avenue,  where  for  a  time  he  continued  to  make  rifles  of  the 
Hawken  type,  stamped  with  the  Hawken  name.  His  later  arms 
were  marked  Gemmer.  A  number  of  his  rifles  may  be  seen  in  the 
Jefferson  Memorial,  Forest  Park,  St.  Louis,  in  custody  of  the 
Missouri  Historical  Society. 

In  1870  the  (Hawken-)  Gemmer  shop  moved  from  Wash- 
ington Avenue,  to  600  N.  3rd  St.;  in  1876  was  moved  again  to 
704  N.  3rd  St.;  moved  again  in  1880  to  700  N.  3rd,  and  in  1912 
was  found  at  817  8th  St.,  where  it  remained  until  Mr.  Gemmer 
closed  his  business  in  1915.  John  P.  Gemmer  died  in  1919,  and 
is  buried  at  the  Bellefontaine  Cemetery. 

GEMMILL,  George— Troy,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

GEORG,  I.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  dated  1809.  Same 
as  George,  Jacob?  Letters  I  and  J.  were  interchanged  rather 
freely  at  that  period. 

GEORG,  Jacob— (Towanda)  Pa.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  marked 
I.  Georg,  dated  1809,  and  J.  Georg,  dated  1826. 

GEORGE,  J.— Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  dated  1809.  Probably  identical 
with  Georg  I.  and  Georg  Jacob. 

GEORGE,  J.  S.— Monterey,  Pa.,  1832.  Dated  percussion  rifle. 

GEORGIA  ARMORY— Milledgeville,  Ga.  Confederate  shoulder  arms 
plant  located  in  the  old  Penitentiary  Buildings,  of  Milledgeville, 
the  former  state  capital,  on  grounds  now  occupied  by  the  Georgia 
Normal  and  Industrial  College.  The  armory  was  established  by 
Act  of  Dec.  12,  1861,  with  funds  raised  by  sale  of  8%  bonds,  and 
was  operated  by  Peter  Jones,  former  employee  at  Harpers  Ferry 
Armory.  The  first  rifle  made  was  presented  to  the  Governor  in 
August,  1862,  and  production  was  from  150  to  300  rifles  per  month 
until  November,  1864,  when  the  plant  was  burned  by  Sherman. 

GERHART,  Daniel— Reading,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1873. 
Ex-employee  of  Nelson  Delaney  until  about  1872.  Established 
own  business  in  1873.  Active  to  1898  and  later. 

GERMAN,  Christian— Washington  and  Mohawk  Streets,  Buffalo, 
N.  Y.  1836-38.  Riflemaker. 

GERRISH,  John— Boston,  Mass.,  1709. 

GERTEIS,  L.  G.— 520  Poydias  St.,  New  Orleans,  La.  1912.  Curly 
maple  stock  percussion  rifles. 

GERY  &  BROS.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  lock  makers  for  flintlock  arms. 

GETTIG,  H.— Williamsport,  Pa.  Kentucky  flintlock  rifles. 

GETZ — Philadlephia,  Pa.  Associated  with  George  W.  Tryon,  to  whom 
he  was  apprenticed  and  whose  partner  he  became  in  1811. 

GETZ,  John— Lancaster  Borough,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1773-82. 

GETZ,  Peter— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1799-1805.  Had  been  inspector  of  small 
arms  for  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  on  contract  to 
Abraham  Henry  and  John  Graeff,  for  2,000  muskets,  of  April  11, 
1798.  Later  was  Inspector  of  Arms,  from  1800  to  1806  on  contracts 
of  Jacob  Lether  and  Conrad  Welshance  of  York,  and  of  Jacob 
Fondersmith  of  Strasburg. 

Peter  Getz  also  acted  as  inspector  of  rifles  made  on  govern- 
ment contracts  about  1803-07  with  Tench  Coxe,  Purveyor  of 
Public  Supplies. 

G.  F. — Initials  of  George  Flegel,  Master  Armorer  U.S.  Arsenal,  1815; 
U.S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1823  at  plant  of  Asa  Waters. 

74  American  Gun  Makers 

Probably  the  "GF"  inspector  of  arms  at  the  Henry  Deringer  plant 
in  1814. 
G.  F. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

G.  G. — Unidentified.  Long,  early  Kentucky  type  flintlock  smoothbore, 

Ashmore  lock. 
GHRISKEY,  Lewis— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  rifle  maker,  before  and  after 

1815.  Contractor  of  July  31,  1815,  for  100  rifles  at  $17.00  to  be 

delivered  within  one  year.  Listed  as  gun  and  blacksmith  at  361 

No.  Front  St.,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

GIBBINS,  Jos.— Brownsville,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa.  Maker  of  a  fine,  Ger- 
man silver  mounted,  half  stock,  Kentucky  style,  percussion  rifle 
of  exceptionally  good  workmanship  and  engraving,  with  G. 
Goulcher  lock.  Probably  the  same  as  Joseph  Gibbons. 

GIBBONS,  Joseph — See  Gibbons,  Jos.,  above. 

GIBBONS.  Thomas— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  1859-1865;  listed  in  directories  as 
gun  maker  and  locksmith.  "T.  GIBBONS"  stamped  inside  the 
lock  and  on  the  trigger  guard  (integral  with  trigger  plate)  of  an 
S.  Hawken  Plains  rifle. 

GIBBS,  Abraham— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

GIBBS  G. — Bristol,  Conn.,  percussion  period. 

GIBBS,  Henry— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1824;  listed  in  1857  directory  and  at 
W.  Vine  St.  in  1869-70:  died  1880.  Fine  late  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifles,  one  with  German  silver  mountings  by  Tryon  of  Philadel- 
phia and  barrel  by  Werter;  also  percussion  rifles. 

GIBBS,  John— Lancaster,  Fairfield  Co.,  Ohio,  1820's. 

GIBBS,  John— Honedale,  Pa.,  1824. 

GIBBS,  TIFFANY  &  CO.— Sturbridge,  Mass.,  about  1820-50.  Makers 
of  under-hammer  percussion  pistols. 

GIBSON,  Stephen— Knoxville,  Tenn.,  1812-1860.  Flintlock  and  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifles. 

GIBSON,  Stephen — Tennessee  mountain,  flintlock  rifle  maker  of 
Revolutionary  War  period.  Fought  at  Kings  Mountain  and  lived 
to  be  107  years  old. 

GIBSON,  Wiley — Tennessee  mountain,  percussion  rifle  maker,  mostly 
of  "hog  rifles."  Last  of  three  generations  of  mountain  gunsmiths, 
William,  the  father,  and  Stephen,  the  grandfather,  above.  In  1946, 
at  the  age  of  80,  though  no  longer  active,  occasionally  still 
worked  at  the  anvil. 

GIBSON,  William — Son  of  Stephen  Gibson.  Great  Smokey  Mountain, 
Tenn.,  rifle  maker.  "Took  about  four  months  in  making  a  rifle  to 
be  sold  at  court  week  at  county  seat,  to  help  pay  taxes."  Half- 
stock,  percussion,  octagonal  barrel  "hog  rifle"  marked  in  script. 

GIDDINGS— Louisa  County,  Va.,  about  1790.  Musket  maker. 

GIFFORD,  Joseph— 70  Market  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1819. 

GILBERT  &  BALES— Perm  Yan,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 

GILBERT,  Daniel — North  Brookfield,  Mass.,  musket  maker,  born 
1729,  died  1824,  at  the  age  of  96.  During  the  Revolutionary  War 
commanded  a  company  which  saw  service  at  Bennington  and 
Half  Moon,  July  13  to  Sept.  2,  1777.  In  about  1782,  established 
a  forge  and  iron  works  on  Five  Mile  River,  Brookfield.  Gilbert 
was  a  contractor  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  2,000  Charleville 
pattern,  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  875 

American  Gun  Makers  75 

are  known  to  have  been  delivered  by  June  10,  1801.  On  Oct.  13, 
1808,  he  contracted  for  5,000  muskets  for  delivery  within  five 
years  and  875  were  reported  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

GILBERT,  E.— Rochester,  N.  Y. 

GILBERT,  S.— Rochester,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  full  stock,  "mule  ear,"  pill 
lock,  muzzle  loading  rifle,  with  side  of  barrel,  at  lock,  equipped 
with  a  small  cup  to  hold  a  fulminate  pill.  German  silver  furni- 

GILBERT,  W.— Rochester,  N.  Y.,  1837.  Mule-ear  hammer,  Kentucky 
style  pill-lock  rifle. 

GILES,  RICHARDS   &  CO.— Boston,  Mass.,  flintlock  period. 

GILL,  B.  D. — Pennsylvania;  late  flintlock  and  early  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifles.  Heavy  flintlock  rifle  stamped  D.  B.  Gill  with  crossed 
arrow  and  tomahawk,  given  by  Kit  Carson  to  a  Taos  Indian  in 

GILL,  John — Newburne,  North  Carolina,  1829,  revolver? 

GILL,  T.  D.— Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1830-1840.  Late  flintlock  and 
early  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

GILL,  Warren— Unlocated.  Possibly  Whitneyville,  Conn.  Undeham- 
mer  percussion  rifle  marked  "W.G.  1846." 

GILLEN,  William— Jackson,  Ohio.  Active  before  and  after  1842.  Rifle 

GILLESPIE — New  York.  Double-barrel,  percussion  shotguns.  Per- 
cussion derringers. 

GILLESPIE,  Mathew— North  Carolina,  period  of  1825.  Plain  but  beau- 
tifully made  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  Three  generations  were 

GILMER  GUN  FACTORY— See  Alabama  Arms  Manufacturing  Co. 

GILMER,  Martin— Fayette  Co.,  Ohio.  Born  in  Virginia  1827;  moved 
to  Fayette  Co.,  with  three  brothers  when  a  young  man  and 
established  a  blacksmith  and  gunsmith  shop.  Made  half-  and 
fullstock  rifles,  mostly  10  to  12-lbs.  with  36"  barrels;  one  over- 
under  rifle-shotgun.  A  good  workman.  Made  his  last  rifle  when 
70,  retired  1898,  died  1905. 

GILMER,  William  B. — See  Alabama  Arms  Manufacturing  Co. 

GILMORE,  Henry — Connelsville,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa.  Percussion  period. 

Related  to  Howard  Gilmore.  Signed  his  arms  with  his  initials 

"H.G."  in  script. 

GILMORE,  Howard — Dickerson  Run,  Fayette  Co.,  Penna.  Maker  of 
hunting  rifles  of  good  workmanship,  with  curly  maple  stocks 
oval  patch  boxes.  Barrels  of  own  make  stamped  with  his  name 
on  top:  mostly  Leman  locks.  Born  about  1900  and  "still  works 
some  at  the  trade." 

GINERICH,  Henry— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1775-77.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety.  Excused  by  the  Executive  Council  Dec.  5,  1777, 
from  military  duties  for  the  making  of  arms  for  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania,  in  the  employ  and  under  direction  of  William 
Henry  I. 

GINGER,  L.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

GIRSCH,  Joseph— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  rear  of  137 
Green  St.,  in  1829. 

G.  J. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifle. 

76  American  Gun  Makers 

GJULCHER,  G.— Defective  die  of  G.  Goulcher,  lock  maker.  The  "O" 
is  deformed  to  resemble  "J."  Note  there  is  no  period  after  initial 
"G"  of  "G  GJULCHER";  no  serif  on  stamped  "J."  See  Goulcher, 

GLASS,  Daniel — Wyomissing  Creek,  Pa.  Built  two  gun  shops  in 
1848,  using  the  creek  water  power  to  bore  and  grind  barrels.  Sold 
his  shops  to  Gouglar  and  Haberling  about  1858. 

GLASS,  John— Putnam,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio.  War  of  1812. 

GLASS,  Peter— Ohio.  No  details. 

GLASS,  Samuel — Putnam,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio.  Made  rifles  in  War 
of  1812. 

GLASSBRENNER,  D.— Inlaid  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  Lock  by  Carter 

GLASSBRENNER,  G.— Pennsylvania.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  circa 
1820;  one  marked  No.  207. 

GLASSBRENNER,  H.— Unlocated. 

GLASSICK  &  CO. — Memphis,  Tenn.  Percussion  derringers.  Later 
Schneider  &  Glassick. 

GLATT,  N.— Pennsylvania,  about  1850.  Walnut  half-stock,  octagon 
barrel,  double  set  triggers  percussion  match  rifle. 

GLAYSMAN,  D.— Unlocated.  Rifle  maker. 

GLAZE — New  Cumberland,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

GLAZE,  WILLIAM  &  CO.— Operators  of  the  "Palmetto  Armory"  at 
Columbia,  S.  C.  Made  Model  1842  percussion  pistols  in  1852,  and 
muskets  and  swords  for  the  State  of  South  Carolina,  with 
machinery  purchased  from  the  Waters  Armory  of  Millbury,  Mass. 
During  the  Civil  War  the  firm  made  cannon,  mine  rifle  balls  and 
18  pdr.  shells  for  the  Confederacy.  Probabilities  are  that  flint- 
lock muskets  were  converted  to  percussion  between  1861  and 
1865,  but  it  is  not  believed  that  new  arms  were  manufactured.  The 
Palmetto  Armory  was  burned  by  Sherman  in  1865.  Glaze's  asso- 
ciate in  the  firm  was  Mr.  Boatwright.  In  1870,  Mr.  Glaze,  at  one 
time  a  jeweler,  advertised  his  return  to  the  jewelry  business. 

GLAZIER,  John— Belleville,  Indiana.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

GLUYAS,  T. — Charlotte,  N.  C.  Heavy,  octagonal  barrel  early  per- 
cussion rifle. 

GOBRECHT,  S.— Unlocated.  Marking  on  barrel  of  a  circa  1800,  flint- 
lock Kentucky  rifle. 

GODFREY  &  WELSH— Albany,  N.  Y.  Made  very  fine  shotguns.  One 
specimen  in  existence  today  in  a  very  heavy  4-gauge  single 
barrel  gun  showing  fine  craftsmanship  throughout.  Percussion 

GOETZ,  Frederick — Also  Getz.  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith 
in  the  City  Directory  at  225  N.  Second  in  1805,  237  N.  Second  in 
1806-07,  and  on  Sassafras  Alley,  1809-11.  In  1813-14-17,  he  is 
shown  at  163  N.  Second  and  32  Sassafras  Alley.  Fred  Goetz  is 
also  listed  as  gun  maker  at  the  Pennsylvania  Arsenal,  Juniper 
near  High  Street,  in  the  directories  1816  to  1820.  Was  associated 
with  George  W.  Try  on  in  1811,  Try  on  having  served  his  appren- 
ticeship under  Goetz,  and  then  becoming  his  partner.  See  Tryon, 
Geo.  W.  Probabilities  are  that  he  is  the  Goetz  of  Goetz  &  West- 

GOETZ    &    TRYON— Philadelphia,   Pa.,    1811.    Frederick   Goetz   and 

American  Gun  Makers  77 

George  W.  Tryon.  See  Goetz,  Frederick  above,  and  Tryon,  George 

GOETZ  &  WESTPHALL — Pennsylvania  musket  makers.  Charles 
W.  Westphall  and  Frederick  Goetz.  Contractors  of  July  13,  1808, 
for  2,500  Model  1808  muskets,  to  be  delivered  within  five  years. 
Of  these  1,019  were  recorded  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

GODWIN,  Thomas — Portsmouth,  Va.,  1861.  "A  revolver  which  fires 
9  times,  each  barrel  discharging  separately  at  intervals  ...  A 
bowie  knife  is  also  attached,  which  may  be  unshipped  or  re- 
tained in  service,  at  pleasure." 

G.  O.  &  CO. — Cincinnati,  Ohio;  percussion  Indian  rifles. 

GOLBER,  H. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  over-under  percussion  rifle. 

GOLCHER  &  BUTLER— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Back-action  percussion 
lock  with  brass  plate,  on  Plains  rifle  owned  by  Kit  Carson. 

GOLCHER  &  CO.— Third  Street,  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  1857-58. 

GOLCHER,  George— Also  often  Goulcher.  New  York,  N.  Y.  Late  flint 
and  percussion  periods.  See  Goulcher,  George. 

GOLCHER,  James— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  died  in  1805.  See  James 

GOLCHER,  James— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1833.  A  20^- 
inch  percussion  pistol. 

GOLCHER,  John — New  York,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

GOLCHER,  John— Easton,  Pa.,  1775.  Same  as  Goulcher,  John? 

GOLCHER,  Joseph— Also  Goulcher,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  later  Pacific 
Coast.  Late  flint,  early  percussion  periods. 

GOLCHER,  Manuel— Also  Goulcher.  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1824. 

GOLCHER,  William— St.  Paul,  Minn.,  1854  to  about  1870.  Maker  of 
muzzle  and  breech-loading  rifles  and  shotguns.  See  also  Golcher 
&  Co.,  and  Golcher  &  Simpson,  with  which  firms  William 
Golcher  was  associated. 

GOLCHER  &  SIMPSON— St.  Paul,  Minn.,  1855-56. 

GOMPF,  A.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1869-70. 

GOMPF,  James— Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1830. 

GONTER,  Peter— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1770-78.  Possibly  as  early  as  1750. 

GONTER,  Peter,  Jr.— North  Queen  St.,  Lancaster,  Pa.;  son  of  Peter 
Gonter.  Arms  maker.  Petitioner  to  7th  Congress  on  Jan.  28,  1803, 
for  non-removal  of  import  duties  on  arms.  Died  in  1818. 

In  1792,  Peter  Gonter  in  association  with  Jacob  Dickert 
and  John  Groff  contracted  for  "rifle  guns,"  $3,200  being  paid 
on  account.  On  Dec.  9,  1807,  Gonter  in  association  with  Jacob 
Dickert  and  Henry  DeHuff  contracted  with  Tench  Coxe,  Pur- 
veyor of  Public  Supplies,  for  600  rifles. 

GOOD,  P. — Pennsylvania,  19th  century.  Kentucky  rifles,  German 
silver  mountings  as  specialty. 

GOODELL,  J. — Olean,  N.  Y.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle  and  over- 
under  percussion  rifle-shotgun.  Perhaps  related  to  Layton  B. 
Goodell  of  Edinboro,  Erie  Co.,  Pa.,  and  Albert  B.  Goodsell  of 
Coudersport,  Potter  Co.,  Pa. 

GOODELL,  Layton  B. — Edinboro,  Erie  Co.,  Pa.  Early  percussion 
period  riflesmith. 

GOODLING,    P. — Unlocated.    Early    percussion    Kentucky   rifles. 

78  American  Gun  Makers 

GOODRICH,  W.  W.— Of  the  firm  Hyde  &  Goodrich,  15  Chartres,  New 
Orleans,  La. 

GOODSELL,  Albert  B.— Coudersport,  Potter  Co.,  Pa.  Advertised  July 
17th,  1847;  "Terms:  half  cash,  balance  in  grain,  staples,  lumber, 
furs  or  hides." 

GOODWIN,  G. — Unlocated.  Late  flintlock,  double-barreled  shotguns. 

GOODWIN,  Jonathan — Lebanon,  Conn.,  musket  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety.  Made  30  muskets;  recorded  April  13,  1778. 

GOODWIN,  J.  P. — Waterbury,  Conn.  Half  stock,  percussion  match 

GOOSLEY,  Ephraim— Yorktown,  Va.,  1738. 

GORDAN,  T.— Or  Gordan,  J.  Unidentified.  About  1840-44. 

GORDON,  Steven—Clinton,  Iowa. 

GORGAS,  Josiah— Brig.  General,  Chief  of  Ordnance  to  the  Con- 
federate States.  Born  in  Dauphin  Co.,  Pa.,  July  1,  1818.  Graduated 
from  U.  S.  Military  Academy  in  Class  of  1841;  assigned  to 
Ordnance  Dept.  Served  in  Mexican  War.  Married  a  Southern 
girl  while  stationed  in  Alabama.  Resigned  April  1861  to  become 
Chief  of  Ordnance  to  the  Confederacy.  After  the  War  became 
superintendent  of  Briarfield  iron  works  in  Alabama.  In  1877 
was  president  of  University  of  Alabama.  Died  May  15,  1883. 

GORNING,  Raymond  P.,  M.D.— Detroit,  Mich.  Modern  maker  of  per- 
cussion rifles;  designed  improved  underhammer  lock. 

GORRAGE,  Thomas— Mt.  Pleasant,  Jefferson  Co.,  Ohio. 

GORSAGE,  Thomas— Mt.  Pleasant,   Ohio. 

GORSUCH,  J.  M.— Mt.  Pleasant,  Ohio.  Silver  inlaid  half  stock,  per- 
cussion rifle.  (Related  to  Thomas  Gorsage?) 

GOUCHER,  Thomas— Also  Gouger.  Market  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Musket  barrel  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety  in  1776.  Special- 
ized in  boring  and  grinding  barrels.  Imported  muskets  in  1780. 
Had  been  associated  with  Wylie  in  cutlery  business  in  1774. 

GOUGLAR  &  HEBERLIG — Mohnton,  Pa.,  about  three  miles  south- 
west from  Reading,  on  Wyomissing  Creek.  Late  flintlock  period. 

GOUGLER,  John — Made  finished  rifle  barrels  on  Wyomissing  Creek, 
between  Gouglersville  and  Mohn's  Store,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Possibly 
the  "Gouglar"  of  Gouglar  &  Heberlig  of  Mohnton,  Pa.? 

GOULCHER,  George — Also  often  Golcher.  New  York,  N.  Y.  Late 
flint  and  percussion  periods.  Very  prolific  maker.  A  late  Ken- 
tucky, flint,  rifle  lock  with  reinforced  hammer,  roller  frizzen- 
spring  bearing  and  Manton-type  waterproof  pan,  marked  "G. 
GOULCHER"  in  a  scroll.  Original  percussion  G.  Goulcher  lock 
on  a  rifle  with  barrel  marked  in  Gothic  letters  "J.  FORDNEY 

GOULCHER,  James— Also  Golcher.  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  died  in  1805. 
A  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  maker's  name  on  lock  and  barrel; 
another  with  incised  carving  and  10  silver  inlays,  marked  "JAS. 
GOLCHER"  on  barrel. 

GOULCHER,  John — Easton,  Pa.,  active  before  and  after  1772-77. 
At  one  time  employed  in  Philadelphia  making  gun  barrels. 

GOULCHER,  Joseph— Pennsylvania,  1841.  Same  as  Golcher,  Joseph? 

GOULD— Clinton,  Pa.  Rifle  maker. 

GOVE,  A.  T. — 1871.  Small  half  stock  percussion  rifle,  German  silver 

American  Gun  Makers  79 

mounted,  lock  by  N.  D.  E.  &  Co.,  Memphis.  Possibly  same  as 
Albert  "Put"  Gove,  Lincoln,  Vt. 

GOVE,  Carlos— Born  April  19,  1817  in  Wentworth,  N.  H.  Enlisted  at 
16  in  First  U.  S.  Cavalry,  serving  through  the  Seminole  Wars 
and  in  the  West;  an  Indian  agent  for  many  years.  Apprenticed  to 
Hawken  at  St.  Louis;  in  business  there  1847-1854,  then  at  Council 
Bluffs,  Iowa,  until  1858;  also  located  in  Cheyenne,  Wyo.,  and 
Ogden,  Utah.  At  Denver,  Colo.,  1861  until  retirement  in  the 
1880's.  Employed  Geo.  C.  Schoyen  after  about  1862.  In  partner- 
ship with  John  P.  Lower  as  C.  Gove  &  Co.,  21  Edmond  St.. 
Denver,  1876-77;  died  in  Denver,  July,  1900.  Made  heavy  match 
and  bench  rifles,  telescope  sight,  also  double-barreled  mule-ear 
rifles.  A  noted  match  shooter. 

GOVE,  C.  &  CO. — Carlos  Gove,  Council  Bluffs,  Iowa,  1854-58.  21 
Edmond  St.,  Denver,  Colo.,  1874-77. 

GRAFF,  H.  C. — Unlocated.  Kentucky  flintlock  rifle,  wrist  checkered 
in  basket  weave. 

GRAEFF,  John — Lancaster,  Pa.,  musket  maker.  Associated  with 
Abraham  Henry  in  a  contract  of  April  11,  1798,  with  the  Com- 
monwealth of  Pennsylvania  for  2,000  Charleville  pattern,  (Model 
1795),  muskets.  One  of  the  petitioners  to  7th  Congress  on  Jan. 
28,  1803,  for  non-removal  of  import  duties  on  arms. 

GRAEFF,  William— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1751. 

GRAEFF,  William— Reading,  Pa.,  1867-84.  Kentucky  rifles. 

GRAFF,  Thomas — Musket  maker  associated  with  Nicholas  White  and 
Christopher  Barnhizle  in  a  contract  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798, 
for  1,000  Charleville  pattern,  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40 
per  stand  with  235  known  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

GRAH,  William  &  Son— Toledo,  Ohio,  1877-83. 

GRAHAM,  J. — Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles. 

GRAINGER,  John — Toronto,  Ontario,  Canada.  Percussion  rifles. 

GRANDSTADTT,  J.  (also  Granstatt  or  Grandstatt)— Unlocated. 
Skilled  maker  of  highly  decorated  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 


Haven,  Conn.,  1915,  Manufacturers  of  an  auto-pistol. 

GRANT,  John — St.  Patrick's  Row,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1810. 

GRANT,  Samuel— Walpole,  N.  H.  Musket  maker  1799-1801.  Asso- 
ciated with  Amasa  Allen  and  Joseph  Bernard  in  a  contract 
under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,500  Charleville  pattern,  (Model 
1795),  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand  and  of  these  1,396  were  de- 
livered by  June  10,  1801. 

GRANT,  W.  L. — Makers  of  W.  L.  Grant  6-shot  rim-fire  revolver. 

GRATIOT  MFG.  CO.— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  about  1860.  Makers  of  a  .44 
caliber  percussion  revolver. 

GRAVE,  John — Lancaster  Borough,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1773. 

GRAVES,  J. — Bangor,  Maine.  Underhammer  percussion  rifle. 

GRAY,  G.  B.— Mt.  Vernon,  Ohio,  1867-70. 

GRAY,    Sam — Ornate,   German   silver   mounted,   full   walnut   stock, 

percussion  target  rifle  equipped  with  cap  and  patch  boxes. 
GRAY,  W. — Unlocated  .Reported  maker  of  a  small,  maple  half  stock, 

percussion  ladies'  rifle,  inlaid  in  silver  animal  designs. 

80  American  Gun  Makers 

GRAYSON— Unidentified.  Heavy  18th  century  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifle,  so  marked  on  lock  and  barrel. 

GREAT  WESTERN  GUN  WORKS— Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  1866-1916.  Makers 
of  5-shot,  rim-fire,  cartridge  revolvers  and  sporting  guns.  Founded 
in  1866,  by  James  H.  Johnston  at  Penn  and  Wayne  Streets,  Pitts- 
burgh. The  plant  burned  down  in  1868  and  was  reopened  at  179 
Smithfield  St.  In  1874  the  plant  was  moved  into  a  4-story  building 
at  285  Liberty  Street.  Though  25  workmen  were  employed,  some 
of  the  finer  stock  was  imported  from  Europe.  The  following 
from  "Manufacturers  of  Pennsylvania,  1875": 

"Great  Western  Gun  Works,  Pittsburg.  This  important  in- 
dustry of  western  Penna.  was  founded  by  James  H.  Johnston,  in 
1866,  in  a  small  building  at  the  corner  of  Penn  and  Wayne 
Streets,  Pittsburg.  The  founder  being  a  practical  gunmaker  and 
possessing  natural  business  qualifications,  his  venture  proved  a 
success  from  the  start.  Two  years  later,  in  1868,  his  little  estab- 
lishment was  destroyed  by  fire,  and  the  proprietors  lost  almost 
everything,  having  little  or  no  insurance.  However,  with  that 
energy  born  of  a  determination  to  make  his  way  in  the  world, 
he  recommenced  operations  at  179  Smithfield  st.  and  soon  re- 
covered from  the  shock.  Here  business  so  prospered  with  him 
that  he  was  compelled  to  seek  more  commodious  quarters,  and 
he  moved  his  manufactory  to  the  4-story  building  at  285  Liberty 
street  in  1874.  To  give  an  idea  of  the  rapid  growth  of  the  Great 
Western  Gun  Works,  it  may  be  stated  that  the  first  years  busi- 
ness, in  1866,  amounted  to  only  $2500  in  value;  in  1874,  it  reached 
over  $150,000.  The  proprietor  finds  his  chief  difficulty  in  obtain- 
ing skilled  labor,  and  for  this  reason  is  compelled  to  have  some 
of  his  finer  stock  manufactured  in  Europe. 

He  employs  on  an  average  of  25  men,  all  skilled  workmen, 
and  obtained  after  careful  selection.  He  attributes  his  success 
to  his  practical  knowledge  of  gunmaking  and  strick  attention  to 
the  wants  of  the  trade,  especially  in  sporting  firearms,  for  which 
class  of  goods  he  has  a  constant  demand  in  every  State  and 
Territory  of  the  Union.  This  establishment  is  devoted  exclusively 
to  the  manufacture  and  sale  of  firearms,  and  the  proprietor 
gives  his  undivided  attention  to  the  business.  He  is  the  largest 
manufacturer  and  dealer  in  his  line  in  the  state  west  of  the 

GREEN— Red  Clay,  Ga.  Making  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  about  1800. 

GREEN,  Charles— Rochester,  N.  Y.,  1876-78. 

GREEN,  Elisha — Great  Smokey  Mountains  area.  Heavy  octagonal 
barrelled  "hog  rifle,"  percussion  period.  Name  found  on  barrel 
along  with  the  markings  "EUR  JA  KI." 

GREEN,  James  Capt. — Connecticut  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Received  from  Titus  Homer,  one  of  the  Arms  Committee, 
a  draft  on  the  Treasurer,  with  instructions  to  pay  "Green,"  a 
gunsmith  employed  in  making  guns  for  the  Colony. 

GREEN,  Saul — Vassar,  Mich.  Partner  of  Thomas  W.  Barnes,  late  19th 
century,  as  Barnes  &  Green.  Over-under  rifle-shotguns;  breech- 
loading  side-by-side  rifle-shotgun. 

GREENE,  Jas.  D. — In  charge  of  production  of  the  Greene  under- 
hammer,  oval  bore,  bolt  action,  percussion  rifle  made  at  Wor- 
cester, Mass.,  (in  the  old  Waters  shops)  with  machinery  bought 
from   Chas.   W.   Lancaster   of   London,   England.   The   arm  was 

American  Gun  Makers  81 

patented  by  Lt.  Col.  J.  Durrell  Greene,  U.  S.  Army,  Nov.  17, 
1857,  patent  No.  18,634.  An  advertisement  published  in  Boston 
in  1862,  mentions  the  Greene  rifles  being  then  in  the  process  of 
manufacture  by  the  Millbury  Co.,  Worcester,  Mass.,  Jas.  D. 
Greene  being  in  charge  of  the  works.  There  were  900  Greene 
rifles  purchased  by  the  government  during  the  Civil  War,  and 
some  were  used  in  the  Battle  of  Antietam,  the  peculiar  car- 
tridges, with  the  bullet  rearmost,  having  been  found  on  the 

Two  hundred  Greene  carbines,  patented  June  27,  1854,  side- 
hammer,  equipped  with  Maynard  primer  purchased  from  J.  D. 
Greene  by  the  government  on  May  24,  1855,  at  $30.00  each 
Ordnance  report  of  Nov.  5,  1857,  shows  170  Greene  carbines 
were  issued  for  use  to  the  army. 

Probabilities  are  that  Jas.  D.  Green,  or  J.  D.  Greene,  the 
arms  vendor,  and  J.  Durrell  Greene,  the  inventor  were  related, 
and  not  the  same  person.  The  government  was  not  likely  to 
purchase  arms  from  an  army  officer. 

GREENE  RIFLE  WORKS— Worcester,  Mass.,  1864.  Makers  of  Greene 

GREENLAND,  E.  M.— Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

GREENTREE,  Alexander — Pennsylvania  arms  maker  in  the  employ 
of  Lewis  Prahl,  musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety.  On 
June  12,  1776,  Greentree  was  ordered  discharged  or  furloughed 
from  the  army  in  order  to  return  to  gun  making  under  Prahl. 

GREENWOOD  &  GRAY— Columbus,  Ga.  Confederate  rifle  and  sword 
factory  established  on  City  Lot  No.  188,  purchased  Jan.  17,  1862, 
by  Eldridge  S.  Greenwood  and  William  C.  Gray,  cotton  mer- 
chants, and  Abraham  H.  DeWitt,  sword  maker,  who  had  charge 
of  the  sword  making  operations  of  the  firm.  The  rifle  factory  was 
operated  by  John  P.  Murray,  and  the  arms  stamped  "J.  P. 
MURRAY"  358  Mississippi  rifles  (M.  1841)  and  153  carbines  were 
furnished  the  State  of  Alabama  between  Oct.  1,  1863  and  Nov. 
1,  1864.  The  plant  is  believed  to  have  been  burned  by  General 
Wilson  in  1865,  and  a  cotton  mill  later  erected  on  the  si+f\  was 
known  in  1888  as  the  "Steam  Cotton  Mill,"  owned  by  J.  Rhodes 

GREGORY,  Richard— Boston,  Mass.,  1727. 

GRESHEIM— Lancaster,  Pa.,  prior  to  1783.  Kentucky  rifles. 

GRIEFF,  William— Reading,  Pa. 

GRIFFITH,  Joseph— Louisville,  Ky.,  in  1843  at  Market  St.,  between 
5th  and  6th;  in  1848  at  294  Green  St.:  1848-49  on  Walnut  St.,  be- 
tween Campbell  and  Wentzel.  In  1854  on  an  arms  buying  trip  to 
England.  Active  also  1869-70.  Employed  James  Day. 

GRIFFITHS,  John— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1839,  to  about  1865.  Contracted 
Dec.  6,  1842,  for  5,000  rifles  at  $13.00  each  to  the  delivered  at 
1,000  per  annum.  The  contract  was  taken  over  by  E.  Remington 
&  Son  due  to  Griffiths'  inability  to  make  deliveries.  Associated 
with  Henry  L.  Siebert  in  1852-54.  Rifles  and  shotguns. 

GRIFFITHS  &  SIEBERT— 729  Main  St.,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1852-54. 
See  John  Griffiths. 

GRIMES,  Daniel — Sheridan,  Lebanon,  Co.,  Pa.  Possibly  made  barrels 

GRIMM,  Frederick — Lancaster,  Pa.,   1857. 

82  American  Gun  Makers 

GRING,  Reuben — Mohnton,  Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Gun 

barrel  maker. 

GRISWOLD,  A.  B. — New  Orleans,  La.  Importer  of  arms  for  the  con- 
federacy. The  name  appears  on  English  made,  Tranter  percussion 

GRISWOLD  &  GRIER— Giles  H.  Griswold  and  E.  C.  Grier,  Griswold- 
ville,  Ga.,  (near  Macon),  manufacturers  of  Confederate,  brass 
frame,  .36  caliber  revolvers  patterned  after  Colt's  Model  1851, 

The  undertaking  originated  as  a  factory  for  the  manufacture 
of  cotton  gins  founded  at  Clinton,  (first  called  Albany),  by 
Samuel  Griswold  and  Daniel  Pratt,  who  came  to  Clinton  from 
Connecticut  about  1807.  Pratt  later  moved  to  Alabama  to  found 
Prattville.  As  the  plant  was  not  on  the  railroad,  Griswold  pur- 
chased 4,000  acres  at  Station  18,  on  Central  Railroad,  erected 
works  about  a  mile  from  it,  called  Griswoldville. 

When  the  War  started,  Giles  H.  Griswold,  successor  to 
Samuel,  obtained  a  loan  from  the  Confederate  Government  to 
convert  the  plant  to  arms  making.  On  his  death  the  business 
was  carried  on  by  Griswold's  brother-in-law,  Col.  E.  C.  Grier. 
In  Confederate  Ordnance  records  the  plant  is  also  called  "Gris- 
wold &  Gunnison." 

A  total  output  of  some  3,600  revolvers  are  believed  to  have 
been  furnished  to  the  Confederacy  at  fifty  dollars  each,  from 
summer  of  1862  to  Nov.  20,  1864  when  the  plant  was  destroyed 
by  the  10th  Ohio  Cavalry,  during  Sherman's  march  to  the  sea. 
Also  destroyed  were  the  soap  factory,  candle  factory,  shoe- 
blacking  factory  and  every  house  in  Griswoldville  except  Mr. 
Griswold's,  Mr.  Grier's  and  a  few  negro  houses.  The  ruins  of 
the  smokestack  are  still  standing. 

GROCE,  H. — Pennsylvania.  A  fine  over-under  Kentucky  rifle. 

GROFF,  H.  W.  (or  H.  S.?)— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

GROFF,  H.  S. — Unlocated.  Kentucky  style  halfstock  percussion  rifle, 
engraved  silver  inlays,  name  on  brass  barrel-inlay. 

GROFF,  J.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  early  1800's.  Kentucky  rifles.  Same  as 
John  Groff?) 

GROFF,  John — Lancaster,  Pa.,  rifle  maker.  In  association  with  Jacob 
Dickert  and  Peter  Gonter,  contracted  in  1792  for  "rifle  guns"; 
$3,200.00  being  paid  them  on  account. 

GROOMS— West  Union,  Adams  Co.,  Ohio. 

GROOT,  Henry— Pittsfield,  Mass.,  1866-68.  Also  Minneapolis,  Minn., 
1869-71.  Same?  Percussion  rifle. 

GROSS  ARMS  CO.— Henry  and  Charles  B.  Gross,  Tiffin,  Ohio, 
1864-66.  Makers   of   the   Gross  patent  rim-fire   7-shot  revolvers. 

GROSS,  H.  &  C.  B.— Henry  and  Charles  Gross.  See  Gross  Arms  Co. 
Active  together  1852  to  about  1864.  Henry  Gross  had  been  as- 
sociated with  Gwyn  &  Campbell,  and  was  active  in  the  arms 
making  industry  from  about  1849  to  1880.  Charles  B.  is  listed 
alone  from  1880  to  1886. 

GROVE,  L.— Lancaster,  Co.,  Pa.,  1815-1840.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

GROVE,  S.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  circa  1815. 

GROVE,  Samuel— York  County,  Pa.,  1779-83,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

GROVER  &  LOVELL— Boston,  Mass.,  1841-44.  See  John  P.  Lovell 
Arms  Co, 

American  Gun  Makers  83 

GROVES,  Isaac— Chillicothe,  Ohio,  1804-1818. 

GRUBB,  George — New  York,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

GRUBB,  J.  C. — Maple  full  stock,  octagon,  smoothbore  percussion  Ken- 
tucky with  oval  brass  patchbox  and  set  triggers.  See  also  Grubb, 
Jos.  C.  &  Co. 

GRUBB,  Jos  C.  &  Co.— 712  Market  St.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  from  before 
1855  to  1886. 

GRUBB,  Col.  Peter — Lancaster,  Pa.,  gun  barrel  maker  to  Lancaster 
Committee  of  Safety.  Operated  a  forge  for  the  manufacture  of 
gun  skelps  for  musket  barrel.  Marcus  Nagle,  Nicholas  Scove, 
Thomas  Nabury,  Peter  McMullen  and  John  Jones  (stocktaker), 
in  his  employ  at  the  forge,  were  excused  on  Aug.  16,  1776,  by 
the  Lancaster  Committee,  to  remain  at  work  and  not  march 
with  the  militia. 

GRUBB,  T.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  about  1820  and  later.  Beautiful,  silver 
inlaid  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle;  ornate,  finely  made  pair  of  flint- 
lock Kentucky  duelling  pistols;  flintlock  holster  pistol. 

GRUDCHOS  &  EGGERS— New  Bedford,  Mass.  A  fine  percussion 
target  rifle  beautifully  carved  and  engraved.  Samuel  Eggers, 
working  alone  in  New  Bedford  about  1840-1865,  made  a  heavy 
100  caliber  percussion  whaling  gun  with  wood  forestock,  half- 
octagon  barrel  and  back-action  lock. 

G.  S. — Unidentified.  Early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  slender  wrist, 
high  comb,  no  patchbox,  carved  stock.  Another,  script  marking, 
with  patchbox  and  many  inlays. 

GUEST,  I. — Pennsylvania  pistol  maker.  Had  worked  in  the  Warwick 
Iron  Works  which  cast  cannon  during  the  War  of  Revolution. 

GUEST,  John — In  association  with  Peter  Brong  and  Abraham  Henry, 
had  contracted  with  Tench  Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies, 
for  pistols  and  rifles.  John  Guest  is  probably  identical  with 
I.  Guest,  letters  J  and  I  being  interchanged  rather  freely  at  that 

GUGER,  P. — Muray,  Pa.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

GUIGNARD— Columbia,  S.  C.  See  Radcliffe  &  Guignard. 

GUILLAM,  Benjamin — Massachusetts,  1775-76.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety. 

GUIN,  James— Ohio.  Early. 

GUIN,  John— Ohio.  Early. 

GUION,  T.  F. — New  Orleans,  La.  Percussion  derringer. 

GUMP,  Jonathan— Upper  Sandusky,  Wyandotte  Co.,  Ohio,   1852-82. 

GUMPF,  A.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1869-1870  and  before.  (Also  Gompf, 
Gumph?)  Related  to,  probably  contemporaneous  with  Christopher 
Gumpf — used  C.  GUMPF  die  overstamped  with  initial  A.  Both 
made  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  in  the  late  19th  century.  A  German 
silver  mounted  halfstock  percussion  rifle,  A.  W.  Spies  back- 
action  lock. 

GUMPF,  Christopher  (or  Gumph) — Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  1830-after 
1888.  Very  long  Kentucky  rifles;  made  a  flintlock  rifle  as  late  as 

GUMPF,  J.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle,  circa  1800. 

GUMPF,  James— Lancaster,  Pa.,  died  about  1887.  A  rotating  over- 
under  flintlock  rifle-shotgun;  percussion  Kentucky  rifles.  Three 
59-inch  rifling  guides,  straight  cut  or  rifled  one  turn  in  48  inches. 

84  American  Gun  Makers 

GUMPH,  Christopher— Or  Gumpp.  Lancaster,  Pa.,  1798.  Musket 
maker.  One  of  the  petitioners  to  the  7th  Congress  on  Jan.  28, 
1803,  for  the  non-removal  of  import  duties  on  arms. 

GURN,  A. — Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles. 

GUYER,  J.  P. — Muncie,  Pa.  Over-under  percussion  Kentucky  rifle- 
shotgun  with  back-action  locks.  Probably  same  as  John  Guyer 
and  J.  P.  Guyler,  late  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

GUYLER,  J.  P. — Unlocated.  Late  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

G.  W. — Unidentified.  Walnut  halfstock  percussion  rifle  of  indifferent 
workmanship.  Converted  factory  lock,  mother-of-pearl  star  in 
cheekpiece.  Large  letters  "G.W."  on  barrel.  Reported  first  used 
in  1877  in  Moravia,  Iowa. 

G.  W.  C. — Script  initials  on  barrel  of  halfstock  rifle  by  George  W. 
Craft,  q.v.  Most  of  his  work  was  unmarked. 

G.  W.  S. — Unidentified.  Script  marking  on  barrel  of  circa  1820  No. 
Penna.  type  Kentucky  rifle  with  carved  Roman  nose  stock. 

GWINN,  Alexander — McCoysville,  Juniata  Co.,  Pa.  Maple  full-stock, 
octagon  barrel,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  double  set-triggers. 

GWYN  &  CAMPBELL— Hamilton,  Ohio.  Edward  Gwynn  and  Abner 
C.  Campbell.  Established  the  Cosmopolitan  Arms  Co.,  or  the 
Gwyn  &  Campbell  "Arsenal  and  Gun  Factory"  at  Hamilton,  in 
the  fall  of  1860,  for  the  manufacture  of  the  Cosmopolitan  breech- 
loading  percussion  carbine,  patented  Oct.  21,  1862.  The  arm  was 
also  known  as  the  Union,  or  the  Grapevine.  The  firm  employed 
120  workmen  during  the  Civil  War,  and  furnished  9,342  carbines 
to  the  government,  as  well  as  quantities  to  military  organizations 
and  to  the  State  of  Kentucky. 

The  Cosmopolitan  carbine  is  sometimes  also  referred  to  as 
the  Gross,  after  Henry  Gross  who  was  associated  with  Gwyn  & 
Campbell  in  the  development  of  the  arm,  and  secured  patents 
covering  minor  improvements  in  the  action. 


H.— See  Darling,  B.  &  B.  M. 

H  pierced  by  arrow — lockplate  marking  on  locks  marked  "J.  C.  M. 

DAYTON;"   also   locks  on  two  rifles  by  J.  B.  Hixson.  May  be 

Hixson's  mark. 
HABERSTRO,   Joseph— 147   Main   St.,   Buffalo,   N.   Y.,   1832-44.   Rifle 

maker,  flintlock  and  percussion. 
HACKNEY,  William  W.— Dayton,  Ohio,  1859-69. 
HADEN,  James— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1769. 
HAEFFER— Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle;   lock  by   Brong.   Probably  by 

John  or  Jacob  Haeffer. 
HAEFFER,  Jacob — Lancaster,  Pa.,  musket  maker.  Contractor  to  the 

Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  on  April  17,  1801,  for  500  Charle- 

ville  pattern,  (Model  1795),  muskets. 
HAEFFER,  John — Lancaster,  Pa.  John  and  Jacob  (see  above)  Haeffer 

were  among  the  petitioners  to  the  7th  Congress  on  Jan.  28,  1803, 

for  non-removal  of  import  duties  on  arms. 
HAEFFER,  P.  B.— (Haefner?),  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle,  lock  hand- 
made; raised  carving  and  16  silver  inlays. 

American  Gun  Makers  85 

HAGA,  Wolfgang— Reading  Town,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  1767-84. 

HAGEDORN,  A.  M.— Detroit,  Mich. 

HAGER,  Jonathan — Founder  of  Hagerstown,  Washington  Co.,  Md. 
Listed  as  gunsmith  in  Hager  land-patent  dated  August  10,  1753. 

HAGI,  J. — Early  Pennsylvania  gunsmith. 

HAHN— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1870. 

HAHN,  Henry— Zanesville,  Ohio,  1804. 

HAHN,  W.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1858. 

HAIMAN,  Louis  and  Elias — See  Columbus  Fire  Arms  Mfg.  Co. 

HAIMES,  William— Harvey  Towne,  Md.,  1688.  It  was  ordered  that 
all  public  arms  at  Mettapany  be  taken  to  "William  Haimes,  Gun 
Maker  at  Harvey  Towne"  to  be  fixed  and  made  fit  for  service. 

HAIN,  P.  L. — Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles. 

HAINES,  G. — Pennsylvania;  late  Kentucky  rifles. 

HAINES,  Isaac — Pennsylvania,  about  1730.  Kentucky  rifles. 

HALBACH  &  SONS — Listed  in  Baltimore  and  Washington  directories 
as  maker  of  firearms  and  cutlery.  Produced  characteristic  Ameri- 
can pistols  with  U.S.  eagle  and  shield  and  stars  on  butt  cap.  1785 
and  later. 

HALBURN,  Casper — Lancaster,  Pa.,  1775.  Musket  maker  to  Commit- 
tee of  Safety.  Ex-employee  of  William  Henry  I. 

HALDEMAN,  D.— Fayette  Co.,  Pa.  Late  maker  of  Kentucky  rifles. 

HALDEMAN,  F.— Heidelburg,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  died  about  1887.  Fine 
rifled  flintlock  Kentucky  target  pistol,  hand-made  lock  with  F. 
Haldeman  engraved  on  silver  inlay. 

HALE,  B.  J. — Worcester,  Mass.,  percussion  period. 

HALE,  E.  &  W. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Concealed  trigger,  percussion 
pocket  pistol. 

HALE  &  FULLER — Hartford,  Conn.  Underhammer  percussion  pistol. 

HALE,  J.  H. — Worcester,  Mass.  Maker  of  J.  H.  Hale  under-hammer, 
percussion  pistol. 

HALE,  Mathias—  Gunsmith.  Juniper  Race,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

HALERSTROH,  L.— Fremont,  Ohio,  1866-68. 

HALK,  I.  or  J. — Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1790;  possibly  same  as  J.  Hoake. 
Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

HALL,  Alexander— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1850. 

HALL,  Charles— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1880. 

HALL,  Charles,  Jr. — Oquaga  Lake,  N.  Y.,  to  about  1897,  then  at 
McClure  Settlement  until  1927.  Born  1872;  died  1927.  Black- 
smith, mechanic  and  repairman.  Made  few  muzzle  loading  guns. 

HALL,  Daniel— Present  Richland  Co.,  Ohio,  1800.  Gunsmith  to  In- 

HALL,  E.  L.— Springfield,  Mass. 

HALL,  George  H. — Pittsylvania  Courthouse,  Va.  Made  and  altered 

HALL,  John — Armorer.  Was  paid  $538  12/90,  New  Emission  Currency, 
(at  exchange  four  for  one,  equal  to  $134  48/90  in  specie)  for  re- 
pairing 100  muskets,  1  pistol  and  2  rifles  at  Phila.,  July  9,  1781. 

HALL,  John  H. — Yarmouth,  Maine.  In  association  with  William 
Thornton  of  Washington,   D.   C,   inventor  of  the   Hall  breech- 

86  American  Gun  Makers 

loading  firelock  (flintlock)  patented  Mar.  21,  1811.  Between 
1811  and  1816,  at  Portland,  Maine,  Hall  made  a  limited  number 
of  sporting  arms  and  pistols  embodying  his  system  of  breech- 

About  1812,  Hall  adopted  his  system  to  the  heavier  charge 
of  martial  long  arms,  and  for  a  time  vainly  attempted  to  have 
them  accepted  by  the  services.  Finally  in  January,  1817,  after 
successful  tests  of  1813  and  1816,  Hall  was  given  a  contract  for 
100  rifles  at  $25.00  each,  for  service  trials  and  tests.  As  a 
result  of  favorable  reports  on  his  arms,  the  rifle  was  officially 
adopted,  and  after  another  period  of  two  years  spent  at  the 
Harpers  Ferry  Armory  perfecting  the  mechanism,  J.  H.  Hall 
received  a  contract  for  1,000  breech-loading  rifles  bearing  his 
name.  In  order  to  insure  quantity  production  and  proper  con- 
struction, Hall  entered  government  employ  as  assistant  armorer 
at  the  Harpers  Ferry  Armory  to  supervise  the  manufacture  of 
his  arms,  at  a  salary  of  $60.00  per  month  and  a  royalty  of 
$1.00  per  rifle.  In  connection  with  the  production  of  these  arms, 
Hall  followed  in  the  footsteps  of  Simeon  North,  pistol  maker, 
and  designed  and  constructed  a  number  of  machines  used  in  the 
manufacture  of  his  rifles  in  order  to  insure  interchangeability 
of  parts  and  facility  of  manufacture.  This  was  the  first  in- 
stance of  practical  standardization  of  parts  in  a  government  arms 

The  necessary  rifle  making  machinery  for  quantity  pro- 
duction was  completed  between  1819  and  1823,  and  in  the  latter 
year  the  Harpers  Ferry  Armory  went  into  production,  com- 
pleting the  first  thousand  in  1824,  at  the  cost  of  $20.59  per 
rifle,  complete  with  bayonet,  flask,  bullet  mold,  wiper,  spring 
vise  and  screw  driver,  that  amount  also  including  packing  and 
a  fee  of  $1.00,  Hall  patent  right.  The  second  thousand  was  made 
in  1827,  the  cost  declining  to  but  $14.71  per  stand. 

In  all,  22,870  Hall  rifles  were  made  at  the  Harpers  Ferry 
Armory  between  1823  and  1844,  on  which  Hall  in  addition  to  his 
salary  and  allowances,  received  $20,220  in  royalties  on  his  ma- 
chinery and  "privilege  of  patent  rights,"  to  July,  1841.  This 
sum  includes  $1,600.00  paid  his  son,  after  John  H.  Hall's  death 
on  Feb.  26,  1841. 

In  addition  to  the  Harpers  Ferry  Armory  made  Hall  rifles, 
many  thousands  Hall  system  arms,  especially  carbines,  were 
made  on  government  contracts  by  the  Simeon  North  Armory 
at  Middletown,  Conn. 

HALL,  P.  E. — Ashtabula,  Ohio.  Percussion,  false  muzzle  target  rifles. 

HALL,  S.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1846-50. 

HALL,  Samuel — East  Haddam,  Conn.  Musket  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety,  Connecticut.  Contracted  to  make  400  muskets  with 
bayonets  at  3  pounds,  5  shillings.  He  completed  and  delivered 
153  stands,  completed  70  more  which  he  reported  on  hand,  "also 
45  barrels  that  are  bored  and  79  that  are  not,  and  fit  to  bore, 
together  with  bayonets,  loops,  breech  pins,  mountings  and 

HAMILTON,    Joseph— North    Carolina;    making    flintlock   Kentucky 

rifles  in  1821. 
HAMM,  A.  J.— 241  Edgewood  Ave.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Modern  flintlock 

and  percussion  rifles,  authentic  period  reproductions;  rebuilding, 

restoration,  and  repair. 

American  Gun  Makers  87 

HAMMOND,  B.  L.— Rim-fire  carbine,  about  1866-67. 

HAMPTON,  J.  N.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

HANCOCK,  Ethan — Cut  off  pistol  barrels  to  size,  Springfield  Armory, 

HANDLIN,  John — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety,  1776.  Handlin  was  one  of  the  petitioners,  representing 
gun  makers,  complaining  in  November,  1776,  to  the  Committee 
of  Safety  against  the  high  cost  of  materials  and  labor  entering 
into  arms-making,  and  quoting  advances  in  prices  within  one 
year,  from  1775. 

HANKINS,  Wm. — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  5-shot  percussion  revolver. 

HANKS,  Uriah — Mansfield,  Conn.  Gun-lock  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  From  June  10,  1776,  made  87  double-bridled  locks.  In 
April,  1777,  made  15  gun-locks.  Payment  recorded  June,   1777. 

HANNIS,  James— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1841-44.  In- 
spected arms  in  the  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

HANNIS,  Joseph — Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  193  St.  John  in 

HAPGOOD— Boston,  Mass.,  1872. 

HAPGOOD,  H.— Percussion  period. 

HAPGOOD,  Joab— Shrewsbury,  Mass.  Born  about  1800.  Careful 
workman  made  all  parts  of  his  arms.  Shop  was  located  on  Oak 
Street  on  top  of  a  hill.  His  house,  across  from  his  shop,  had  been 
built  in  1747.  Later  lived  on  Main  Street,  Shrewsbury.  At  one 
time  had  a  sporting  goods  store  in  Boston.  Died  in  1890  and  is 
buried  in  Mt.  View  Cemetery. 

HAPPOLD,  J.  H.— See  J.  M.  Happold. 

HAPPOLD,  J.  M.— Charleston,  S.  C.  Established  in  1853  at  the  corner 
of  Meeting  and  Cumberland  Streets.  Maker  of  duelling  pistols, 
derringers,  percussion  rifles  and  shotguns.  Business  carried  on  by 
J.  H.  Happold,  son,  who  made  breech-loading  arms  in  1883. 

HAQUARD — Portsmouth,  Lawrence  Co.,  Ohio. 

HARA,  Nicholas — Troy,  N.  Y.,  in  1840.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

HARDEN,  G.  W.— Moulton,  Iowa,  1853.  Came  from  Ohio  in  1848  to 
build  his  shop  at  Moulton.  The  state  at  the  time  was  a  "hunter's 
paradise"  and  Harden  specialized  in  plain  stocked  but  well  made, 
accurate  hunting  rifles,  decorated  only  on  special  order.  At  times 
did  not  mark  his  barrels.  Died  in  1880. 

HARDER — Williamsport,  Pa.,  late  percussion  period. 

HARDER,  C.  E.  &  CO.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  type  flintlock  pistols. 

HARDER,  G.  W.— Tyrone,  Pa.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

HARDER,  H.  &  T.  CUSHMAN— Makers  of  half  stock,  "mule  ear" 
lock,  muzzle  loading,  percussion  rifle. 

HARDER,  J.  E.— Clearfield,  Pa.  1886-1890.  Maker  of  Harder  breech- 
loading  rifles  and  shotguns. 

HARDER,  Jacob— Lock  Haven,  Pa.,  active  about  1846-60.  Harder 
was  born  about  1820,  and  in  1838  began  serving  a  six  years' 
apprenticeship  with  Bartlett  Brothers,  in  Binghamton,  N.  Y. 
Upon  completion,  he  worked  for  two  years  as  a  journeyman, 
then  opened  his  own  shop  in  Athens,  Pa.  Harder  moved  to 
Lock  Haven  in  1860,  where  his  plant,  making  muzzle  loading 
percussion  rifles  employed  eight  gunsmiths.  Harder  also  made 

88  American  Gun  Makers 

cased  duelling  pistols  for  Southern  trade,  as  well  as  multi- 
barreled  rifles. 

HARDER,  Wm.  H.— Clearfield,  Pa.,  3-barrel  guns. 

HARDESTY,  Charles— West  Las  Animas,  Col.,  1875. 

HARDIN,  Enoch — Birchwood,  later  Soddy  (near  Chattanooga),  Tenn., 
19th-20th  century.  Heavy  percussion  match  rifles  of  fine  accuracy. 

HARDING— Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifles. 

HARDY,  C.  E.  &  CO.— Marking  on  the  lock  of  a  flintlock  Kentucky 

type  pistol  with  barrel  marked  "H.  B." 
HARKER,  C.  P.  or  G.  P.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

HARMON,  Is.— Sulphur  Springs,  Ohio,  1851.  Heavy  bench  rifle. 

HARMON,  L. — Unlocated  Southern  riflesmith.  A  converted  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle  with  strap-iron  trigger  guard,  no  buttplate;  lock 
(perhaps  converted  before  use)  by  Longstreet  &  Cook,  Phila. 
Rifle  came  from  Henry  Co.,  Ky. 

HARPERS  FERRY  ARMORY— Established  in  1796,  by  George  Wash- 
ington, who  attracted  by  the  ample  water  power  facilities  at 
Harpers  Ferry,  Va.,  located  at  the  confluence  of  the  Potomac 
and  Shenandoah  Rivers,  selected  that  locality  for  the  site  of 
one  of  two  Federal  armories  and  arsenals  authorized  by  Congress 
in  the  Act  of  April  2,  1794. 

Harpers  Ferry  was  named  for  Robert  Harper,  who  settled 
there  in  1747,  and  established  a  ferry  across  the  Potomac.  The 
site  consisted  of  125  acres  of  land  purchased  from  the  Harper 
family.  Though  the  construction  of  buildings  and  shops  was 
begun  in  1796,  the  first  output  of  arms  is  recorded  in  1801,  when 
293  muskets  were  made.  During  its  existence  the  armory  aver- 
aged over  10,000  muskets  and  rifles  annually,  and  about  75,000 
small  arms  were  kept  in  storage  reserve. 

The  armory  gained  considerable  public  attention  in  1859, 
through  its  capture  for  a  day  by  a  rabid  abolitionist,  John 
Brown,  who,  with  a  party  of  nineteen  others,  unsuccessfully  at- 
tempted to  seize  arms  for  the  arming  and  revolt  of  Negro 
slaves.  The  abortive  attempt  cost  John  Brown  his  life  by  execu- 

At  the  time  of  Virginia's  secession,  Harpers  Ferry  Armory 
was  garrisoned  by  Lt.  Roger  Jones,  U.  S.  Army,  and  a  detach- 
ment of  45  enlisted  men.  On  the  night  of  April  18,  1861,  con- 
fronted with  the  imminent  capture  of  the  armory  by  an  assem- 
bling large  body  of  Virginia  militia,  Lt.  Jones  set  fire  to  the 
arsenal  and  the  armory,  destroying  over  20,000  stored  small 
arms,  and  as  much  public  property  as  possible,  and  retreated 
across  the  Potomac.  Some  of  the  arms,  equipment  and  ma- 
chinery were  salvaged  by  the  Confederates  and  were  used  by 
them  later  in  the  assembly  and  manufacture  of  Confederate 
arms.  See  Fayetteville  Arsenal. 

HARRIC,  Jason  L. — Or  Harris.  Unidentified.  Late  flintlock  period, 
before  1825. 

HARRINGTON— Sturbridge,  Mass.  Percussion  pistol. 

HARRINGTON,  Ab.— Vassar,  Mich.  Partner  of  Thomas  W.  Barnes, 
post-Civil  War;  together  made  two  percussion  over-under  rifle- 
shotguns  per  week  at  $20  each. 

HARRINGTON,  H.  B.— Lebanon,  N.  H. 

HARRINGTON,  Luke— Sutton,  Mass.,  1832. 

American  Gun  Makers  89 

HARRINGTON  &  RICHARDSON— Revolver  and  shotgun  manufac- 
turers. The  business  was  established  in  1871,  by  Gilbert  H. 
Harrington  and  Frank  Wesson  at  18  Manchester  St.,  Worcester, 
Mass.,  in  the  shops  where  Wesson  had  made  his  rifles.  Wesson 
sold  out  his  interest  in  1874,  to  Harrington,  who  taking  William 
A.  Richardson  into  partnership,  renamed  the  firm  Harrington  & 
Richardson.  The  plant  was  moved  to  Hermon  Street  in  1876,  and 
later,  in  1894,  to  Park  Avenue.  In  1880  in  addition  to  their 
revolver  line,  the  firm  obtained  license  to  manufacture  shotguns 
on  the  Anson  &  Deeley  system. 

William  A.  Richardson  was  born  Dec.  20,  1833.  Came  to  Wor- 
cester in  1863  and  made  gun  tools  for  the  Ballard  arms.  Had 
worked  for  Frank  Wesson  in  1866. 

HARRIS,  C.  H.  &  DARLING,  W.  K.— Otsego,  Mich.,  mule-ear,  over- 
under  rifle. 

HARRIS,  Henry— Middletown,  Paxton,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1779. 

HARRIS,  Isaac— Savage  Town,  Md.,  before  and  after  1772-76.  Musket 
and  rifle  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety. 

HARRIS,  Jason  L. — See  Herric,  Jason  L. 

HARRIS,  Luke— Sutton,  Mass.,  1832. 

HARRIS,  William — Seneca  Co.,  near  "Fort  Sandoski,"  Ohio,  prior  to 
1812.  First  white  gunsmith  to  the  Indians.  Spoke  fluent  Seneca. 

HARRIS,  William— Baltimore,  Md.,  1856. 

HARRIS,  William— 208  Leidersdorff,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1861-65. 
(with  F.  Newhoff?). 

HART — Frewsburg,  N.  Y.  A  heavy  halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

HART,  B.  F.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1855-65. 

HART,  B.  J.  &  BRO.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1857  and  after.  Makers  of 
5-shot  percussion  revolvers  and  single-shot  percussion  pistols. 

HARTFORD  ARMS  CO.— Hartford,  Conn.  .22  cal.  sheath  trigger 
pocket  revolvers. 

HARTIG,  J.— Dubuque,  Iowa,  1868. 

HARTMAN — Erie,  Pa.  Walnut  half  stock,  percussion  smooth  rifle. 

HARTMAN,  P.  &  J.  HAHN— Erie,  Pa.  Percussion  single-barrel  shot- 
gun, so  marked  on  barrel. 

HARVEL,  G.  W.  &  BROS.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle  with  lock  by 
Henry  Elwell. 

HARVEY,  Thomas  H.— Born  1795,  died  1854.  Rotating  tumbler  gun 
lock:— pat.  1849. 

HARWOOD,  Nathaniel  H.— Brookfield,  Mass.,  about  1825-40. 

HASDELL,  T.  R.— 70  E.  Madison  Ave.,  Chicago,  111.,  1881-84. 

HASKELL,  R. — Painesville,  Ohio,  maker  of  rifles  with  Remington 
barrels.  Born  1827,  died  June  24,  1882. 

HASLETT,  James — Superintendent  of  Robert  McCormick's  musket 
factory.  When  McCormick  failed  on  a  contract  with  the  State  of 
Virginia  for  4,000  muskets  about  1797,  Haslett  took  over  the  con- 
tract and  completed  deliveries. 

Haslett  was  born  in  Ireland  and  brought  to  the  United  States 
by  McCormick  of  Philadelphia.  He  established  his  own  place  in 
Baltimore  in  1803.  Served  as  a  Major  in  the  War  of  1812,  and  was 
in  the  Battle  of  North  Point.  Haslett  was  in  business  until  1824, 
and  his  duelling  pistols  are  prized  as  works  of  art.  He  died  in 
Calvert  County  in  1833. 

90  American  Gun  Makers 

HASLETT,  John— Also  Hazlett.  Baltimore,  Md.,  1804-1824.  Listed  in 
the  1824  Baltimore  Directory  at  28  Water  St.  Pistol  maker. 

HATCH,  C.  P.— Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles. 

HATCH.  W. — Burlington,  Vt.,  early  percussion  period. 

HATCH,  Warren— Plattsburg,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after  1850.  Same  as 
Hatch,  W? 

HATCHER,  P.  P.— Belmont  Co.,  O.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

HATCHER,  P.— Maker  of  a  full  maple  stock,  brass  patch  box,  36" 
octagonal  barrel,  flintlock  rifle. 

HATTERSLEY,  Henry— Cleveland,  Ohio,  1850-71.  Gun  manufactory. 

HAVEN,  N.— Puts  Corners,  Ulster  Co.,  N.  Y.,  1800. 

HAVER,  George  W.— 105  Hill  Ave.,  Carnegie,  Pa.  Modern  rebuilt 
flintlock  and  percussion  Kentucky  rifles.  Learned  under  Uriah 
Fisher  at  Rices  Landing,  Greene  Co.,  Pa. 

HAWES  &  WAGGONER— Charleston,  S.  C.  Percussion  derringers. 

HAWK,  Nicholas— Gilbert,  Monroe  Co.,  Pa.  About  1840-45.  Beautiful 
late  Kentucky  rifle. 

HAWKEN,  D.  T. — Springfield,  Ohio.  Plain,  long-barreled  percussion 
Kentucky  rifles  stamped  with  name  and  address;  one  reported 
bought  second  hand  in  1852. 

HAWKEN,  John — Hagerstown,  Md.,  gunsmith.  Father  of  Jacob  and 
Samuel  Hawken.  Active  about  1785-1808.  The  Hawken  family, 
according  to  tradition,  are  believed  to  have  been  originally  of 
Welsh  ancestry.  They  are  said  to  have  left  British  Isles  to  escape 
some  form  of  taxation.  There  was  also  a  legend  that  the  family 
had  participated  in  ship  raiding  and  wrecking  off  the  rocky 
Welsh  coast  and  left  the  country  under  Crown  pressure.  From 
Rose  Abbey,  Wales,  they  emigrated  to  Holland,  thence  to  Amer- 
ica, eventually  settling  at  Hagerstown,  Md.  By  his  wife,  Julienne, 
of  Dutch  ancestry,  he  had  many  children,  including  at  least  five 
boys,  of  whom  Jacob  and  Samuel  migrated  West,  the  other 
three  remaining  in  Hagerstown  to  carry  on  their  father's  gun- 
smith trade. 

HAWKEN,  Jacob  and  Samuel — Famed  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  rifle  makers. 
Hawken  brothers  were  born  at  Hagerstown,  Md.,  Jacob  in  1786, 
Samuel  on  Oct.  26,  1792,  of  a  gunsmith  family  of  Welsh-Dutch 
Ancestry.  In  1821,  Jacob  Hawken,  the  elder  brother  was  listed 
at  214  N.  Main  St.,  in  the  St.  Louis  Directory.  In  1822,  Samuel 
arrived  from  Xenia,  Ohio,  where  he  had  operated  a  gun  shop.  The 
brothers  opened  a  new  shop  at  29  Washington  Ave.,  (the  present 
location  of  Eads  Bridge).  Jacob  Hawken  died  of  cholera  May  9, 
1849,  the  shop  being  operated  by  Samuel  until  1859,  when  Samuel 
Hawken  went  to  Denver,  Colo.,  with  his  son,  also  a  gunsmith. 
The  operation  of  the  shop  was  left  with  William  Watt,  an  old 
employe  of  the  firm. 

The  family  records  are  meager.  Little  is  known  of  Jacob 
Hawken  except  that  he  had  married  Catherine  Allison  of  St. 
Louis,  and  that  his  arms  were  held  in  high  esteem.  His  papers 
were  burned  during  the  cholera  epidemic  and  his  body  was 
placed  in  the  Mississippi  River  for  burial,  so  no  cemetery  records 
are  available.  Samuel  had  been  in  the  service  in  the  War  of 
1812,  and  was  present  at  the  Battle  of  Bladensburg.  In  1861, 
Samuel  Hawken  and  his  son  returned  to  St.  Louis,  and  a  year 
later  sold  the  "Hawken"  shop  to  John  P.  Gemmer,  a  former  em- 
ployee, who  continued  the  manufacture  of  the  Hawken  rifles, 

American  Gun  Makers  91 

under  that  name,  for  a  number  of  years  before  changing  the 
name.  See  Gemmer,  John  P.  Samuel  Hawken  died  in  St.  Louis, 
Mo.,  May  8,  1884,  and  is  buried  in  the  Bellefontaine  Cemetery. 

HAWKEN,  W. — St.  Louis,  Mo.,  maker  of  a  full  stock  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle.  William  S.  Hawken  was  the  son  of  famed  rifle  maker 
Samuel  Hawken.  Was  known  to  plainsmen  trade  as  "Jake  Haw- 
ken's  nephew." 

HAWKINS,  Henry-— Schenectady,  N.  Y.,  rifle  maker  1769-1775.  One 
of  four  rifle  makers  induced  by  Sir  William  Johnson  to  come  out 
and  settle  in  New  York  State  by  grants  of  buildings  and  tools. 
By  1775  rifle  making  had  become  an  enterprising  industry  with 
most  of  the  settlers  and  Indians  trading  their  smoothbores  for 
rifles,  and  New  York  was  second  only  to  Pennsylvania  in  their 

HAWKINS,  Hiram — Edinboro,  Erie  Co.,  Pa.  Percussion  rifles  and 

HAWKINS,  John— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1840.  Inspected 
arms  in  the  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

HAYDEN,  Bemiah— Unlocated.  Making  Kentucky  rifles  in  1838. 

HAYNES,  Joshua— Waltham,  Mass. 

HAYNES,  William  B.— Chillicothe,  Ohio. 

HAYWOOD,  Wm. — Milwaukee,  Wis.,  "Importer,  dealer  and  manufac- 
turer of  guns,  pistols  and  maker  of  Improved  Gain  Twist  Rifle," — 
"Shotguns  made  to  Shoot  Close."  Located  at  228  West  Water 
Street  1847-49  and  at  252  West  Water   1851-61. 

HAZARD  &  BLAIR — Percussion  pistols. 

H.  B. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  the  barrel  of  a  Kentucky  type,  flint- 
lock pistol  with  lock  marked  "C.  E.  Hardy  &  Co." 

*HB* — Unidentified.  Script  monogram  die-stamped  on  the  barrel  of 
a  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  engraved  patchbox.  Four  dots 
in  the  crossbar  of  the  H. 

H.  D. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 
HEAL,  John— See  Heal  Rifle  Co. 

HEAL  RIFLE  COMPANY— 12-18  Atwater  St.,  West,  Detroit,  Mich. 
Makers  of  boy's  .22  rifles,  lever  action,  loaded  from  underneath. 
John  G.  Heal  was  listed  as  laborer  in  1893;  in  1901  was  secretary 
and  treasurer  of  the  Detroit  Brass  and  Iron  Novelty  Co.  In 
1904  the  Heal  Rifle  Co.  was  at  the  same  address.  In  1905-06, 
called  the  Detroit  Rifle  Co.,  same  address.  Evidently  the  enter- 
prise had  a  limited  life  as  in  1909  John  G.  Heal  is  listed  as 
laborer  again.  The  building  is  now  the  shipping  department  of 
Vernor's  Ginger  Ale. 

HEATON,   A.— Unlocated.   Flintlock   Kentucky   rifle  with  full  curly 

maple  stock. 
HEATON,  Morgan— Putnam,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio.  War  of  1812. 
HEATONS,  S.  E.— Percussion  rifle  with  Remington  lock. 

HEBERLIG — Barrelmaker  on  Wyomissing  Creek  near  Reading,  Berks 
Co.,  Pa.  Member  of  firm  Gougler  &  Heberlig,  Mohnton,  Pa. 
Barrels  of  double  percussion  rifle  by  F.  Altmier,  both  marked 

HECK,  K.— Unlocated. 

HECKENBACH,  John  A. — Milwaukee,  Wis.  Gun  maker  and  designer 
located  at  473  Third  Street  1877-78.  Patent  for  a  breech-loading 

92  American  Gun  Makers 

firearm,  Patent  No.  91,624  was  issued  to  John  A.  Hechenbach  of 
Mayville,  Wis.,  June  22,  1869. 

HECKERT,  Philip— York  County,  Pa.,  1799-1822.  Flintlock  Kentucky 

HECKMAN,  John— Gun  stocker.  Back  of  18  Cherry,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

HEDLEY,  John— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gun  stock  maker  at  18  Cherry, 
in  1829. 

HEFNER,  J.— Marion,  Ohio.  Plains  type  rifle  numbered  "254." 

HEFS,  Thomas— West  Penn  Post  Office,  Penna.  Fullstock  flintlock 
Kentucky  match  rifle  with  lock  by  J.  Roop. 

HEINZ,  Charles — Atlanta,  Ga.,  operator  of  a  gun  shop  for  the  Con- 
federacy, at  corner  of  Whitehall  and  Alabama  Streets  (now  site 
of  Atlanta  National  Bank).  Employed  12  or  12  hands  converting 
flintlock  muskets  to  percussion  "for  the  Confederate  Government 
and  making  muskets  and  rifles  for  them." 

HEINZE,  Richard— Baltimore,  period  of  1888,  gunsmith. 

HELENA  LEAD  AND  SHOT  WORKS— Helena,  Wisconsin,  circa  1840- 
1870.  Active  manufacturers  of  lead  for  bullet  making  and  of 
prepared  lead  shot  for  hunting  purposes.  Lead  in  pigs  weighing 
75  pounds  and  bags  of  shot  weighing  25  pounds  were  hauled  by 
wagon  to  Milwaukee  for  distribution  in  the  lake  area.  Other 
shipments  were  made  by  way  of  the  Mississippi  River  to  New 
Orleans  and  thence  to  New  York.  After  the  establishment  of  rail- 
way ties  with  the  East  the  lead  shot  was  shipped  there  directly, 
or  to  Chicago,  as  lead  to  be  used  in  the  Blatchford  Shot  Tower. 

HEISER,  Lewis— Tiffin,  Ohio,  1857-59.  Shotguns  and  rifles. 

HELLER,  J. — Carlisle,  Pa.  Double  percussion  rifle. 

HELLINGHAUS,  F. — St.  Louis,  Mo.  Maker  of  heavy  percussion  target 
rifles  with  Remington  barrels.  Listed  in  St.  Louis  City  Directory 
1841  through  1847. 

HELTON,  Joab— Primitive  work,  crudely  marked  "JOAB— HELTON 
MAKE"  on  top  flat.  Two  crude,  half  stock,  percussion  rifles,  one 
with  wrought  iron  furniture  and  Joseph  Golcher  lock;  the  other 
without  furniture,  cheap  "BLUE  GRASS"  lock  not  original. 

HEMENWAY,  O.— Unlocated.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

HEMIWORTH,  Richard— Troy,  N.  Y.,  1833-34.  Kentucky  rifles. 

HENCH— Pottsville,  Pa. 

HENCH,  Peter— Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1740-50.  Kentucky  rifles. 

HENDERSON,  L.— Andover,  N.  Y.,  precussion  period. 

HENDRICKS,  M.  S.— Aurora,  111.,  1869-75. 

HENKEL,  Daniel— Mill  Creek,  Pa.  Flintlock  period. 

HENKELS,  Daniel — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  gunsmith  and  sword  maker, 
listed  in  the  1814  Directory  at  264  St.  John  St.  Active  1808- 
1817.  Henkels  was  of  German  birth  and  parentage  and  was 
naturalized  at  Philadelphia  in  1810.  He  is  reputed  by  the  Penn- 
sylvania "Gazeteer"  to  have  been  the  first  in  Philadelphia  to  use 
steam  for  manufacturing  purposes.  Contracted  Feb.  14,  1815,  for 
1,700  muskets  at  $14.25  per  stand  to  be  delivered  by  Feb.  1,  1816. 
Examination  of  a  Henkels  musket  lock-plate  dated  1814,  shows  a 
typical  Model  1808  lock,  with  a  tit-like  rear  end,  and  a  flat, 
bevelled  edge  hammer,  in  spite  of  the  late  date  of  the  contract. 
Henkels    was    connected    with    the   Nippes    family    of    gun 

American  Gun  Makers  93 

makers  through  a  second  marriage  of  his  mother  with  Daniel 


HENRICH,  Alonzo— Bozrah,  Conn.,  gunsmith,  1870-71. 

HENRY,  George— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1777-78. 

HENRY,  William  I — The  Henry  firm  of  arms  makers  was  founded  by 
William  Henry  (called  here  First,  for  facility  in  identification)  of 
Lancaster,  Pa.;  son  of  John  and  Elizabeth  De  Vinne  Henry,  born 
May  9,  1729,  on  his  father's  plantation  at  West  Cain  Township, 
Chester  Co.,  Pa.  In  1744,  young  Henry  was  appenticed  to  Mathew 
Roeser,  gunsmith  of  Lancaster.  In  1751,  having  finished  his  ap- 
prenticeship, he  started  his  own  gunsmithy  on  Mill  Creek  in  the 
same  town,  making  Kentucky  rifles  and  arms,  principally  for 
the  Indian  trade.  In  1755,  William  Henry  was  armorer  to  the 
Colonial  forces  with  the  Braddock  Expedition,  and  in  1578,  saw 
more  military  service  with  the  Forbes  Expedition  against  Pitts- 
burgh. In  1758,  Henry  entered  into  partnership  with  Joseph 
Simons  which  is  believed  to  have  dissolved  prior  to  1775,  though 
it  is  mentioned  in  early  records  (Journal  of  Continental  Congress 
Proceedings)  as  of  existence  in  1775. 

William  Henry  I  furnished  arms  to  the  Continental  troops 
in  1776,  and  was  authorized  to  make  muskets  for  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania  in  1777.  He  became  a  member  of  the  Continental 
Congress  in  session  in  New  York  City  in  1785,  the  year  after, 
Dec.  15,  1786,  William  Henry  I  died  at  the  age  of  57.  His  gun 
making  establishment  was  not  mentioned  in  his  will,  it  is  quite 
likely  that  he  turned  it  over  to  his  son,  William  II,  some  time 
before  his  death. 

HENRY,  Abraham — Lancaster,  Pa.  Son  of  William  Henry  I.  In  as- 
sociation with  John  Graeff  contracted  with  the  Commonwealth 
of  Pennsylvania  on  April  11,  1798,  for  2,000  muskets  to  be 
marked  "CP."  Mentioned  by  his  brother,  William  Henry  II, 
as  being  addicted  to  drink.  Died  Aug.  12,  1811,  of  "vomiting 
of  the  stomach."  Was  one  of  the  petitioners  to  7th  Congress 
on  Jan.  28,  1803,  for  non-removal  of  import  duties  on  arms. 
July  13,  1801,  in  association  with  Peter  Brong  and  Henry  De- 
Huff  had  proposed  to  furnish  arms  to  State  of  Virginia.  No 
record  of  contract.  See  Brong,  Peter. 

On  Dec.  9,  1807,  Abraham  Henry  contracted  with  Tench 
Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  to  furnish  200  pair  of  pistols 
at  $10.00  the  pair,  and  200  rifles  at  $10.00  each. 

HENRY,  John  Joseph — Lancaster,  Pa.,  gunsmith.  Son  of  William 
Henry  I.  Born  at  Lancaster,  Nov.  4,  1758.  With  an  uncle,  (brother 
of  William  Henry  I),  John  Henry,  gunsmith,  to  whom  he  was 
apprenticed  at  the  age  of  14,  moved  to  Detroit,  where  the  uncle 
was  in  business  about  1773-74.  Young  John  made  his  way  back 
to  Lancaster  in  1775,  after  a  hazardous  journey  accompanied  by  a 
guide  who  died  enroute.  Probabilities  are  that  back  in  Lancaster 
he  worked  in  his  father's  shops.  During  the  Revolutionary  War 
he  served  in  a  rifle  company  and  was  captured  at  Quebec.  He 
came  back  from  the  War  crippled,  studied  law  and  was  made  a 
Federal  judge.  In  1810,  he  had  dictated  an  account  of  his  ex- 
perience at  Quebec  to  his  daughter,  which  account  was  later 
printed.  He  died  April  5,  1811,  after  a  long  illness. 

HENRY,  William  II— Nazareth,  Pa.  Son  of  William  Henry  I.  Born 
at  Lancaster,  March  1757,  and  apprenticed  to  Andrew  Albright, 

94  American  Gun  Makers 

gunsmith  of  Lititz,  Pt.  He  established  himself  as  a  rifle  maker  at 
Christian  Spring  in  1778,  and  at  Nazareth,  Northampton  Co.,  in 
1780.  There  he  trained  his  sons,  John  Joseph  and  William  Henry 
III  in  the  gun  making  trade.  About  1792,  in  association  with  two 
others,  he  bought  a  large  tract  of  land  at  Jacobsburg  (in  the 
vicinity)  where  he  had  a  gun  barrel  mill  since  1780.  It  is  believed 
that  the  proof-testing  of  barrels  was  done  at  Jacobsburg,  as  the 
Moravian  Fathers  objected  to  the  firing  of  guns  in  the  village. 
The  Jacobsburg  property  was  further  improved  in  1798,  by  a 
boring  mill  (later  turned  into  a  grist  mill)  and  about  1808,  by  a 
forge  and  iron  works.  The  Jacobsburg  shops  were  in  charge  of 
son  Matthew  S.  Henry;  sons  William  III  and  John  Joseph,  oper- 
ating the  Boulton  and  Philadelphia  plants,  respectively. 

On  Dec.  13,  1797,  William  Henry  II  contracted  with  the  Com- 
monwealth of  Pennsylvania  for  2,000  Charleville  pattern,  (Model 
1795),  muskets.  He  also  had  government  contracts: — under  Act 
of  July  5,  1798,  for  500  Charleville  pattern,  (Model  1795),  muskets 
at  $13.40  per  stand,  of  which  235  are  known  to  have  been  de- 
livered by  June  10,  1801.  Later,  on  June  30,  1808,  with  his  son, 
John  Joseph  as  associate,  he  obtained  a  contract  for  10,000  mus- 
kets, Model  1808,  of  5  years'  duration.  Of  this  contract  4.246  were 
delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812,  and  presumably  the  entire  contract  was 
fulfilled  in  time. 

On  Dec.  9,  1807,  William  Henry  had  been  offered  a  contract 
for  150  pair  of  pistols  by  Tench  Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Sup- 
plies, but  declined  the  contract. 

William  Henry  II  moved  to  Philadelphia  in  1818,  to  be  with 
his  son,  John  Joseph,  and  died  there  in  1821. 

HENRY.  J.  J. — John  Joseph  Henry,  (the  second  of  that  name,  whose 
initials  were  often  written  I.  I.),  the  third  son  of  William  Henry 
II,  was  born  at  Nazareth,  Northampton  Co.,  Pa.,  on  June  17, 
1786.  After  learning  the  gun  making  trade  under  his  father,  in 
about  1808,  he  moved  to  Philadelphia,  where  he  established  a 
factory  at  the  northwest  corner  of  3rd  and  Noble  Streets,  em- 
ploying 40  to  50  hands.  On  June  30,  1808,  in  association  with  his 
father,  William  Henry  II,  he  contracted  with  the  government  for 
10,000  muskets,  Model  1808,  duration  5  years.  Of  these  there  are 
recorded  to  have  been  4,246  delivered  by  June  10,  1801,  and 
presumably  the  entire  contract  was  fulfilled.  On  Feb.  9,  1815, 
he  (alone)  contracted  for  2,277  muskets  at  $14.25  per  stand,  to 
be  completed  by  Nov.  1,  1816.  Other  than  martial  arms,  the 
principal  outlet  of  his  works  was  the  North  American  Fur  Com- 
pany— John  Jacob  Astor — and  most  of  the  output  was  shipped 
through  agents  in  St.  Louis  to  the  Pacific  Northwest. 

In  addition  to  the  Philadelphia  plant,  offices  and  salesrooms 
where  the  greater  part  of  the  firm's  business  was  transacted, 
John  Joseph  Henry  was  part  owner  of  the  Boulton  plant  estab- 
lished by  his  brother,  William  Henry  III.  In  1822.  John  Joseph 
bought  out  his  brother's  interest  and  moved  to  Boulton,  where 
he  later  took  into  partnership  his  son  James,  the  lock  plates 
thereupon  being  marked  "J.  J.  HENRY  &  SON."  In  addition  to 
long  arms  at  the  Boulton  plant,  John  Joseph  made  Model  1826 
type  martial  pistols,  marked  "J.  J.  HENRY  BOULTON."  John 
Joseph  Henry  died  in  1836,  and  the  works  passed  to  his  son, 
James.  The  ruins  of  the  old  plant,  on  Bushkill  Creek,  near 
Belfast,  are  still  standing. 

During  the  War  of  1812,  John  Joseph  Henry  was  active  in 

American  Gun  Makers  95 

production  and  repair  of  public  arms  for  the  Committee  of  De- 
fense of  Philadelphia.  Associated  with  him  in  his  work  was  a 
relative.  Joseph  Henry,  a  Philadelphia  gunsmith. 

HENRY,  William  III— Younger  son  of  William  Henry  II.  Born  at 
Nazareth,  Pa.,  Aug.  16,  1796.  Learned  the  gun  making  trade  in 
his  father's  shops  and  while  working  a  year  or  two  for  his  elder 
brother,  John  Joseph,  in  Philadelphia.  The  Nazareth  plant  being 
inadequate  to  take  care  of  the  still  unfulfilled  portion  of  the 
large  contract  of  1808  for  10,000  muskets  contracted  for  by  his 
father  and  brother,  as  well  as  the  additional  demands  caused  by 
the  War  of  1812,  William  III  was  sent  to  Boulton  three  miles 
northeast  of  Nazareth,  to  build  a  dam,  shops  and  workmen's 
houses  on  land  owned  by  the  Henry's  on  Bushkill  Creek,  and 
so  established  the  Boulton  Gun  Works.  In  1822,  William  Henry 
III  sold  out  his  interest  in  Boulton  to  his  brother,  John  Joseph. 
The  ruins  of  the  old  Boulton  works  on  Bushkill  Creek,  in 
the  vicinity  of  Belfast,  are  still  standing. 

HENRY,  James — Son  of  John  Joseph  Henry  of  Philadelphia  and 
Boulton.  Born  in  Philadelphia  in  1809.  After  a  partnership  with 
his  father  at  the  Boulton  works,  during  which  some  of  the  arms 
produced  by  the  firm  were  marked  "J.  J.  Henry  &  Son,"  James 
Henry  succeeded  to  the  business  on  his  father's  death  in  1836. 
In  turn,  about  1860,  he  took  his  son  Granville  into  partnership, 
the  arms  being  marked  "J.  Henry  &  Son."  In  the  interim  be- 
tween 1836  and  1860  or  so,  the  arms  produced  by  James  Henry 
were  marked  "J.  Henry."  James  Henry  died  in  1894. 

HENRY,  Granville — Of  Boston  and  Philadelphia.  Son  of  James  Henry 
whom  he  succeeded  in  the  firm.  Born  in  1835,  became  his  father's 
partner  in  about  1860,  and  was  active  until  1880.  Granville  Henry 
died  in  1912. 

HENRY,  John— Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1759-73.  Brother  of 
William  Henry  I.  Had  a  gun  shop  just  east  of  his  brother's  store 
on  the  southeast  corner  of  Penn  Square. 

HENRY,  Charles— Boulton,  Pa.,  living  in  1921.  Last  of  the  Henry 
family  of  riflesmiths. 

HENRY,  Joseph— Philadelphia  arms  before  and  after  1811-1814. 
Joseph  Henry  pistols  are  known  marked  "J.  Henry  Phila." 
Joseph  Henry  was  associated  with  John  Joseph  Henry  of  N.  3rd 
&  Noble  Sts.,  Philadelphia,  a  relative,  in  the  production  and 
repair  of  public  arms  for  the  Committee  of  Defence  of  Phila- 
delphia in  the  War  of  1812. 

Joseph  Henry  contracted  Nov.  9,  1807,  with  Tench  Coxe, 
Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  for  150  pair  of  pistols  at  $10.00  the 
pair,  and  300  rifles  at  $10.00  each.  On  March  23,  1808,  Joseph 
Henry  contracted  for  an  additional  600  pair  of  pistols  and  600 
rifles  on  the  same  terms. 

HENRY,  Moses— Present  Ross  Co.,  Ohio,  1769. 

HENRY  REPEATING  ARMS  CO.— New  Haven,  Conn.  Formed  July 
7,  1865,  for  the  manufacture  of  Henry  patent  arms.  Became  Win- 
chester Repeating  Arms  Co.,  May  30,  L866. 

HENRY,  B.  Tyler — Superintendent  in  charge  of  production  of  the 
Volcanic  Repeating  Arms  Co.,  in  1855-57.  Had  previously  worked 
for  Smith  &  Wesson  in  the  development  of  their  magazine  arm 
later  known  as  the  Volcanic.  In  1860  was  in  charge  of  production 
of  the  Henry  (his  own)  patent  rifles  for  the  New  Haven  Arms 

96  American  Gun  Makers 

Co.,  controlled  by  Oliver  F.  Winchester.  The  Henry  Repeating 
Arms  Company  formed  July  7,  1865,  became  the  Winchester 
Repeating  Arms  Co.,  May  30,   1866. 

The  War  Department  purchased  1,731  Henry  rifles  during 
the  Civil  War.  In  addition  10,000  or  so  were  purchased  by  the 
states  to  arm  state  troops.  See  Smith  &  Wesson  and  New  Haven 
Arms  Co. 

B.  Tyler  Henry  was  born  in  Claremont,  N.  H.,  March  22, 
1821.  He  attended  school  at  Claremont  until  about  16  years  of 
age,  when  he  began  serving  an  apprenticeship  in  the  gunsmith 
trade,  working  for  a  number  of  years  for  local  gunsmiths.  Later 
worked  for  Robbins  &  Lawrence  at  Windsor,  Vt.,  where  he  be- 
came familiar  with  the  mechanism  of  the  Jennings  rifle,  which  he 
later  helped  to  improve  into  the  mechanism  of  the  Volcanic. 

Tyler  Henry  left  the  Winchester  firm  about  1867,  and  be- 
came associated  with  the  Henry  Spring  -Co.,  of  20  Howard  St., 
New  Haven,  listed  in  the  City  Directory  in  1870-71.  He  died  at 
his  residence,  73  Audubon  St.,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  June  8,  1898. 

HENSHAW,  Joshua — Musket  maker.  Contractor  under  Act  of  Julv 
5,  1798,  for  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40 
per  stand.  Thirteen  hundred  dollars  is  recorded  paid  on  account 
in  1800  and  $2,100  in  1801. 

HENSZEY — See  Moore,  Henszey  &  Co.,  percussion  bar  lock. 

HEP,  Philip,  Jr. — Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  gooseneck 
hammer,  inlay  in  place  of  patchbox. 

HEPBURN,  Lewis  L.— Colton,  N.  Y.  Inventor  of  the  Hepburn  back 
action  locks.  Maker  of  an  over-under,  muzzle  loading,  percussion 
sporting  rifle. 

HERFURTH,  August— Madison,  Wis.  1866-1878,  Webster  Street  near 
King.  Made  very  fine  percussion  schuetzen  rifles  and  some  medio- 
cre hunting  rifles  and  shotguns. 

HERGET,  J.— 114  Pacific  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1858-65. 

HERMAN,  Peter— Lancaster,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1868-71. 

HERR— Canton,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio.  Early. 

HERRING,  Richard — In  association  with  John  Devane  established  a 
Public  Gun  Factory,  authorized  by  Act  of  April  24,  1776,  in  the 
Wilmington  District,  North  Carolina.  After  production  of  some 
one  hundred  long  arms  the  factory  was  destroyed  by  Tory 

HERTIG,  F. — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Marking  on  a  barrel  of  what  appears 
to  have  been  a  fullstock  percussion  rifle. 

HERTZOG,  Andrew— York  County,  Pa.,  1777-80.  Payments  recorded 
for  repair  of  public  arms. 

HESS,  J. — Unidentified.  Copper-mounted,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

HESS,  Philip,  Jr. — Operator  of  a  water  power  rifle  factory  erected 
by  him  at  the  foot  of  Blue  Mountains  in  1832,  on  the  west 
branch  of  the  road  from  Saegerstown  to  Lehighton,  about  one- 
half  mile  west  of  Balliet's  Furnace,  later  known  as  the  old 
Lehigh  Furnace. 

HESS,  Samuel — Matrick  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1771. 

HESS,  Solomon  and  Jonas — Gunsmiths  who  had  worked  in  the  Philip 
Hess  rifle  factory,  and  continued  in  the  vicinity  after  the  factory 
was  dismantled. 

HETRICH,  JOHN  &  CO.— Newark,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1866-70. 

American  Gun  Makers  97 

HETRICK,  Jacob — Lima,  Ohio,  modern. 

HETRICK,  John— Norwalk,  Huron  Co.,  Ohio,  1866-70.  "Employed 
four  hands." 

HETRICK,  Levi— Lima,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1888-94. 

HEUSER,  J.— Gunsmith,  25  St.  Phillip,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

HEYER — Of  the  firm  Duryea  &  Heyer,  makers  of  Kentucky  type, 
full  curly  maple  stock,  brass  mounted,  light  weight  barrel,  per- 
cussion fowling  piece. 

H.  H. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  a  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

H.  H.  P. — Initials  of  Henry  H.  Perkin,  U.S.  Inspector  of  Contract 
Arms,  1813-17.  Inspected  arms  (sabers  and  N.C.O.  swords)  at  the 
plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

HIDE,  Elijah — Connecticut.  Worked  on  repair  of  public  arms  in  July, 

HIGH  STANDARD— 61  Foote  St.,  New  Haven,  Conn.  Modern.  Small 
caliber  automatic  pistols. 

HILL,  S.  W. — Johnstown,  N.  Y.  Stamped  on  barrel  and  inside  patch- 
box  lid  of  curly  maple  halfstocked  percussion  rifle. 

HILL,  Thomas— Carlotta,  Vt.,  1790-1810. 

HILLEGAS,  H. — Unlocated;  Kentucky  rifles.  Perhaps  related  to  J. 
Hillegas,  flintlock  pistol  and  rifle  maker  of  Pottsville,  Pa. 

HILLEGAS,  J.— Pottsville,  Pa.,  about  1810-1830.  Maker  of  a  full  stock 
Kentucky  rifle  with  altered  lock  marked  "SHARPE." 

HILLIARD,  D.  H.— Cornish,  N.  H.,  about  1860-1880.  Maker  of  an 
under-hammer,   muzzle-loading,    percussion    sporting   rifle. 

HILLS,  Benoni — Goshen,  Conn.,  1753.  Marking  on  a  full  stock,  flint- 
lock fowling  piece. 

HILLS,  Medad — Goshen,  Conn.,  rifle  and  musket  maker.  Born  April 
22,  1729,  died  March  4,  1822.  Flintlock  musket  dated  1758.  Early 
New  England  41  %  inch  octagonal,  pinned  barrel,  flintlock  rifle 
with  goose  neck  hammer  and  curly  maple  stock.  He  also  made 
and  delivered  40  muskets,  bayonets  and  belts  to  the  Committee 
of  Safety  in  1776. 

HILLSBOROUGH  GUN  FACTORY— Establishment  authorized  by 
the  State  of  North  Carolina  in  April,  1776,  for  which  purpose 
the  sum  of  1,000  pounds  was  advanced  to  Messrs,  Nathaniel 
Rochester,  William  Johnson,  Amrose  Ramsey  and  Dr.  Thomas 
Burke,  commissioners  for  the  construction.  However,  due  to  diffi- 
culty of  securing  workmen,  tools  and  materials,  the  factory  never 
passed  beyond  the  planning  stage,  and  the  money  was  expended 
for  the  manufacture  of  200  muskets  on  sub-contracts  (for  parts) 
awarded  to  local  smiths,  the  locks  being  purchased  in  Philadel- 

HINDS,  John— Boston,  Mass.,  1745. 

HINE,  John — Employed  as  musket  barrel  maker  by  Abraham  Nippes 
in  1810. 

HINKLE,  George  J.— Lancaster  District,  Pa.,  1857. 

HIRTH,  August— Also  Hirthe.  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  1855-1860.  "Enterprise 
Rifles."  See  James  Bown  &  Son,  and  Enterprise  Gun  Works. 

HITCHCOCK  &  MUZZY— Low  Moor,  New  England.  Barrelmakers 
chiefly,  though  reported  as  makers  of  percussion  rifles  and  pistols, 
Made  underhammer  barrels  for  J.  H.  Durkee  and  H.  B.  Hamilton 

98  American  Gun  Makers 

of  Lebanon,  N.  H.;  also  barrel  (marked  "LOW  MOOR"  of  butt- 
stocked  rifle  by  George  P.  Foster,  Bristol,  R.  I. 

HIXSON,  J.  B. — Probably  Ohio.  Script  marking  on  fancy  engraved 
percussion  Kentucky  rifle,  lock  marking  H  pierced  by  arrow. 
Similar  locks  known  on  another  Hixson  rifle  and  one  by  J.  C.  M. 

H.  K. — Marking  inside  Springfield  musket  lock  of  musket  dated  1799. 

HOADLEY,  Lemuel — Gun-lock  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety,  Con- 

HOAKE,  J. — Lancaster,  Pa.  Received  payment  for  68  gunlocks  Aug. 
25,  1778.  Heavy  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  bone  inlays;  also 
made  shotguns. 

HOARD'S  ARMORY— Operated  at  Watertown,  N.  Y.,  by  C.  B.  Hoard, 
Civil  War  contractor  for  Model  1861  Springfield  Rifle  muskets 
marked  "Watertown"  and  dated: 

Dec.  24,  1861—50,000  at  $20.00  each.   1,500  delivered. 
Dec.  1,  1863—20,000  at  $19.00  each.  11,300  delivered. 

In  addition  to  the  12,800  muskets,  the  armory  made  percus- 
sion revolvers  after  Austin  T.  Freeman  patent  of  Dec.  9,  1862, 
Pat.  No.  37,091  of  which  there  is  no  record  of  government 

HOARD,  C.  B.— See  Hoard's  Armory. 

HOBBS,  John—Putnam,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio. 

HOBBS,  P.— Monterey,  Mass. 

HOCKLEY,  James— Chester  County,  Pa.,  1769-71. 

HODGE,  J.  T.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Civil  War  contractor  of  Dec.  26, 
1861,  for  50,000  Model  1861  Springfield  rifle  muskets  at  $20.00 
each  of  which  10,500  were  delivered. 

HODGKINS  &  SONS— 507  Mulberry  St,  Macon,  Georgia,  1862.  D.  C. 
Hodgkins  and  his  three  sons,  N.  M.,  Walter  C.  and  T.  G,  oper- 
ators of  a  Confederate  pistol  and  rifled  carbine  factory  in  a  shop 
back  of  their  store.  Sold  out  to  the  Macon  Armory  in  the  early 
part  of  the  Civil  War. 

"In  1862  .  .  .  they  manufactured  for  the  State  of  Georgia 
over  $100,000  worth  of  munitions  of  war  and  altered  over  2,000 
of  the  old  flint  and  steel  muskets  into  good  percussion  locks. 
They  are  now  manufacturing  for  the  Confederate  Government 
rifled  carbines.  They  forge  the  barrels  by  hand,  which  is  very 
tedious  and  laborious  work.  We  saw  the  various  parts  of  the 
guns  in  process  of  manufacturing — tubes,  locks,  ramrods,  wipers, 
plates,  mountings,  etc,  all  made  by  tools  manufactured  in  the 

HODGSON   &   THOMPSON— Baltimore,  Md.   Brass  barrel,   flintlock 
holster  pistol. 

HOFFMAN  &  CAMPBELL— St.  Louis,  Mo.  Fine  walnut  halfstocked 
percussion  rifle  with  back  action  lock  and  engraved  German 
silver  mountings.  Gold  and  silver  bands  at  breech,  name  stamped 
on  barrel.  See  Christian  Hoffman. 

HOFFMAN,  Christian — St.  Louis,  Mo.   1842-1855,  "journeyman  gun- 
smith." With  Tristram  Campbell  as  "Hoffman  &  Co,"  and  "Hoff- 
man &  Campbell." 
HOFFMAN  &  CO.— St.  Louis,  Mo,  1842-1855.  See  Christian  Hoffman. 
HOFFMAN,   Christian— Gunsmith.   14   Charlotte,  Phila,  Pa,   1819. 

American  Gun  Makers  99 

HOFFMAN,  J.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  also  Saltillo  (?),  Civil  War  period. 
Over-under  percussion  rifle-shotgun,  two  hammers  and  ramrods. 

HOFFMAN,  J  .V. — Attica,  Ind.  Heavy  percussion  rifles.  Used  locks 
made  by  Tyler,  Davidson  &  Co.,  and  by  Joseph  Goulcher.  Hoff- 
man may  have  sold  assembled  arms.  One  of  his  rifles  with  a 
Tyler,  Davidson  &  Co.  lock,  bore  the  name  "Postley,  Nelson  & 
Co."  on  the  bottom  of  the  barrel. 

HOFFMAN,  Louis — Louis  Ferdinand  Alexander  Hoffman,  Vicksburg, 
Miss.,  gunsmith  was  born  in  Berlin,  Prussia  in  1823.  After  serving 
from  age  of  14,  apprenticeship  at  the  Borsig  Machinery  Shop, 
came  to  New  York  in  1852  and  after  a  short  stay  in  St.  Louis 
settled  in  Vicksburg  in  the  spring  of  1853,  working  the  shop  and 
foundry  of  Zimmerman  &  Reading  on  Levee  St.  He  opened  a 
gunshop,  was  very  successful  and  built  the  "Hoffman  Block"  on 
Clay  St.,  above  Washington,  now  occupied  by  O'Neill-McNamara 
Hardware  Co.,  former  employees  and  now  carried  on  by  their 

Louis  Hoffman  was  in  Vicksburg  during  the  siege  and  later, 
at  request  of  Liet.  Burdick  became  master  armourer  for  the 
Union  forces.  He  made  derringer  pistols  after  the  Henry  Deringer 
type  as  well  as  percussion  rifles.  Died  in  1814. 

HOGAN,  J.  B. — North  Adams,  Mass.,  percussion  period. 

HOLBURN,  Casper  L.— Unidentified. 

HOLDEN,  C.  B.— Cyrus  B.  Holden,  Worcester,  Mass.,  about  1864-68 
and  later.  Maker  of  rim-fire  cartridge  rifles.  Had  been  foreman 
in  Frank  Wesson's  shop. 

HOLLAND,  W.  A.— Boston,  Mass.  Maker  of  Holland,  saw  handle, 
percussion  pistols. 

HOLLENBECK,  F.  A.— Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Invented  3-barrel  breech- 
loading  shotgun,  1911.  Learned  gunsmithing  under  R.  R.  Moore. 

HOLLINGSWORTH,  Henry— Elkton,  Md.,  1773-80.  Musket  barrels 
and  bayonets  during  the  War  of  the  Revolution. 

HOLLIESTER,  Isaac  &  Son— Lichtfield  Co.,  Conn.,  musket  barrel 
manufacturer  of  early  1800's.  Supplied  Eli  Whitney,  Nathan 
Starr,  Lemuel  Pomeroy  and  Springfield  Armory. 

HOLLOMON,  William— Warrenton,  N.  C.  Percussion  halfstock  rifle. 

HOLLY  SPRING  IRON  WORKS— See  Jones,  McElwaine  &  Co. 

HOLMES,  Charles— Colton,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

HOLMES,  George  H.— Defiance,  Ohio,  1867-70. 

HOLMES,  R. — Oswego,  N.  Y.  Heavy  barrel,  halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

HOLT,  P.  M. — Ashtabula,  Ohio.  German  silver  and  brass  mounted 
percussion  halfstock  rifle. 

HOLT,  Rudolph  D Pikeville,  Tenn.,  19th-20th  century.  Percussion 

hunting  and  match  rifles. 

HOLTRY,  Joseph — Wyomissing  Creek,  Pa.  In  1850  operated  a  gun 
shop,  which  had  been  built  by  some  unknown  gunsmith,  and 
used  the  creek  water  power  for  the  operation  of  the  gun  barrel 
boring  and  grinding  machinery.  The  Holtry  shop  shut  down 
about  1875. 

HOLZMAN,  E. — Percussion  match  rifle. 

HOLTZWORTH,  W.  A.— Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

HOME    &    WHEELER— Stevensburg,    Culpepper    Co.,    Va.    Musket 

100  American  Gun  Makers 

makers,  1799-1802.  Proposed  to  manufacture  1,000  muskets  for 
the  State  of  Virginia,  Sept.  24,  1799,  at  $15.00  per  stand.  Wheeler 
is  believed  to  have  been  later  associated  with  Morrison  in  a 
U.  S.  contract  of  1808.  See  Wheeler  &  Morrison. 

HOME,  S.— Kentucky  flintlock  rifle.  Probably  of  Home  &  Wheeler. 

HOMER,  B.— Unlocated.  1775-1806.  Musket  maker  during  the  Revolu- 
tionary War.  Also  flintlock  fowling  pieces  and  cadet  rifles. 

HONAKER,  Jos.  or  James-— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  turkey  rifle. 

HOOD  FIRE  ARMS  CO.— Norwich,  Conn.  Makers  of  Freeman  W. 
Hood  5-shot,  rim-fire  cartridge  revolver  patented  Feb.  23,  1875, 
No.  160,192.  See  Norwich  Lock  Mfg.  Co. 

HOOD  &  FONCANNON— See  G.  H.  Hood. 

HOOD,  Geo.  H.— Columbus,  Ohio,  1847-52.  Associated  with  M.  B. 
Foncannon  in  1848-49  as  Hood  &  Foncannon. 

HOOKER,  Thomas— Rutland,  Vt.,  musket  maker  1798-1801.  In  associa- 
tion with  Darius  Chipman,  Royal  Crafts  and  John  Smith,  con- 
tracted under  Act  of  July  5,  1798  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern 
(Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  575  were 
delivered  before  June  10,  1801. 

HOOPER,  J.— Marking  inside  lock  of  Springfield  musket  dated  1804. 

HOPKINS  &  ALLEN— Norwich,  Conn.,  1868-1915.  Makers  of  rifles 
and  revolvers  under  the  Hopkins  &  Allen  patents  and  Merwin 
and  Hulbert  hand  arms.  Absorbed  during  the  World  War  I  by  the 
Marlin-Rockwell  Corporation. 

HOPKINS,  R. — Unidentified.  Percussion  sporting  rifle. 

HORN,  Conrad— Hazleton,  Pa.,  1820-55.  Brother  of  William  Horn. 

HORN,  Stephen— Lancaster  and  Easton,  Pa.,  about  1770-80. 

HORN,  John — Cumberland  mountain  gunsmith.  Flintlock  Kentucky 
match  rifle  with  Kirkman  &  Ellis  lock. 

HORN,  William— Hazleton,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1836.  Brother  of 
Conrad  Horn. 

HORNBERGER,  Cyrus— Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Made 
finished  rifle  barrels. 

HORR,  Austin — Cape  Vincent,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

HORTON,  William— 30  Moore  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.  1801-02. 

HOUGHTON,  Richard  W. — Norway,  Me.,  percussion  period. 

HOWARD  BROS.— Whitneyville  and  New  Haven,  Conn.,  1866-69. 
Hammerless,  rim-fire  cartridge  sporting  rifle  and  shotguns  made 
under   S.   Howard  patent  of   Oct.   28,   1862,   No.   36,779,   and   C. 
Howard  patents  of  Sept.  26,  and  Oct.  10,  1865,  Nos.  50,125  and 
50,358  respectively,  and  of  May  15,  1866. 

Though  marked  "Howard  Bros.  Whitneyville,  Conn."  the 
arms  were  most  likely  made  for  them  by  Whitney  Arms  Co., 
whose  marking  appears  on  similar  models  with  stamping  "Manfd. 
for  Howard  Bros." 

HOWARD,  Henry — Chattanooga,  Tenn.;  19th-20th  century  maker  of 
muzzle-loading  rifles. 

HOWE,  B. — Cleveland,  Ohio.  Made  rifles  similar  to  those  of  John  Vin- 
cent, Washington  Co.,  Ohio,  to  whom  he  had  been  apprenticed. 

HOWE,  E. — Percussion  target  rifle. 

HOWE,  Harry — Lansing,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period  to  1880. 

American  Gun  Makers  101 

HOWELL,  C.  W. — Martin's  Ferry,  Ohio.  Fullstock  percussion  squirrel 

HOWELL,  T. — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Lock  marking  of  a  Kentucky  type 
flintlock  pistol  by  J.  Fleeger.  (Connected  with  W.  T.  Howell 
&  Co.?) 

HOWELL,  H.  T.  &  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Flintlock  rifle. 

HOWELL,  W.  T.  &  CO.— Lockmakers  of  engraved  flintlocks  for  Ken- 
tucky rifles.  Also  makers  of  a  full  stock,  brass  inlay,  Kentucky 
type  flintlock  rifle. 

HOWINGS,  U. — Unlocated.  Walnut  half-stock,  octagonal  barrel  per- 
cussion rifle. 

HOWLAND,  Rufus— Binghamton,  N.  Y.,  1840-70.  Ex-employee  of 
Bartlett  Bros.  Had  a  shop  about  eight  miles  down  the  Tiouhnioga 
River  from  Marathon.  During  the  Civil  War  made  long  range 
sharpshooter  rifles  with  telescopic  sights  for  the  government.  In 
Binghamton  boarded  at  10  Shady  Lane. 

HOWLETT,  J.  W.— Greensboro,  N.  C.  Dec.  14,  1861.  "Our  fellow 
townsman,  Dr.  J.  W.  Howlett,  has  succeeded  in  bringing  to  per- 
fection the  most  beautiful  speciman  of  workmanship  which  we 
have  ever  seen.  The  gun  is  well  designed  for  cavalry  use,  being 
about  20  in.  in  length  of  barrel,  having  a  very  simple  lock,  which 
by  means  of  a  spring  operates  so  as  to  easily  introduce  the  cart- 
ridge, of  which  several  kinds  are  made,  some  being  loaded  in 
cylinders,  and  others  of  a  waterproof  nature.  We  have  seen  this 
piece  tested.  It  will  throw  a  conical  ball  200  yards  with  the 
utmost  precision  and  the  ease  with  which  it  can  be  loaded — 
say  20  or  30  times  in  a  minute — must  recommend  it  to  all." 

H.  T. — Initials  of  H.  Tracy,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within  years 

HUBBARD,  Asabel— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1818-1833. 
Inspected  arms  in  the  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson  (and  later 
Robert  Johnson  only),  Simeon  North,  Nathan  Starr,  Asa  Waters, 
Lemuel  Pomeroy  and  Eli  Whitney. 

HUBBELL,  W.  W.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  patentee  (and  maker?)  of 
Hubbell  breech-loading  arms  patented  July  1,  1844,  No.  3,649. 
Advertised  in  1849. 

HUDSON,  H.  T.— Portland,  Ore.  Half  stock  percussion  rifle. 

HUDSON,  W.  S.— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1852-64.  Percussion  pistols  and 
percussion  telescope  sight  Civil  War  sharpshooters  rifle. 

HUEY,  Abe — Root  Hollow,  Tunkhannock  Co.,  Pa.  Percussion  period. 

HUELS,  Frederick — Madison,  Wis.  Came  to  Madison  about  1875. 
Worked  for  August  Herfurth  for  three  years  and  independently 
from  1878  until  1909.  Made  fine  hunting  and  target  rifles  but 
rarely  marked  them. 

HUFF,  Peter— Unlocated.  Marking  on  the  lock  of  a  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

HUGHES,  Michael— Old  Slip,  N.  Y.  1801. 

HUGHES  &  PHILLIPS— Newark,  N.  J.,  1862-63. 

HULDRE,  Hiram— Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Welded  and 
finished  rifle  barrels. 

HULETT,  Phineas— Shaftbury,  Vt.  1840-65.  Flintlock  and  percussion. 

HULL,  Benjamin— Gunsmith.  Sansome's  Alley  above  Noble,  Phila., 
Pa.,  1819. 

102  American  Gun  Makers 

HULL,  Isaac — U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  (boarding  pikes  and 

ship's  cutlasses)  in  1808  at  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 
HUMASON,  S.  H.  &  BRO.— Rochester,  Minn.,  1868-70. 

HUMBERGER,  Peter  I.— Active  in  Pennsylvania  from  about  1774 
to  1791  when  he  moved  to  Perry  County,  Ohio. 

HUMBERGER,  Peter  H— Son  of  Peter  I.  Born  in  Pennsylvania  Dec. 
1,  1775.  Moved  to  Ohio  with  his  father  in  1791.  Learned  the 
trade  under  his  father  and  set  up  own  establishment  in  Perry 
County.  Active  until  his  death  April  19,  1852. 

HUMBERGER,  Peter  III— Son  of  Peter  II.  Born  in  Perry  County, 
Ohio,  Oct.  8,  1826.  Learned  the  gun  making  trade  under  his 
father.  Active  until  his  death,  Feb.  11,  1899. 

HUMBERGER,  Adam— Son  of  Peter  Humberger  II.  Born  in  Perry 
County,  Ohio,  Dec.  21,  1806.  Served  in  his  father's  shops  and  later 
established  himself  at  Somerset,  Ohio.  Died  in  May,  1865. 

HUMBERGER,  Henry— Son  of  Peter  I.  Born  Aug.  29,  1811,  in  Perry 
County,  Ohio.  After  following  the  gold  rush  to  California,  re- 
turned east  and  established  himself  in  Whitley  County,  Ind. 

HUMBLE,  Michael— Louisville,  Ky.,  1782.  Maker  of  Kentucky  rifles. 
Located  near  present  12th  and  Main  Streets. 

HUME— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Plains  rifle. 

HUMMELL,  F. — Lebanon,  Pa.,  peercussion  period. 

HUMPHREY,  Dan — Maker  of  a  curly  maple,  half  stock,  back  action 
G.  Goulcher  lock,  .32  caliber  percussion  rifle. 

HUMPHREYS,  Hosea— Pawtucket,  R.  I.  Musket  maker.  Associated 
with  Stephen  Jenks  in  a  contract  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for 
1,500  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per 
stand.  There  were  1,050  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

HUNR,  Edwin— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

HUNT,  David  S.— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1860. 

HUNT,  Jonathan— Richland  Co.,  Ohio,  gunsmith.  1806-1812.  Traded 
with  Delaware  Indians. 

HUNTER — Lockmaker,  percussion  period.  A  commercial,  side-action, 
percussion  lock  stamped  "HUNTER"  and  three  impressions  of  a 
floral  die.  Stirrup  on  tumbler.  Lock  on  S.  J.  Fosdick,  Laporte, 
Ind.,  half  stock  plains  rifle. 

HUNTER  ARMS  CO.— Fulton,  N.  Y.  Modern.  Makers  of  L.  C.  Smith 
&  Fulton  shotguns. 

HUNTER,  David — Berkley  County,  Va.  In  association  with  Peter 
Light  contracted  Sept.  28,  1776,  to  supply  the  State  of  Virginia 
with  200  muskets  at  £6  per  stand. 

HUNTER'S  IRON  WORKS— See  Hunter,  James  and  Rappahannock 

HUNTER,  James — Stafford  County,  Va.  Musket  and  saber  contractor 
to  Virginia  during  the  War  of  Revolution,  owner  and  operator 
of  Hunter  Iron  Works  also  known  as  Rappahannock  Forge.  From 
mention  of  difficulty  of  obtaining  sufficient  workmen  and  ability 
to  turn  out  1,000  cavalry  sabers  in  three  or  four  months,  in 
addition  to  gun  contracts,  believed  to  have  operated  a  fairly 
large  establishment.  See  Rappahannock  Forge. 

HUNTINGTON,  Gurdon— Walpole,  N.  H.  Musket  maker.  In  associa- 
tion with  John  Livinston,  Josiah  Bellow  and  David  Stone  con- 

American  Gun  Makers  103 

tracted  under  the  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville 
pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets,  at  $13.40  per  stand,  of  which  608 
were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

HUNTINGTON,  Hezekiah— Windham,  Conn.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety,  Connecticut.  Made  340  stands  of  arms  between 
1775  and  1778. 

HUNTINGTON,  Simon— Repaired  public  arms  for  Connecticut.  Ac- 
count rendered  in  July,  1775. 

HUNTINGTON,  V.— Allenville,  Pa.,  Kentucky  rifles. 

HUNTOON,  Harlee  J.— Ludlow,  Vt.  In  late  1880's  formed  partnership 
with  Norman  Brockway  and  continued  making  Brockway  rifles 
for  about  20  years.  Heavy,  super-accurate  percussion  and  pellet- 
primer  match  rifles. 

HURD,  Jacob— Boston,  Mass.,  1816-25. 

HUSE,  R.  P. — Manchester,  N.  H.  Percussion  pistol. 

HUSS,  Florent — Gunsmith,  Phillip  corner  Levee,  fourth  district,  New 
Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

HUSTON,  G.— Gunsmith,  177  Circus,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

HUTCHISON,  E.— Unlocated.  Percussion  pistol. 

HUTCHINSON,  R.  J.— Williamsport,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

HUTZ,  Benjamin — Lancaster,  Pa.  Petitioner  to  7th  Congress  on  Jan. 
23,  1803,  for  non-removal  of  import  duties  on  arms.  In  1823 
built  a  factory  in  Heidelburg  Twp.,  Lehigh  Co.,  Pa. 

HUYSLOP,  R.— Also  Hyslop.  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1850. 

H  V  D — Unidentified.  Stamping  inside  lock  of  early  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

H.  V.  F. — Unidentified.  Marking  inside  the  lock-plate  of  a  Kentucky 
type  flintlock  pistol. 

HYAMS,  F.— Charleston,  S.  C,  1867. 

HYDE  &  GOODRICH— New  Orleans,  La.  Located  at  15  Chartres  in 
1853.  Makers  of  Confederate  shoulder  arms  and  importers  of 
arms  for  the  Confederacy.  Their  name  marked  on  British  made 
Tranter  percussion  revolvers. 

HYDE  &  SHATTUCK— Hatfield,  Mass.,  from  about  1876  to  April  1, 
1880,  when  it  became  C.  S.  Shattuck.  Makers  of  "American" 
single  shot,  tip-up  shotgun. 

I.  A.  A.  M. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifle. 

I.  A.  D. — Rothen  Berg.  Engraved  on  barrel  of  very  early  Kentucky 
(or  German)  rifle  of  Edward  Marshall,  who  participated  in  the 
historic  "Indian  Walk"  Pennsylvania  land  purchase  of  1737. 

I. — A.  M. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

ICKES,  Jacob— Vicinity  of  Weyant,  Bedford,  Co.,  Pa.,  1876. 

I.  E. — Unidentified.  Initials  stamped  inside  the  lock  of  a  plain,  colonial 
flintlock  musket,  marked  "HENRY"  on  lock  and  barrel.  Possibly 
John  Eberly,  gunsmith  under  William  Henry  I,  Lancaster,  Pa., 
1729-1786.  In  the  late  18th  and  early  19th  Centuries  letters  J  and 
I  were  interchanged  rather  freely  in  writing. 

104  American  Gun  Makers 

I.  G. — Possibly  J.  G.  Full  stock,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  con- 
verted lock  marked  "W.  T.  HOWELL  &  CO." 

I.  G.  H.— Unidentified,  period  of  1810.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  Prob- 
ably same  as  J.  G.  H.,  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

I.  H. — Initials  of  Isaac  Hull,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 
(boarding  pikes  and  ship's  cutlasses)  in  1808,  at  plant  of  Nathan 

I.  L. — Unidentified.  Full  stocked,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

INGALL,  Brown — Portland,  Andover,  Blue  Hill,  and  Bucksport,  Me. 
Percussion  rifles. 

INHOFF,  Benedict— Heidelberg  Township,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  1781-82. 

I.  P. — Unidentified.  Middle  flintlock  period  Kentucky  rifles  of  fine 

IRVINE,  Callender— Commissary  General,  Military  Stores,  1812-15. 
Negotiated  arms  contracts.  This  function  taken  over  by  Ordnance 
Dept.  from  1816. 

IRVING,  W.— 20  Cliff  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1862-63  and  after.  Maker 
of  Reid  patent  6-  and  7-shot  rim  fire  cartridge  revolvers.  After 
1863  made  6-shot  percussion  revolvers  because  of  infringement 
on  Rollin  White  patents  controlled  by  Smith  &  Wesson. 

ISAAC,  George— Main  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1832. 

ISCH,  Christian — Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety.  Agreed  to  confine  himself  to  the  production  of 
muskets  and  bayonets  towards  the  fulfillment  of  the  county 
quota,  from  Nov.  20,  1775,  until  March  1,  1776. 

ITHACA  GUN  CO.— Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  1873  to  present. 

IVER  JOHNSON  ARMS  &  CYCLE  WORKS— Worcester,  Mass.,  1871- 
1891,  Fitchburg,  Mass.,  from  1891.  Revolver  and  shotgun  manu- 

J.  A. — John  Amos,  Bedford  Borough,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa. 

JACKEL,  Christian  F.— Goodell  near  Main,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1852. 

JACKSON,  Cyrus — Unlocated,  period  of  1800.  Master  craftsman  of 
Kentucky  flintlock  rifles. 

JACKSON,  David— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1831. 

JACKSON,  H.  W.— Unlocated,  19th  century.  Percussion  Kentucky 

JACKSON,  L.— "JOHN  WALKER"  and  "L.  JACKSON,"  reported 
markings  on  a  fancy  curly  maple  full  stock,  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

JACKSON,  S. — Palmyra,  N.  Y.  On  lock  of  a  mule-ear  hammer  heavy 
sniper's  rifle. 

JACOB,  Jos. — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1820-1850.  Cased,  percussion  duelling 

JACOBS,  Cornelius— Friend  Street,  Columbus,  Ohio,  1842-43.  Per- 
cussion rifles  and  pistols. 

JACOBY,  Peter — Uniontown,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa.  Percussion  period. 

JACOT,  W. — Unlocated.  Maker  of  a  Kentucky  type,  muzzle-loading, 
percussion  target  rifle  with  full  maple  stock. 

American  Gun  Makers  105 

JAEHNE,  F.  W.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Schuetzen  rifles. 

JAKOB,  Joseph— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Cased  percussion  duelling  pistols. 

JAMES  BOWN  &  SON— See  Enterprise  Gun  Works,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

JAMES  &  FERRIS— Utica,  N.  Y.  George  H.  Ferris  and  Morgan  James 
under  whom  Geo.  H.  Ferris  served  his  apprenticeship.  Makers 
of  a  half  stock,  percussion  match  rifle  with  Dana  &  Co.  lock 
and  a  Remington  Cast  Steel  barrel,  marked  "JAMES  &  FERRIS 

JAMES,  G. — Pennsylvania;  late  Kentucky  rifles. 

JAMES,  M. — Pennsylvania.  Expert  workman;  Kentucky  rifle  with 
wind  gauge  on  muzzle. 

JAMES,  Morgan— Litchfield,  Conn.;  Utica,  N.  Y.,  after  about  1820; 
corner  Fayette  and  Seneca  Streets,  1859-1866.  Associated  with 
George  H.  Ferris  until  1859,  as  James  &  Ferris.  Fine  heavy  match 
rifles  with  telescope  sights;  Civil  War  sharpshooters'  rifles,  fine 
with  internally  adjusted  telescope  crosshairs. 

JAMES,  Robert— 3  Thames  St.,  Fells  Point,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1796. 

JAQUITH,  E. — Revolver  patentee  of  July  12,  1838,  whose  design  was 
the  basis  for  the  later  Springfield  Arms  Co.,  percussion  revolvers. 

J.  A.  R. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

JARECKI,  H. — Erie,  Pa.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle  marked  on  octagon 

JARVIS,  N. — Curly  maple,  full  stock,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

J.  C. — Initials  of  James  Carrington,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 
1826-1830.  Inspected  arms  in  the  plants  of  P.  &  E.  W.  Blake  and 
Nathan  Starr. 

J.  C. — Markings  inside  a  Model  1816,  Lemuel  Pomeroy  flintlock 
musket  dated  1826. 

J.  C.  B. — Initials  of  Joseph  C.  Bragg,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract 
Arms,  1841-42,  at  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

J.  C.  M. — Dayton,  Ohio.  Unidentified.  Percussion  locks  marked  "J. 
C.  M."  "Dayton"  and  letter  "H"  pierced  by  an  arrow. 

J.  D. — Unidentified.  Fancy  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  raised  carv- 
ing, 45  silver  inlays;  engraved  C.  Bird  &  Co.,  Phila.,  lock. 

J.  D.  J. — Initials  of  John  D.  Johnson  of  Middletown,  Conn.,  1822. 
U.  S.  Inspector  of  gun  barrels.  See  also  Johnson.  R.  &  J.  D. 

JENGh— See  B.  &  B.  M.  Darling. 

JENISON,  C.  E. — Percussion  match  rifle;  percussion,  saw  handle 

JENISON  &  CO. — Southbridge,  Mass.  Makers  of  an  under-hammer 

percussion  pistol  with  a  saw  handle  grip.  J.  Jenison. 
JENKS,  A.  &  SON— Alfred  and  Barton  H.  Jenks,  Civil  War  musket 
contractors  with  shops  at  Bridesburg  and  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Re- 
ceived the  following  contracts  for  Model  1861   Springfield  rifle, 

July  13,  1861  for  25,000  at  $20.00  each, 

Oct.  7,  1861  for  25,000  at  $25.00  each, 

Dec.  15,  1863  for  50,000  at  $20.00  each, 

Feb.  1,  1865  for  6,000  at  $19.00  each. 
Of  the  106,000  muskets  contracted  for,  Jenks  &  Son  delivered 
a  total  of  98,464  between  Aug.  16,  1862,  and  May  17,  1865.  The 
firm  also  produced  Needham  conversions. 

106  American  Gun  Makers 

JENKS,  Stephen — North  Providence  and  Pawtucket,  R.  I.,  musket 
maker  active  from  about  1770  to  1814,  and  after.  Stephen  Jenks 
was  associated  with  Hosea  Humphreys  in  a  contract  under  Act 
of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,500  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795) 
muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand  of  which  1,050  were  delivered  by 
June  10,  1801.  On  Oct.  25,  1808,  Stephen  Jenks  in  partnership 
with  his  son,  (Stephen  Jenks  &  Son)  contracted  for  4,000  Model 
1808  muskets  at  $10.75  per  stand,  duration  five  years,  of  which 
2,300  were  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812,  and  a  total  of  only  2,875 
by  March  16,  1818.  In  addition  to  the  above  contract,  Jenks,  in 
association  with  one  Sweet,  (Sweet,  Jenks  &  Sons)  under- 
took on  Nov.  13,  1810,  to  supply  the  government  with  3,000 
muskets  within  a  period  of  five  years.  Of  this  contract  250  stands 
were  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812.  See  also  Jewett,  Jenks  &  Sons. 
Stephen  Jenks'  sons,  Arnold,  David,  George,  Nathan  (who 
died  young),  Linden,  Alvin  and  Jerathmael  had  been  engaged 
with  him  in  the  manufacture  of  arms. 

JENKS,  STEPHEN  &  SON— See  Jenks,  Stephen. 

JENKS,  William — Columbia,  S.  C.  Inventor  and  manufacturer  of  the 
Jenks  breech-loading  flintlock  carbine,  patented  May  25,  1838, 
No.  747,  and  made  at  Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.  Later,  Jenks  side- 
hammer  percussion  rifles  and  navy  carbines  were  made  by  N.  P. 
Ames  at  Springfield,  Mass.,  and  by  Remingtons  at  Herkimer, 
N.  Y. 

JENNINGS,  J. — Elmira,  N.  Y.  Late  flintlock  and  early  percussion 
rifles  and  "Kentucky"  type  pistols. 

JENNINGS,  Lewis — Windsor,  Vt.  Inventor  of  a  tubular  magazine, 
lever  operated  rifle  (forerunner  of  the  Henry  and  the  Win- 
chester) and  a  hollow  base,  charge  carrying  bullet,  patent  of 
Dec.  25,  1849,  No.  6973.  The  Jennings  rifle  in  turn  was  the  devel- 
opment of  an  arm  patented  by  Walter  Hunt,  Aug.  21,  1849,  No. 
6663.  Jennings  single  shot  arms  were  distributed  by  C.  P.  Dixon, 
agent,  in  New  York.  The  maker  is  unknown,  but  possibly  was 
Jennings.  Robbins  &  Lawrence  made  5,000  Jennings  repeating 
rifles  in  1851. 

JENNINGS,  Richard— 1  Broadway,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  1869-73.  Half- 
stock  percussion  rifle. 

JENSON,  J.  or  I. — New  England.  Fine  straight-cut  Kentucky  rifle. 

JETTER,  Jacob— 118  Genesee  St.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1862. 

JEWETT,  JENKS  &  SONS— Reported  in  1818  by  Colonel  Decius 
Wadsworth  of  the  Ordnance  Office  to  have  been  given  a  con- 
tract for  3,000  muskets  at  $13.48  per  stand,  of  which  250  were 
delivered  to  the  State  of  Rhode  Island. 

It  is  believed  that  this  firm  is  identical  with  Sweet,  Jenks  & 
Sons,  of  Rhode  Island,  who  contracted  on  Nov.  13,  1810,  for  3,000 
muskets  of  which  only  250  were  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

J.  F.  B. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifle. 

J.  G.  B. — Unidentified.  Half-stock  Kentucky  rifle  with  long  ramrod 

J.  G.  H. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

J.  G.  U. — Late  flintlock  period  Kentucky  rifles  of  fine  workmanship. 

J.  H. — Initials  of  John  Hawkins,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 
1840,  at  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

American  Gun  Makers  107 

J.  H. — Initials  of  James  Hannis,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 

1841  and  1843-44,  at  the  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 
J.  H.— Joseph  Henry,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1807-1814,  before  and  after. 

Flint-lock  Kentucky  pistol,  lock  marked  J.  Henry,  barrel  marked 

J.  H. 
J.  H.  H. — Unidentified.  Late  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 
JICHA,  John— 631  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  1887. 
JIH — Unidentified.    Initials    stamped    on    barrel    of    German    silver 

mounted   half  stock    (originally   fullstock?)    percussion  Kentucky 

rifle  with  back  action  lock  by  Moore,  Henszey  &  Co. 
J.  J.  or  I.  I.  (possibly  S.  S.) — Heavy  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with 

H.  Elwell  lock,  J.  B.  Reynolds  barrel. 
J.    J. — Unidentified.    (Joseph    Jacob?)    Maple    full-stock,    octagonal 

barrel,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 
J.  J.  S. — See  Suter,  John  J. 
J.  K. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  an  over-under,  flintlock  Kentucky 

rifle.  This  marking  is  also  found  on  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 
J.  L. — Joe  Long;  marking  on  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 
J.  L. — Unidentified.  (Joe  Long?)  Roman  nose  butt,  flintlock  Kentucky 

J.  M. — Initials  of  Justin  Murphy,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 

1818-1831.  Inspected  arms  in  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Simeon 

North,  Lemuel  Pomeroy,  Nathan  Starr  and  Asa  Waters. 
J.  M. — Job  Marshall,  Fairmont  Twp.,  Luzerne  Co.,  Pa.  Flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle  marked  "J.  M." 
J.  M. — Unidentified.  Markings  on  a  full  stock,  percussion  Kentucky 

J.  N. — Initials  of  John  Newbury,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 

1818-1825.  Inspected  arms  in  the  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson, 

Lemuel  Pomeroy,  Simeon  North,  Nathan  Starr  and  Eli  Whitney. 
J.  N. — Initials  of  John  Nicholson,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  1800-07. 
J.  N.  M. — John  Nicholas  Medasie,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.  Maker  of  a  full 

curly  maple  stock  percussion  rifle. 
J.  N.  S. — Initials  of  J.  N.  Solace,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within 

years  1831-1850. 
JOHN  MEUNIER  GUN  CO.— Milwaukee,  Wis.  See  Meunier,  John. 
JOHNS,  Isaak — Armorer.  Was  paid  $640  New  Emission  Currency  (at 

rate  of  four  to  one,  equal  to  $160,  in  specie)  for  cleaning  and 

repairing  80  muskets,  Phila.,  June  13,  1781. 

JOHNSON  AUTOMATICS  INC.— 84  State  Street  Boston  9,  Mass. 
Modern.  Manufacturers  of  Johnson  Light  Machine  Gun  and  Semi- 
automatic rifle,  the  inventions  of  Captain  Melvin  M.  Johnson. 
At  present  doing  custom  gun  work. 

JOHNSON,  BYE  &  CO.— 50  Central  St.,  Worcester,  Mass.,   1873-75. 

JOHNSON,  Evan — Reported  barrel  marking  of  an  early  percussion 
squirrel  rifle. 

JOHNSON,  Fred — Illinois;  percussion  rifles. 

JOHNSON,  G.  &  BRO.— Gunder  and  Johannes  Johnson.  238  Third 
St.,  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  1856-70. 

JOHNSON,  Henry— Genesee  Street,  near  Washington,  Buffalo,  N.  Y., 

108  American  Gun  Makers 

JOHNSON,  I.  N.— Middletown,  Conn.  Contracted  March  8,  1951,  for 
10,000  Model  1842  percussion  pistols  at  $6.75  each.  Ira  N.  Johnson 
had  been  one  of  the  partners  of  H.  Aston  &  Co.  of  Middletown, 
Conn.  When  he  obtained  the  contract  Johnson  severed  his  con- 
nection with  the  Aston  Co. 

JOHNSON,  Iver— Worcester,  Mass.,  1871-91.  Fitchburg,  Mass.,  1891 
to  date.  Makers  of  cartridge  revolvers  and  shotguns. 

JOHNSON,  Jim— Mt.  Union,  Pa. 

JOHNSON,  J.  H. — Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Maker  of  a  half  stock,  percussion 
squirrel  rifle. 

JOHNSON,  J.  H. — Waynesboro,  Pa.,  riflemaker.  Misreading  for  Johns- 
ton, J.  H.,  Waynesboro,  Pa.?  Father  of  J.  H.  Johnston  of  Pitts- 
burgh, Pa.? 

JOHNSON,  J.  S.— Also  Johnston.  McConnelsville,  Huntington  Co., 
Pa.  Maker  of  a  curly  maple,  full  stock,  percussion  Kentucky 

JOHNSON,  John— Born  in  Straussburg,  Germany,  in  1768.  Settled 
in  Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  then  moved  to  Listie,  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.  Made 
flintlock  muskets  and  hunting  rifles  of  plain  type;  full  curly 
maple  or  walnut  stock  without  butt  plate.  Some  of  his  rifles 
were  engraved  with  his  name  on  barrel. 

JOHNSON,  R.— See  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  below. 

JOHNSON,  R.  &  J.  D.— Robert  and  John  D.  Johnson,  Middletown, 
Conn.,  rifle  and  pistol  makers.  Contracted  Nov.  23,  1814,  for  2,000 
full  stock  rifles  at  $17.00,  to  be  made  after  a  modified  M.1803 
rifle  pattern,  as  designed  by  Marine  T.  Wickham,  U.  S.  Inspector 
of  Arms.  Few  delivered  before  M.1817  was  produced.  Dec.  10, 
1823,  contracted  for  3,000  rifles  Model  1817,  to  be  delivered 
at  the  rate  of  600  per  year  from  July  1,  1824.  In  July,  1829, 
contract  for  600  "old  pattern  rifles"  (Model  1817)  was  changed 
to  600  muskets  (Model  1816). 

On  June  27,  1836,  Robert  Johnson  (alone)  contracted  for 
3,000  flintlock  pistols,  Model  1836,  at  $9.00  each,  duration  June  1, 
1837.  March  14,  1840,  R.  Johnson  was  awarded  an  additional  con- 
tract for  15,000  of  these  Model  1836  pistols  at  $7.50  each  to  be 
delivered  over  a  period  of  five  years,  at  the  rate  of  3,000  per 
year.  The  firm  was  active  from  1822  to  1854.  The  Johnson  plant 
was  located  on  Lower  Pameacha  Creek,  Middletown,  Conn. 

JOHNSON,  S.— Connecticut,  1843. 

JOHNSON,  Seth— Old  Rutland,  Mass.,  active  1773-77.  Gunsmith  to 
Committee  of  Safety. 

JOHNSON  &  SMITH— Middletown,  Conn.,  1866-68. 

JOHNSON,  Wm. — Worcester,  Mass.  Fullstock  brass  mounted  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle. 

JOHNSON,  William— Worcester,  Mass.,  1787. 

JOHNSON,  William — Unlocated.  Marking  on  barrel  of  a  percussion 
period,  Penna.  made,  Kentucky  rifle. 

JOHNSTON,  James  H. — Owner  and  operator  of  the  Great  Western 
Gun  Works  at  Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Son  of  John  H.  Johnston.  Born 
1836;  died  about  1916.  Learned  the  gunsmith  trade  under  J. 
Senseny  of  Chambersburg,  Pa. 

JOHNSTON,  John  H.— Waynesboro,  Pa.  Born  1811;  died  1889. 

JOHNSTON,  J.  S.— See  Johnson,  J.  S. 

American  Gun  Makers  109 

JOHNSTON,  Richard — Pennsylvania  musket  maker;  associated  with 
Robert  McCormick  in  a  contract  of  May  4,  1801,  with  the  Com- 
monwealth of  Pennsylvania  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern  muskets. 

JONES,  A.— Littleton,  W.  Va. 

JONES,  Amos— Colchester,  Conn.,  1774-77.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety.  Supplied  Connecticut  with  10  muskets  and 
bayonets  in  January,  1776,  and  completed  and  delivered  31  more 
in  July  of  that  year.  Was  paid  £140,  3  sh.,  4  p.  in  specie 
October,  1781. 

JONES,  Charles — Lancaster,  Pa.,  prior  to  1783. 

JONES,  Geo. — Unlocated.  Penna.  made  Kentucky  rifle  circa  1820. 

JONES,  John — Musket  stock  maker  in  the  employ  of  Col.  Peter 
Grubb,  who  operated  a  gun  skelp  forge  for  the  Lancaster,  Penna., 
Committee  of  Safety  in  1776. 

JONES,  John  B. — Brookville,  Pa.  Born  in  Pine  Creek  Township, 
Jefferson  Co.,  Pa.,  1867.  Percussion  rifles.  Active  in  1919  in  gun 
and  watch  repair. 

JONES,  Joseph— Columbus,  Ohio,  1843-48. 

JONES,  McElwaine  &  Co. — Holly  Springs,  Miss.  Confederate  arms 
manufactory  originally  established  by  Wiley  A.  P.  Jones,  Wil- 
liam S.  McElwaine  and  Capt.  E.  G.  Barney  in  1859  on  a  small 
site  of  one  and  one-half  acres  as  an  iron  works  and  foundry. 
J.  H.  Atley  joined  the  firm  in  1860,  buying  one-half  of  Jones 
one-third  interest.  Of  the  firm,  McElwaine  had  had  arms  manu- 
facturing experience  in  the  North.  With  the  outbreak  of  Civil 
War  the  firm  obtained  a  contract  from  the  State  of  Mississippi 
for  5,000  rifles  and  on  July  13,  1861  a  contract  from  the  Con- 
federate Government  for  20,000  rifles  and  10,000  rifle  muskets. 
A  contract  was  made  with  Charles  Jones  of  Memphis,  Tenn.,  for 
the  construction  of  rifle-making  machinery.  Nine  acres  were  ac- 
quired for  an  enlarged  new  plant  which  by  March,  1862  was 
making  forty  rifles  a  day.  On  the  approach  of  Federal  troops  the 
plant  and  the  rifle-machinery  contract,  were  bought  by  the  Con- 
federate Government  about  April,  1862,  and  machinery  and 
equipment  were  moved  to  Macon,  Ga.,  where  it  arrived  about 
August,  1862.  The  site  of  the  original  plant  was  taken  over  and 
converted  into  a  Federal  Military  hospital  in  November,  1862. 

The  firm  had  also  been  known  as  Holly  Springs  Iron  Works 
and  by  its  corporate  name  of  Marshall  County  Manufacturing 
Co.   as  chartered  by  the  Miss,  legislature  in  July  1861. 

JONES,  Owen— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  about  1877.  Maker  of  a  .44  caliber 
tip-up  revolver. 

JONES,  Robert— Lancaster,  Pa.,  prior  to  1783. 

JONES,  W.  E.— Great  Smokey  Mountains,  Tenn.  Fullstock  octagonal 
barrel  percussion  "hog  rifle." 

JONES,  William— Bedford  County,  Pa.,  active  1777-83,  in  repair  of 
public  arms. 

JONES,  William— "Bill"  Jones,  Lineville,  Wayne  Co.,  Iowa.  Came  to 
Iowa  "about  the  time  the  Kentucky  rifle  was  losing  ground  in 
favor  of  the  breech  loader;  came  from  Indiana  or  Ohio,  and  it 
seems  his  gun  making  was  done  back  there."  Reputed  fine 
craftsman  with  sales  mostly  to  neighbors,  and  so  limited  output. 

JORDAN,  J.— Unlocated.  Before  and  after  1845.  Plains  rifles. 

110  American  Gun  Makers 

JORDAN,  Jarmin— Chilicothe,  Ohio,  about  1830.  Half  stock  flintlock 

JORDAN,  Louis  D. — New  York,  N.  Y.  and  later  New  Haven,  Conn. 
Skilled  gunmaker  with  World  Fair  1893  prizes.  Had  been  Works 
Superintendent  for  Maxim  Munitions  Corp.,  and  Westinghouse 
arms  plant  at  Springfield,  Mass.  making  rifles  and  machine  guns 
in  World  War  I. 

JORDAN,  L.  S.— Adams,  Mass. 

JOS*AN — Marking  on  a  very  early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  Ab- 
breviation for  Joseph  Angstatt,  Penna.  rifle  maker. 

JOSLYN,  B.  F.— See  Joslyn  Firearms  Co.  below 

JOSLYN  FIREARMS  CO.— Stonington,  Conn.  Operated  by  Benjamin 
F.  Joslyn  of  Worcester,  Mass.,  in  the  manufacture  of  army  per- 
cussion revolvers  under  the  Joslyn  patent  of  May  4,  1858,  No. 
20,160  and  Joslyn  breech-loading  percussion  carbines,  patented 
Aug.  28,  1855.  Joslyn  revolvers  and  carbines  were  also  made  by 
W.  C.  Freeman  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  at  the  Tower  Junction  Shop. 
Joslyn  carbines  were  also  made  by  A.  H.  Waters  and  Co.  at  Mill- 
bury,  Mass. 

The  government  purchased  1,100  Joslyn  percussion  revolvers 
during  the  Civil  War  for  army  and  navy  use,  and  a  total  of 
11,261  Joslyn  carbines  were  obtained  by  the  War  Department 
from  June,  1861,  to  Feb.  25,  1865. 

JOST— White  Plains  Township,  Pa.,  1775-76.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety. 

JOUSTAN,  Henry — Gunsmith,  Levee,  bet.  Sixth  and  Seventh,  New 
Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

JOY,  A.  S. — Maker  of  a  full  stock,  curly  maple,  percussion  Kentucky 
rifle  with  H.  Elwell  lock. 

J.  P. — Initials  of  Jacob  Perkins,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 
in  1821,  in  the  plant  of  Asa  Waters. 

J.  P. — South-central  Pennsylvania,  period  of  1790.  Possibly  same  as 
J.  Puling.  Three  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  known. 

J.  R. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles.  Jacob  Silvis? 

J.  S. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifles. 

J.  S.— Initials  of  Jacob  Shough  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Muskets  1809-11. 

J.  S. — Initials  of  James  Stubblefield,  Superintendent  of  Harpers  Ferry 
Armory  1809-1817.  Inspected  arms  made  at  the  Armory. 

J.  S. — Initials  of  James  Stillman,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within  years 

J.  S.  T. — Unidentified.  Curly  maple,  full  stock,  brass  trim,  percussion 
Kentucky  rifle  engraved  "J.S.T."  in  script  on  octagonal  barrel. 

J.  T.  T. — Initials  of  Capt.  John  T.  Thompson,  Ord.  Dept.  Inspector 

JUDD,  C.  W. — Marking  of  a  swivel-breech  double  rifle.  Walnut  half 
stock,  brass  time,  oval  patch  box,  set  triggers. 

JUDD,  G. — Near  Meadville,  Pa.,  early  1870's.  Percussion  target  rifle. 

JUDSON,  Henry— Avery,  Iowa,  1875-1900.  Veteran  of  Civil  War. 
Came  from  Moravia,  Iowa,  and  made  guns  for  at  least  twenty 
years  at  Smoky  Hollow,  Iowa,  and  at  Hickory  Grove.  Maker  of 
fine,  engraved  percussion  target  rifles  inlaid  with  gold,  silver  and 
ivory,  and  equipped  with  false  muzzle  and  telescopic  sights.  Also 

American  Gun  Makers  111 

made  to  order  fine  percussion  hunting  rifles,  plain  and  fancy, 
and  later,  single  shot  cartridge  rifles.  His  personal  .58  caliber 
target  rifle,  of  great  accuracy,  weighed  58  pounds. 

JUFORGUL,  Pierre— Gunsmith,  24  St.  Ann,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

JUGHARDT,  C— Main  Street,  Fostoria,  Ohio,  1865-69. 

JULCHER,  G.  G.— Marking  on  the  lock  of  a  Kentucky  rifle. 

JUNE  &  REED — Boston,  Mass.  Makers  of  percussion  sporting  rifles. 

JUSTICE,  Philip  S.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Civil  War  contractor  for  400 
muzzle-loading,  brass  furniture,  percussion  muskets  of  the  Enfield 

JUZAN,  Louis — Gunsmith  to  P.  Bouron,  New  Orleans,  La.,  gunmaker. 

J.  W. — Initials  of  Joseph  Weatherhead,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract 
Arms,  1821-25.  Inspected  arms  in  the  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  John- 
son, Simeon  North,  Lemuel  Pomeroy,  Nathan  Starr  and  Asa 

J.  W. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  artificially  striped 

J.  W.  G. — Unidentified.  Late  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

J.  W.  R. — Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  2  patch  boxes; 
one  on  each  side  of  the  stock. 


K — Over  a  leaping  animal  (buck  or  rabbit),  %"  x  7/32"  proof  mark 

on  a  late  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  barrel  bored  out  smooth  to 

.69  caliber,  with  Jas.  Golcher,  Philadelphia,  back  action  lock. 
KAIL,  Wm. — Maker  of  half  stock,  curly  maple,  percussion  rifle  with 

oval  patch  box  and  brass  furniture. 
KAMF,  Henry— Collomsville,  Pa. 
KANE,  P. — Unlocated.  Maple  half-stock,   .36  caliber  octagon  barrel 

percussion  plains  rifle. 
KANSTEINER,  William— Hannibal,  Mo.  Born  in  Germany  in   1829. 

Emigrated  to  U.  S.  to  become  apprentice  with  Henry  W.  Breick, 

in  St.  Louis,  in  1847. 
KANTS,  F.  (or  Kantz)— Unlocated.  Fine  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with 

ornate  patchbox,  lock  and  hardware  finely   engraved. 
KANTZ,  E. — Unlocated.  Skilled  maker  of  Kentucky  rifles.  Same  as 

F.  Kants  or  Kantz? 
KASCHELINE,  Peter— Northampton  County,  Pa.,  1775.  Musket  maker 

to  Committee  of  Safety. 

KASSAN,  William  M.— Columbus,  Ohio,  1835. 
KAUP,  Eli — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 
KAUP,  Levi — Union  County,  Pa.  See  Caup,  Levi. 

KAUTZKY,  Joe— Fort  Dodge,  Iowa,  1897-1939.  Learned  the  trade 
working  with  his  father  in  Austria.  Later  practiced  in  Vienna 
in  an  establishment  making  high  grade,  hand  made  guns.  After 
coming  to  U.  S.  "made  several  complete  guns." 

HEADING,  C.  H.  V.— 418  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1861. 

KEARLING,  Samuel— Amity  Township,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  1779. 

KEEFER,  J.  C. — Early  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

KEELEY,  Matthias — Pennsylvania  musket  maker.  Contracted  March 

112  American  Gun  Makers 

2,  1776,  with  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania  for  100  firelocks. 
Thirty-one  were  delivered  and  ordered,  proved  by  firing,  March 
2,  1776.  Forty-two  more  were  delivered  Nov.  8,  1776,  and  a  lot 
of  36  on  Feb.  27,  1777. 

KEELEY,  Sebastian— Pennsylvania,  1775.  Engaged  to  make  100  fire- 
locks according  to  pattern  for  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania  to  be 
delivered  at  six  per  week  until  he  "compleats  100." 

KEEN,  WALKER  &  CO.— Danville,  Va.  Confederate  arms  manu- 
factory. Advertised  for  20-30  gunsmiths  June  26,  1862.  Believed 
to  have  made  the  Read  carbine,  made  under  Confederate  patent 
No.  154  of  March  20,  1863.  Probabilities  are  that  Keen  Walker 
&  Co.,  were  the  backers,  with  Read  in  charge  of  shop  operations. 

KEENER,  Jacob— Baltimore,  Md.,  1802. 

KEENER,  John  and  Peter— North  Green  St.,  Old  Town,  (now  Exeter 
St.)  Baltimore,  Md.,  1796-99.  Name  changed  to  Keener  &  Sons 
in  the  1802  Directory.  Firm  active  to  1831. 

KEENER,  Samuel — Baltimore,  Md.,  Revolutionary  War  period. 

KEENER  &  SONS— See  John  &  Peter  Keener. 

KEEPORTS,  George  P.— Keeper  of  Public  Arms,  Baltimore,  Md., 

KEERAN,  L. — Maker  of  a  walnut  half  stock,  German  silver  trim, 
percussion  sporting  rifle. 

KEFFER,  Jacob— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1802-1820.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

KEIM,  John — Reading,  Pa.,  gunsmith.  Carried  on  the  gunsmith  busi- 
ness established  by  Worley  on  Wyomissing  Creek,  Pa.,  in  1811. 
Had  been  Worley's  superintendent.  The  shops  subsequently  came 
in  possession  of  Nicholas  Yokum  &  Son,  who  had  furnished  the 
iron  for  the  Keim  shops,  and  in  turn,  later  were  sold  to  Franklin 
K.  Schnader,  who  improved  the  buildings  and  erected  a  dam. 
The  Schnader  plant  was  still  in  operation  in  1890,  under  the 
management  of  Nathaniel  Schnader,  son  of  Franklin  K. 

KEIFFLER — (South-central  Pa.?)  Maker  of  a  walnut  stock,  Kentucky 
type  percussion  rifle. 

KEITH — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Breech-loading  Kentucky  rifle. 

KEITH,  H. — Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles.  Possibly  same  as  Keith  of 

KELKER  &  BROS. — Harrisburg,  Pa.,  gun-lock  makers. 
KELLAR — Maryville,  Tenn.  Fullstock  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 
KELLER — Houstontown,  Pa. 

KELLER,  C. — Evansville,  Ind.  Percussion  halfstock  rifle. 
KELLER,  I.— Cumberland  Valley,  Pa.,  Kentucky  rifles. 

KELLER,  I.  or  J.— Carlisle,  Cumberland  Co.,  Pa.  Fine  15-lb.  flintlock 
Kentucky  match  rifle,  period  of  1820;  early  percussion  Kentucky 
rifles;  later  rifle  with  back-action  lock. 

KELLER,  J.  W. — Casey,  111.  Reported  maker  of  plain,  fullstock  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle. 

KELLER,  Z.— Carlisle,  Pa.,  rifle  maker. 

KELLOGG  BROS.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1850-90. 

KELLY,  Samuel — Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles. 

KELTON— Unidentified. 

KEMMERER,  David— Carbon  County,  Pa. 

American  Gun  Makers  113 

KEMMERER,  David,  Jr.-— Lehighton,  Pa.  Son  of  David  Kemmerer, 

KEMP,  Bennie — Unlocated.  Maker  of  a  long  slim  rifle. 

KEMP,  W.— Unlocated. 

KEMPTON,  Ephraim— Salem  and  Boston,  Mass.,  1677. 

KENDALL,  N.— See  Kendall,  N.  &  Co.,  below. 

KENDALL,  N.  &  CO.— Windsor,  Vt.,  1835-43.  Makers  of  a  5-shot 
under-hammer,  percussion  rifle  with  a  sliding  breech  block. 
Kendall's  associates  in  the  manufacture  of  this  arm  were  Hub- 
bard and  Smith.  Originally  the  Kendall  arms  were  made  at  the 
Windsor  prison,  using  prison  labor  in  addition  to  that  of  a  num- 
ber of  free  mechanics  who  did  the  finer  work.  Probabilities  are 
that  the  barrels  for  the  Kendall  rifles  were  made  by  Eliphalet 
Remington,  at  Ilion,  N.  Y.  Kendall  &  Co.  gave  up  the  gun  busi- 
ness in  1842,  and  in  1843  N.  Kendall  in  association  with  Richard 
S.  Lawrence  established  a  gun  shop,  in  which  they  were  joined 
by  S.  E.  Robbins  in  1844.  See  Robbins,  Kendall  &  Lawrence. 

KENDALL,  Nicanor— Windsor,  Vt.,  1835-1843.  See  N.  Kendall  &  Co. 
Underhammer  percussion  rifles  with  5-chamber  sliding  breech- 
block, side-hammer  hunting  rifle,  heavy  target  and  Kentucky 
pistols,  shotguns. 

KENNEDY— See  Logan  &  Kennedy. 

KENNEDY,  E.  E.  &  CO.— Unidentified.  Percussion  rifle,  apparently 
conversion  from  flintlock. 

KENNEDY,  Martin  F.— 163  Third  St.,  St.  Paul,  Minn,  1867-69. 

KENNEDY,  E.  M.— Unidentified. 

KENT — Lock  marking  of  a  Model  1795,  maple  stocked  musket  be- 
lieved to  have  been  made  on  contract  by  Mathew  &  Nathan 
Elliott,  of  Kent,  Connecticut,  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  500 
Charleville  type  muskets.  235  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

KENTON,  G.  S. — Unlocated.  Percussion  telescope  pistol. 

KERKSZROEZER,  F.  &  CO.— St.  Louis,  Mo,  percussion  Schuetzen 

KERLIN,  John — Bucks  County,  Pa,  musket  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety.  Contracted  for  50  muskets  and  bayonets  on  July  18, 
1776,  the  arms  to  be  made  according  to  pattern,  at  85  shillings 
each.  John  Kerlin  is  recorded  in  Chester  County  in  1766-68. 

KERLIN,  John,  Jr. — Bucks  County,  Pa,  musket  maker  associated 
with  Samuel  Kerlin  in  a  contract  of  May  2,  1801,  with  the 
Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  for  500  Charleville  pattern, 
(Model  1795),  muskets.  They  obtained  a  contract  for  an  addi- 
tional 500  on  June  30,  1801.  In  February,  1811,  John  Kerlin  as 
surety  for  John  Miles,  Jr.,  took  over  the  defaulted  Miles  con- 
tract of  July  20,  1808,  for  the  balance  of  the  undelivered  arms. 
About  1826,  when  Congress  authorized  a  refund  for  improve- 
ments and  modifications  made  in  contract  muskets  of  1808  in- 
volving deviation  from  pattern,  the  Estate  of  John  Kerlin  re- 
reived  the  reimbursement.  Probabilities  are  that  no  changes 
were  made  in  the  Miles  marking  when  Kerlin  took  over  the 

KERLIN,  Samuel— Bucks  County,  Pa.  Associate  of  John  Kerlin,  Jr., 
in  contracts  of  May  2,  1801,  and  July  30,  1801,  for  500  muskets 
each,  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania. 

114  American  Gun  Makers 

KERLING,  John — Employed  in  1810  as  musket  barrel  maker  by 
Joseph  Henry  and  Abraham  Nippes. 

KERN,  Daniel — Pennsylvania;  making  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  in 

KERN,  Frederick  R.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

KERN,  Reinhard— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

KERR,  Michael— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1790. 

KESSLER,  John— Weston,  Mo.,  about  1840-60. 

KETLAND,  John  and  Thomas — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Contractors  on 
Nov.  15,  1797,  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  for 
"ten  thousand  stands  of  arms  ...  of  the  fashion  or  pattern  of 
the  French  Charleville  Musquet  ...  to  be  stamped  or  marked 
near  the  breech  with  letters  C.  P.  .  .  .  the  weight  of  the  musquet 
and  bayonet  thus  compleated  not  to  exceed  eleven  pounds.'" 
This  contract  which  the  Ketlands  expected  to  fill  with  British 
arms,  was  not  fulfilled  as  the  British  government  would  not 
permit  the  export  of  arms.  The  Ketlands  are  known  to  have  made 
locks  for  Kentucky  rifles,  and  usually  stamped  their  name  inside 
the  lock-plate. 

The  Ketlands,  residents  of  Philadelphia,  were  connected  with 
the  firm  of  Thomas  Ketland,  well  known  arms  makers  of  London 
and  Birmingham,  England,  1750-1829.  It  is  believed  that  the 
Philadelphia  branch  retailed  imported  gun  parts,  especially  flint 
rifle  and  musket  locks,  European  locks  being  less  costly  and  on 
the  whole  well  made.  The  Ketlands  also  stocked  muskets  as- 
sembled from  imported  parts,  using  walnut  and  curly  maple 
stocks.  A  colonial  flint  musket  is  known,  full  stocked  in  curly 
maple  with  barrel  marked  "LONDON"  and  London  Gunmakers 
proof,  and  lock  plate,  marked  "KETLAND  &  CO."  Another 
similar  musket  is  known,  walnut  stocked,  with  like  type  of 
English,  engraved  brass  furniture. 

It  is  possible  that  the  Philadelphia  branch  secured  and  used 
on  non-contract  or  commercial  muskets  a  shipment  of  1,551  im- 
ported, gooseneck  hammer,  Ketland  locks  marked  "UNITED 
STATES,"  which  had  arrived  at  Philadelphia  on  or  about  15th 
July  1800,  on  order  of  U.  S.  Government  and  are  believed  to  have 
been  rejected.  Such  a  short  musket,  similar  in  general  appear- 
ance and  engraved  furniture  to  the  above  arms,  is  known, 
equipped  with  a  lock  marked  externally  "KETLAND  &  CO." 
and  "UNITED  STATES,"  and  stamped  inside  "T.K."  for  Thomas 

It  is  not  known,  and  doubtful,  if  any  Ketland  locks  were 
made  in  Philadelphia.  Imports,  as  mentioned  above,  were  satis- 
factory from  the  procurement  and  manufacturing  standpoints, 
and  were  less  costly  due  to  lower  labor  costs  abroad.  Evidence 
of  Ketland  locks  originally  marked,  (not  overstamped),  "Phila- 
delphia," or  made  to  original  percussion  system  is  lacking. 

KEY,  R.— Central  Pennsylvania. 

KHAN,  W.  T.  C— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1840. 

KIBLAR,  Jacob — Marking  on  an  early  percussion  rifle  typical  of  the 
southern  Kentucky  mountain  type,  with  iron  hardware,  no  butt 
plate  and  grease-hole  in  lieu  of  a  patch  box. 

KILE,  Nathan— Raccoon  Creek,  Jackson  Co.,  Ohio,  1817-1824. 

KILES,  N.— Unlocated.  Halfstock,  brass  patchbox,  late  flintlock  rifle. 
(Same  as  Kile,  N.?) 

American  Gun  Makers  115 

KILLIAN,  George — Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

KILLOGG,  A.  A.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1874-76. 

KILPATRICK,  D.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Silver-mounted,  short,  percus- 
sion Buffalo  rifle. 

KIMMERER,  David— Carbon  Co.,  Pa. 

KINCAID,  J.  or  I. — Maker  of  a  plain,  southern  style,  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle,  (converted  with  lug  in  original  gooseneck  hammer), 
with  a  W.  T.  Howell  &  Co.  lock. 

KINDER,  Samuel — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  gun-lock  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety.  With  James  Walsh  in  December,  1776,  petitioned  to 
Committee  of  Safety  for  redress  (on  contracted  arms)  due  to 
high  cost  of  tools,  material  and  labor.  Earlier,  in  November, 
1776,  Kinder  was  one  of  the  petitioners  representing  Philadel- 
phia gun  makers,  complaining  to  the  Committee  of  Safety  against 
the  high  and  rising  cost  of  materials  entering  into  gun  making 
and  quoting  advances  in  prices  within  one  year. 

KING — New  London,  Huron  Co.,  Ohio. 

KING,  Frederick— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

KING,  P.  P.— Celina,  Ohio,  1845-85. 

KINGSLAND,  R.  &  CO.— Makers  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  locks. 

KINGSLEY,  Henry  B.— Breechloading  pistol.  Worked  for  Colt  in  1865. 

KINSEY — Newark,  N.  J.  Over  under,  swivel-breech,  percussion 
double  rifle  with  one  barrel  smooth  bored.  Walnut  stock  with 
patch  box  and  cheek  piece. 

KINSLEY,  Adam — Bridgewater,  Mass.  Musket  maker,  in  association 
with  James  Perkins  contracted  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for 
2,000  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per 
stand.  There  were  1,550  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

On  Oct.  20,  1808,  Adam  Kinsley  in  association  with  French 
and  Blake,  (French,  Blake  &  Kinsley)  contracted  for  4,000 
Model  1808  muskets,  duration  5  years.  Of  these  2,175  were 
delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

KINTNER,  John  Simon — Harrison  County,  Ind.  Maker  of  rifles  and 
shotguns  late  flintlock  period.  Born  at  Lancaster,  Pa.,  about 
1800,  of  Dutch  parents. 

KIRCHBERG,  William  M.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1840.  Muzzle-loading, 
double-barrel,  needle-fire,  hammerless  shotguns. 

KIRCHMAN,  E.— Danville,  Pa.,  1835. 

KIRK— Unidentified,  1863. 

KIRKMAN  BROS.— Nashville,  Tenn.,  1835-1857.  (Connected  with 
Kirkman  &  Ellis?) 

KIRKMAN  &  ELLIS— Nashville,  Tenn.  Flintlock  holster  pistol  similar 
to  English  Dragoon;  flint  rifle  locks;  percussion  rifle. 

KIRKMAN,  John— Ashville,  Pa.  Marking  on  a  lock  of  a  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle  by  "P.  A." 

KIRKWOOD,  David— Boston,  Mass.,  1883-88. 

KIRSCHBAUM,  E.— Danville,  Pa.,  1830. 

RISER,  A. — Unlocated.  Highly  ornamented  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

KITCHEN,  Wheeler— Luzerne  County,  Pa. 

KITTINGER,  J.— Percussion  rifles. 

KITTINGER,  L.— Unlocated.  Halfstock,  half-octagon  barrel  percus- 

116  American  Gun  Makers 

sion  rifle:  "L.  KITTINGER"  engraved  behind  rear  sight,  on 

KITTRIDGE,  B.— Main  Street,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  active  1845-73.  Listed 
as  Eaton  &  Kittridge  in  1851,  and  as  B.  Kittridge  from  1859  to 
1873.  Rifles  and  accessories. 

KITTRIDGE  &  CO.— See  B.  Kittridge. 

KLASE,  Abner — Ringtown,  Pa.,  in  1840;  Quaker  gunsmith.  Long- 
barreled  by  Kentucky  rifles,  stocked  by  his  wife. 

KLATTENHOFF,  John— Colorado  Springs,  Col.,  1878-80. 

KLEIN,  George — New  York,  N.  Y.,  1800.  Engraved  flintlock  on  ornate 
Kentucky  rifle. 

KLEIN,  Philip  H.— Ave.  C  at  9th  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1847-1908. 
Percussion  and  needle-fire  rifles. 

KLEIN  &  CARR— 819  Market  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  1887.  Klein 
believed  to  have  made  high  grade  air  guns. 

KLEINE,  George— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1808. 

KLEINHENN,  Emanuel— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  before  and  after  1860. 

KLEIST,  Daniel — Bethlehem  Township,  Easton  Co.,  Pa.,  before  and 
after  1785-86.  Made  arms  for  the  Moravian  Store,  Bethlehem. 
Died  in  1792. 

KLEPZIG  &  CO.— 212  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1858-60; 
763  Washington,  1861-65. 

KLIEMEKEN,  H.— Trinidad,  Col.,  1875. 

KLINE,  C. — Pennsylvania  pistol  maker,  flintlock  period. 

KLING — Central  Pennsylvania;  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

KNAPP — Pennsylvania,  period  of  1820.  Fine  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

KNIGHT,  C.  J. — Unlocated.  Silver  inlaid  percussion  Kentucky  rifle 
with  openwork  patchbox. 

KNIGHT,  S.  A.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  rifle. 

KNOBLE,  B. — Takoma,  Wash.  Experimental  automatic  pistols.  One 
of  cal.  .45  tested  by  Army  Board  in  1907. 

KNOXVILLE  ARSENAL— Knoxville,  Tenn.  A  Confederate  plant  en- 
gaged prior  to  1863  in  the  modification  and  rifling  of  miscel- 
laneous arms  to  .58  caliber,  for  the  use  of  troops. 

KNUPP,  C.  Monroe — Bakersville,  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.,  gunsmith,  about 

KNUPP,  Eli — Bakersville,  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.,  maker  of  percussion 

KOCH,  H. — Pennsylvania,  about  1810.  Maple  full-stock  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

KOCH,  John— Rock  Island,  111.,  1851-1919.  Born  in  Switzerland  July 
17,  1829.  Finished  arms  apprenticeship  in  1850  and  emigrated  to 
U.  S.  in  1851,  to  settle  at  Rock  Island.  Made  rifles  and  repaired. 
Still  worked  some  at  the  bench  at  age  of  91. 

KOCHLER,  P. — Lewisburg,  Pa.  Superposed  barrel  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

KOEHLER,  Gus — See  Hans  F.  Koehler. 

KOEHLER,  Hans  Frederick— 20  York  St.,  Newport,  Ky.  Born  in 
Duchy  of  Saxony,  Germany,  1833,  where  he  learned  the  trade. 
Emigrated  to  U.  S.  in  1860.  After  working  for  B.  Kittridge  and 
for  Bandle  Gun  Co.,  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  established  his  own 
business,  which,  after  his  death  in  1880  was  carried  on  by  his 
son  Gus. 

American  Gun  Makers  117 

KOEKLER — Cairo,  111.  Heavy  percussion  target  rifle. 

KOESLER— Unidentified. 

KOHL,  Conrad — Wyomissing  Creek,  Pa.  Built  a  gun  shop  in  1851. 
Retired  about  1862,  and  the  shop  changed  into  a  saw  mill. 

KOLB,  Henry  M.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1910.  Maker 
of  rim-fire  6-shot  .22  cal.  revolvers,  "Baby  Hammerless."  Busi- 
ness taken  over  by  R.  F.  Sedgeley  about  1930. 

KOONS,  Frank— Berks  County,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

KOONS,  Fred  A.— Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

KOONS,  H.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  circa  1775. 

KOONS,  Isaia — Adamsburg  or  Adamstown,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

KOONTZ,  A. — Pennsylvania.   Good  Kentucky   rifles.   See  A.  Kunts. 

KOONTZ,  J. — Pennsylvania.  Fine  craftsman;  Kentucky  rifles.  Per- 
haps same  as  J.  Kunz  or  Kuntz,  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Cf.  also  Joseph 
Coons,  Philadelphia. 

KOPP,  Andrew — York  County,  Penna.  Maker  of  a  relief  carved  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle  of  fine  workmanship. 

KOPP,  G.— Pennsylvania.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

KOPP,  J. — Unlocated.  Late  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

KOPPICUS,  Adolph— One  of  the  first  Sacramento,  Calif.,  gunsmiths. 
Made  fine,  half  stock,  percussion  rifles  including  heavy  .45's  and 
.50's.  Also  reputed  to  have  worked  in  San  Francisco  and  (?) 
Placerville.  Listed  in  Sacramento  City  Directories  1853-54  to 
1875.  Born  in  Germany  in  1809.  Died  in  San  Francisco,  Calif., 
June  28,  1882,  at  the  age  of  73.  Buried  in  Sacramento  City 
Cemetery,  lot  435.  The  Directory  of  1856  shows  that  he  was  mar- 
ried and  had  seven  children. 

KOR,  C. — Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

KORNMAN,  A.  D. — Central  Pennsylvania.  Early  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

KOUGHL,  B.  J. — Huntingdon  County,  Penna.  Fullstock  percussion 
Kentucky  rifles.  Fine  workmanship,  inlays  and  engraving. 

KRAFT,  Jacob — Lancaster  Borough,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1773-82. 

KRAFT,  P.  W.— Columbia,  S.  C,  1840.  Cased  pairs,  duelling  pistols. 
Also  halfstock  percussion  rifles. 

KRAMMER — Pennsylvania.  Percussion  rifles. 

KRETZEL,  A.— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  and  Jerseyville,  111.,  1857.  Percussion 
fowling  piece  and  percussion  pistol. 

KREUTNER,  Christian — Operator  of  a  small  gun  factory  employing 
ten  or  twelve  men  at  14  North  Perry  St.,  near  Dexter  (now  site 
of  Hotel  Arlington),  Montgomery,  Alabama,  from  about  1848 
until  1884. 

Born  Oct.  14,  1819,  at  Balingen,  Grand  Duchy  of  Baden, 
Germany.  He  lost  his  father  at  age  of  two,  was  raised  by  an 
uncle,  and  was  apprenticed  to  the  gun  making  trade.  After 
finishing  his  apprenticeship,  he  went  to  Besancon,  France  to 
learn  the  finer  points  of  the  trade.  There  at  21,  he  was  notified 
that  he  was  up  for  draft  for  the  German  army  and  advised  by 
his  uncle  to  "go  west."  In  1840  he  left  France  for  U.  S.  via 
Marceilles  to  New  Orleans  and  up  to  Cincinnati.  There  he  met 
and  married  Katherine  Herbst.  In  1846  with  his  wife  and  two 
children  he  went  south,   via  Memphis,  where  they  stayed  ten 


118  American  Gun  Makers 

months,  to  Montgomery,  Alabama,  where  he  settled  and  worked 
until  his  death  Oct.  9,  1884. 

He  gained  a  fine  reputation  for  honesty  and  fine  and  hand- 
some arms,  including  a  special  three-barrel  breech-loader  made 
for  David  Crawford,  State  Treasurer. 

During  the  Civil  War  he  served  as  captain  at  the  Montgomery 
Arsenal  with  duty  of  making  and  repairing  Confederate  and 
captured  arms  in  his  shop.  Between  1  October  1863  and  1 
November  1864  Christian  Kreutner  furnished  36  Mississippi  rifles 
(M.  1841)  to  the  State  of  Alabama.  Probabilities  are  more  were 
furnished,  but  no  records  available. 

KRICHBAUM,  E.— Danville,  Pa.,  1830. 

KRICK,  Isaac — Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Made  finished  rifle 

KRIDER,  John— Upper  Salford  Township,  Philadelphia  Co.,  Pa.,  1769. 

KRIDER,  John  H.— Second  and  Walnut  Streets,  Philadelphia,  Pa., 
in  1826.  Active  about  1820-70.  Made  brass  mounted  long  arms 
similar  to  the  Model  1841  rifles,  and  percussion  derringers. 

KRINKLE— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1810-14.  Musket  maker.  (Same  as 

KRUEGER,  H.— 10  South  2nd  St.,  Minneapolis,  Minn.,  1877-80. 

KRUMM— Mt.  Union,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

KRYTER,  Charles  A.— 115  Market  St.,  Wheeling,   W.  Va.,   1874-76. 

KUGLER,  A.— Kingston,  N.  Y.  Early  air  rifle. 

KUHN,  Wm.- W.  Main  St.,  Mt.  Joy  Borough,  Lancaster,  Pa.,  1869- 

KUHNS,  D. — On  barrel  of  converted  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  Possibly 
same  as  Daniel  Kuntz. 

KUNKLE— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  musket  maker,  1810-14.  Offered  to  sup- 
ply the  Committee  of  Defense  of  Philadelphia  with  3,000  muskets, 
Aug.  30,  1814,  at  $14.50  each. 

KUNTS,  A.— Straight-cut  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  barrel  by  J. 
Worly.  Probably  same  as  A.  Koontz. 

KUNTZ,  Daniel— Philadelphia,  Pa.;  Kentucky  rifles.  See  D.  Kuhns. 

KUNZ,  J.— Also  I.  Kunz;  also  Kuntz.  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Flintlock 
rifles  and  pistols. 

KUNZ,  Jacob — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Also  I.  Kunz  and  Kuntz.  Listed  as 
gunsmith  on  Germantown  Road  above  Green,  in  1819-29.  Flint- 
lock rifles  and  pistols. 

KUNZ,  P. — Pennsylvania.  Revolutionary  War  period. 

KUSSMAUL,  William  J.— Baltimore,  Md.,  1860. 

K  W  &  A — Stamping  inside  a  flint  Kentucky  rifle  lock  marked  ex- 
ternally "KETLAND  &  CO."  Probably  Ketland,  Walker  &  Adams, 
listed  in  Birmingham,  England  in  1818.  Though  not  American 
gunmakers,  listed  as  marking  likely  to  be  found  on  American 
made  rifles. 

KYNOCH  GUN  FACTORY— Aston  (?).  Makers  of  a  bolt  action 
musket  marked  "Kynoch's  patent." 

American  Gun  Makers  119 

L.  A.  B. — Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  of  good  workmanship. 

LACAVE,  C— Canton,  Ohio,  1880-83. 

LADD— 529  Kearney,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  Gunsmith,  1887. 

LAETHER,  Jacob — Also  Leather,  Leathers,  Lether  or  Letter.  York 
Pa.,  musket  maker  associated  with  Kunrat  Welhance  in  a  con- 
tract of  April  11,  1798,  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania 
for  1,200  Charleville  pattern  muskets.  July  11,  1801,  proposed  to 
furnish  the  State  of  Virginia  with  4,000  stands  of  arms  at  £5-0-6, 
Pennsylvania  currency  per  stand.  Sept.  14th  modified  his  bid  to 
"same  price  as  others  who  have  offered"  ($11.00  by  Peter  Brong, 
Abraham  Henry  and  Henry  Defuff).  See  also  Lether  &  Co. 

LAGOARGE,  Bernard— 205  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif., 
1856-60;  730  Washington,  1861-65.  "Makes  and  repairs  all  kinds  of 
arms."  Had  shooting  gallery.  Advertised  in  French  also. 

LAGUNBRA— Pennsylvania.  Unidentified. 

LAMB,  A.  &  CO.— Jamestown,  Guilford  Co.,  N.  C,  about  1875. 
Makers  of  percussion  rifles. 

LAMB,  A.  &  W. — Jamestown,  Guilford  County,  N.  C.  Late  flintlock 
period  fullstock  rifle  without  patchbox. 

LAMB  &  ARMFIELD— Jamestown,  Guilford  Co.,  N.  C.  Makers  of 
Kentucky  rifles  sold  in  western  part  of  North  Carolina,  in 
Tennessee  and  Kentucky.  Joseph  S.  Armfield  of  the  firm  was 
born  in  1823  and  died  in  1884.  He  was  a  strong  and  outspoken 
Union  sympathizer  and  suffered  considerable  hardships  during 
the  Civil  War.  The  Lamb  Armory  during  the  war  was  operated 
by  John  J.  Armfield,  son  of  Joseph  S.  The  armory  discontinued 
production  about  six  months  before  the  end  of  the  Civil  War, 
and  John  J.  Armfield  was  conscripted.  He  was  taken  prisoner  two 
days  before  Lee's  surrender  and  died  in  the  Union  prison  at 
Point  Lookout,  a  few  days  after  Lincoln's  assassination. 

LAMB,  H.  C.  &  CO. — Two  miles  north  of  Jamestown,  near  Greens- 
boro, N.  C.  Makers  of  Confederate  Model  1841  type  rifles,  made 
without  a  patchbox.  Contract  of  1861  for  10,000  rifles  for  State 
of  North  Carolina.  Small  output. 

LAMB  &  SON — Southern  makers  of  Kentucky  rifles. 

LAMB,  William— Deep  River,  N.  C.  About  1860. 

LAMBE,  Anderson — Bull  Run  Creek,  N.  C;  also  Deep  River  near 
Jamestown,  Guilford  Co.,  N.  C,  Civil  War  period  and  earlier.  See 
A.  Lambe  &  Co.,  Clark  &  Lambe.  Percussion  rifles. 

LAMBERT,  George— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  at  10  Green,  in  1829. 

LAMEY,  M. — Unlocated.  Early  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

LAMSON,  E.  G.  &  CO.— Windsor,  Vt.,  about  1864-67.  Manufacturers 
of  Civil  War  arms,  including  Ball  &  Lamson  carbines,  1,002  of 
which  were  purchased  by  the  government,  and  of  Palmer  breech- 
loading,  cartridge  carbines,  patented  Dec.  22,  1863,  No.  41,017, 
1,001  of  which  were  bought  by  the  War  Department  June  15, 
1865,  too  late  to  be  used  in  the  Civil  War.  See  Robbins  & 

LAMSON,  GOODNOW  &  YALE— Windsor,  Vt.,  1855  to  about  1864. 
Civil  War  contractors  for  Springfield  Model  1861  rifle  muskets; 
July  11,  1861,  for  25,000  at  $20.00  each,  and  Oct.  7,  1861,  for  an 
additional  25,000  at  the  same  price.  Both  contracts  completed  by 
July  30,  1863.  The  lock-plates  of  these  arms  are  marked  "L.G.&Y." 

120  American  Gun  Makers 

The  company  were  the  successors  of  Robbins  &  Lawrence  of 
Windsor,  Vt.,  and  were  in  turn  succeeded  by  E.  G.  Lamson  &  Co. 
See  Robbins  &  Lawrence. 

LAMSON,  J.— Bennington,  Vt.,  Civil  War  period. 

LAMSON,   Thomas — Bennington,  Vt.   Heavy  percussion  match  rifle. 

LANCASTER  ARMS  COMPANY—- Lancaster,  Pa.  Made  a  single 
trigger  for  double  barreled  shotguns.  About  1910-11. 


LANDENSCHLAGER,   H.— Muncie,   Ind. 

LANDER,  C. — Unlocated.  Lock  marking  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

LANE  &  READ— Boston,  Mass.,  1826-36.  Made  muskets  for  Massa- 
chusetts, to  equip  the  State  militia. 

LANE,  William— Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1777-83. 
Gun  stocker,  sub-contractor  to  the  Pennsylvania  State  Gun 
Factory  at  French  Creek.  Contracted  with  Peter  De  Haven, 
superintendent  in  July,  1777,  to  stock  30  muskets.  Petitioned  to 
Supreme  Executive  Council,  June  25,  1780,  for  payment  for  14 
stocked  muskets  requisitioned  from  him  by  an  armed  detail, 
for  which  he  had  to  make  good  to  Peter  De  Haven. 

LANG,  J.— Unlocated. 

LANGDON,  W.  C.— Boston,  Mass.,  1857-63. 

LANGDON,  W.  G. — Boston,  Mass.  Maker  of  snipper  (sniper)  rifles 
during  the  Civil  War. 

LANGSDORF,  O.— Stamped  in  the  stock  of  a  fancy  Schuetzen  walnut 
stocked  percussion  rifle  with  dolphin  hammer  and  silverplated 
brass  mountings. 

LAQEUQUIST,  Carl — Macon,  Ga.,  designer,  patentee  and  maker  of 
a  "Self-Capping  Gun"  carrying  from  "Ten  to  Fifty  charges," 
patented  by  the  Confederate  States  January  2nd,  1862.  Trial 
fired  April  29,  1862  and  enthusiastically  reported  on  my  Macon 
Telegraph  on  April  30,  as  to  speed,  penetration  and  facile  opera- 
tion. But,  the  specimen  demonstrated  apparently  was  the  only 
one  made. 

LARGE,  William — R.  D.  1,  Ironton,  Ohio.  Modern;  muzzle-loading 
rifles  and  gunsmithing. 

LARSON,  W.  H.— Harrisburg,  Pa.  Late  flintlock  period. 

LASH,  J.— Marrsville,  Ohio,  1817.  Flintlock  rifle. 

LATIL,  L.  A. — Baton  Rouge,  La.  Percussion  period. 

LATHROP,  Samuel  B. — Arms  stocker,  Springfield  Armory,  1818. 

LAUCK,  S. — Probably  Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifle  used  by  Con- 
federate soldier  during  Civil  War.  Another  with  tapered  octagon 
barrel,  name  in  script,  long  patchbox  with  secret  release  in  the 
hinge,  and  pre-converted  flintlock. 

LAUFMAN,  P.  H. — Pittsburgh,   Pa.   Fullstock  percussion   rifle. 

LAUTZ,  BECKET  &  MINET— 15  Morton  PL,  Boston,  Mass.,  1868. 

LAWING,  AMBROS.— Unlocated.  Peculiar  late  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifle  with  cartwheel-design  inlays  and  incised  carving;  crude 
mountings,  odd  patchbox  marked  "PATENT  SECURED";  factory 

LAWLESS,  P.  I.— Unlocated.  Percussion  Plains  rifle,  walnut  full- 
stock,  date  1859  carved  in  butt. 

American  Gun  Makers  121 

LAWRENCE — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Maker  of  flintlock  holster  pistols. 
Listed  in  city  directories  from  1821  to  1829. 

LAWRENCE,  J.  F. — Maker  of  a  back  action  lock,  full  maple  stock, 
brass  trim,  Kentucky  type,  percussion  rifle.  (Lock  maker  only?) 

LAWRENCE,  William — Laconia,  N.  H.  Percussion  target  rifles  and 
target  pistols  with  extension  stocks  and  bullet  starters. 

LAWRENCE,  Richard  S.— Born  at  Chester,  Vt.,  in  1817.  Richard 
Lawrence  moved  to  Jefferson  County  in  his  early  childhood, 
spending  his  boyhood  in  the  vicinity  of  Watertown.  In  1838 
after  completing  a  short  tour  of  duty  with  the  army,  he  went 
to  Windsor,  Vt.,  where  he  spent  four  years  working  for  N. 
Kendall  &  Co.,  learning  the  arms  manufacturing  business,  at 
the  salary  of  $100.00  per  annum.  In  1842,  the  company  gave  up 
arms  making,  and  in  1843  Lawrence  became  associated  with  N. 
Kendall  as  a  partner  in  a  gun  making  shop.  They  were  joined 
by  S.  E.  Robbins  in  1844,  establishing  the  firm  of  Robbins, 
Kendall  &  Lawrence.  Kendall  withdrew  from  the  firm  in  about 
1847.  In  1853  Lawrence  went  to  Hartford  to  open  a  branch  for 
the  manufacture  of  Sharps  and  British  Enfield  carbines.  The  firm 
failed  in  1855,  and  Lawrence  took  charge  of  the  operation  of  the 
Sharps  Co.  plant  at  Hartford.  See  Robbins  &  Lawrence. 

LAWRENCE,  Thomas— Armorer.  Was  paid  $720  New  Emission  Cur- 
rency (at  rate  of  exchange  four  for  one,  equal  to  $180,  specie) 
for  stocking  and  repairing  60  pairs  of  pistols,  at  Phila.,  June  26, 

LAWRENCE,  Thomas  D.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

LAWRENCE,  William— Laconia,  N.  H.,  1841  and  later.  Detachable 
stock,  pistol-carbines,  percussion  fowling  pieces  and  breech- 
loading  shotguns. 

LAWREY,  David — Also  Lowery.  Wethersfield,  Conn.  Exempted  in 
Connecticut  from  military  duty,  as  a  maker  of  gun-locks.  Re- 
corded June  9,  1777. 

LAYENDECKER,  George— Allentown,  Pa.,  about  1774-83.  At  one 
time  an  employee  of  the  State  Gun  Factory,  prior  to  its  removal 
from  Allentown  to  Philadelphia. 

LEACH,  Judson — Gouverneur,  N.  Y.  No  details. 
LEADER,  Richard— Boston,  Mass.,  1646. 

LEAMING,  F.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Lock  marking  of  a  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle  marked  "Ford"  on  barrel. 

LEAMY,  Michael — Pennsylvania,  period  of  1812.  Fine  over-under 
flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

LEATH,  John — Atchison,  Kansas.  No  details. 

LEATHER,  Jacob— See  Laether,  Jacob,  and  Lether  &  Co. 

LEATHERMAN,  F.— Dayton,   Ohio.   1822. 

LEATHERMAN,  Fred— Dayton,  Ohio,  1874-76. 

LEAVITT,  Daniel — Springfield,  Mass.,  early  percussion  revolvers, 
patented  April  29,  1837,  No.  182.  Believed  to  have  been  manu- 
factured by  Edwin  Wesson. 

LEBAN,  Valentine— Bedford  Borough,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1820. 

LECHILER— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Flintlock  period. 

LECHLER— Lancaster,  Pa.,   1857,  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

122  American  Gun  Makers 

LECHLER — Philadelphia,    Pa.    Percussion,    Kentucky   type    duelling 

pistols.  (Same  as  Lechiler  above?) 
LECHLER* — Barrel  marking  of  a  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  of  about 

1815.  One  of  the  Lechlers  above? 
LECHLER,  Harry — Superintendent,  Springfield  Armory,  Sept.  1,  1813 

to  January  15,  1815. 

LECHLER,  H.  Jr.— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  133  Front,  in 

LECHLER,  Jacob— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  Lilley  Alley,  in 

LEDUC,  Theodore— Gunsmith,  38  Conde,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

LEE  ARMS  CO.— Bridgeport,  Conn.,  1879  to  about  1880.  Makers  of 
the  Lee  navy  magazine  rifle,  J.  P.  Lee  patent  of  Nov.  4,  1879. 
The  firm  was  connected  with  the  Sharps  Rifle  Co.,  who  were  to 
produce  the  Lee  magazine  rifle  for  the  Lee  Arms  Company. 
However,  Sharps  suspended  business  in  1880,  and  the  arms  were 
made  by  Remington  under  license,  in  Ilion,  N.  Y. 

LEE  ARMS  CO.— Wilkes-Barre,  Pa.  Makers  of  "Red  Jacket"  rim-fire 

LEE  FIREARMS  CO.— Milwaukee,  Wis.,  1864-65.  Operated  by  James 
Paris  Lee,  inventor  and  manufacturer  of  the  Lee  rim-fire  carbine 
patented  July  22,  1862,  No.  35,941.  One  thousand  Lee  Carbines 
were  ordered  by  the  War  Department,  April  18,  1865.  The  arms 
were  rejected  due  to  a  difference  of  .02  caliber  between  the 
specifications  and  the  chambering. 

In  1874  Mr.  Lee  moved  from  Milwaukee  to  Springfield, 
Mass.,  to  superintend  the  manufacture  of  the  Lee  single  shot 
military  rifles,  143  of  which  were  made.  Subsequently  J.  P. 
Lee  is  found  at  Hartford,  Conn.,  superintending  the  manufacture 
of  his  later  model  arms.  Various  types  of  Lee  arms  were  tested 
by  the  government  in  the  trials  of  1872,  1878,  1891  and  1895. 
Lee  "straight  pull"  magazine  rifle  (made  by  Winchester)  being 
adopted  by  the  navy  in  the  latter  year. 

Mr.  Lee  was  born  in  Scotland  on  Aug.  9,  1831,  and  after 
receiving  his  education  in  Canada,  migrated  to  the  United  States. 
He  died  in  Connecticut  in  1904. 

LEE,  G. — Unlocated.  Late  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

LEE,  Roswell — Lt.  Colonel  Ordnance.  Superintendent  Springfield 
Armory  June  1,  1815  to  August  25,  1833,  the  year  of  his  death. 

LEECH  &  RIGDON— Thomas  S.  Leech  and  Charles  H.  Rigdon, 
makers  of  Confederate,  Colt-type  revolvers  at  Greensboro,  Ga., 
and  later  at  Augusta,  Ga. 

Thomas  S.  Leech,  operator  of  the  Memphis  Novelty  Works, 
was  a  manufacturer  of  military  cutlery,  swords,  bayonets,  spurs, 
etc.,  at  35  Front  Row,  Memphis,  Tenn.,  about  September  1861- 
May  1862.  His  association  with  Rigdon  began  about  the  early 
part  of  1862,  when  Charles  H.  Rigdon,  a  practical  machinist 
from  Cincinnati  and  St.  Louis,  joined  Leech  in  partnership.  In 
May,  1862,  the  firm  moved  to  Columbus,  Miss.,  the  location  of 
the  Briarsfield  Arsenal.  November  29,  1862,  General  Pemberton 
recommended  the  removal  of  the  arsenal  equipment  and  ordnance 
stores,  which  were  moved  to  Selma,  Ala.  It  appears  that  Leech 
&  Rigdon  also  left  Columbus  about  Jan.  1,  1863,  and  re-estab- 
lished at   Greensboro,   Ga.   In   December,    1863,   the   partnership 

American  Gun  Makers  123 

was  dissolved,  and  Rigdon  went  to  Augusta,  Ga.,  where  he  be- 
came associated  with  Smith  &  Ansley  in  the  manufacture  of 
revolvers.  See  Rigdon,  Ainslee  &  Co. 

Thomas  S.  Leech  was  listed  in  the  Memphis  City  Directories 
1855-60  as  clerk  and  cotton  broker,  and  from  1866  to  1869  as 
cotton  broker  in  the  firm  Leech  &  Carver.  In  1874  he  emigrated 
to  Liverpool,  England,  where  he  lived  until  his  death. 

LEFBETT,  J.  H. — Unlocated.  Full  maple  stock  percussion  rifle  with 
lock  by  Joseph  Golcher. 

LEFEVER  ARMS  CO.— Ithaca,  N.  Y.  Modern. 

LEFEVER,  Dan— See  Nichols  &  Lefever,  Syracuse,  N.  Y. 

LEFEVER,  D.  M.— 78  E  Water  St.,  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  1880-82. 

LEFEVER,  Samuel— Strasburg  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1770-01. 

LEFEVRE  &  BULLIS — Canandaigua,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period.  Heavy 
match  rifles. 

LEFEVRE,  Philip — Also  Lefever.  Rifle  maker  of  Beaver  Valley, 
Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1731-66.  Was  connected  with  the  Ferree 
family  of  gun  makers,  through  the  marriage  of  his  father, 
Isaac  Lefevre  with  Katherine  Ferree.  Isaac  Lefevre  had  come 
to  America  in  1708  with  the  Ferree  family.  See  Jacob  Ferree. 
Philip  Lefevre  was  born  at  Esopus,  N.  Y.,  March  16,  1710. 
Migrated  with  his  family  to  Pequea  Valley,  Lancaster  Co.,  in 

LEGG,  T.  C. — Columbia,  S.  C.  Percussion  duelling  pistols  with  Eng- 
lish barrels. 

LEGLER — Nashville,  Tenn.  Three  generations  made  rifles. 

LEHMAN,  George  F.— Union  County,  Ohio,  1850-54. 

LEHMAN,  Samuel — Armorer.  Was  paid  $130  New  Emission  Currency 
(at  rate  of  exchange  2Vz  for  one,  equal  to  $52,  specie)  for  stock- 
ing and  repairing  12  muskets  and  cleaning  and  repairing  10,  at 
Phila.,  1781. 

LEHNERT,  Julius — Louisville,  Ky.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle  lock. 

LEITNER,  Adam— York  County,  Pa.,  1779-1808.  Contracted  on  May 
31,  1808,  with  Tench  Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  for  100 
pair  of  pistols  at  $10.00  the  pair. 

LEITNER,  Igmatius— York  Co.,  Pa.,  1784-1786.  Flintlock  Kentucky 
rifles;  worked  on  public  arms.  Also  Lightener. 

LELAND— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

LELAND,  L.  M. — Augusta,  Me.  Percussion  rifles. 

LeMATA.  Dr.— 188  Dauphine,  New  Orleans,  La.  1853. 

LEMAN,  Heinrich — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifles,  about  1840. 

LEMAN,  H.  E.— Also  Lehmann,  Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1790-1825. 

LEMAN,  Henry  E.— Also  Leaman.  E.  Walnut  &  N.  Duke  Sts.,  Lan- 
caster, Pa.  Son  of  H.  E.  Leman.  Born  at  Lancaster,  March  8,  1812. 
Learned  the  gun  making  trade  under  Melchoir  Fordney  from 
about  1828  to  1831,  from  1831  to  1834  was  with  Geo.  W.  Tryon, 
rifle  maker  of  Philadelphia.  Henry  E.  Leman  established  his  own 
rifle  making  plant  in  Lancaster  in  1834,  manufacturing  largely 
for  the  Indian  trade.  Obtained  his  first  government  contract  on 
Nov.  7,  1837,  for  500  rifles  for  Indians  at  $14.00  each.  On  Feb.  8, 
1842,  Henry  Leman  undertook  to  make  500  Northwest  guns  for 
the  Indian  Department  at  $7.00  each,  duration  to  May  1,   1843. 

124  American  Gun  Makers 

Leman  also  did  considerable  work  altering  arms  from  flint  to 
percussion.  Also  later  during  the  Civil  War  made  sharpshooter 
telescope  rifles.  Henry  E.  Leman  died  in  1887. 

LEMAN,  Heinrich — Kentucky  rifles,  circa  1740.  Probably  same  as  Le- 
.Ci  man,  H.  F. 

LEMAN,  H.  F.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1750.  Kentucky  rifles. 

LEMAN,  Peter — Also  Lehmann.  Mount  Joy  Township,  Lancaster 
County,  Pa.,  about  1740-1782. 

LENDER,  Ed.— 1859.  No.  details. 

LENNARD— Unidentified.  1772.  Kentucky  rifles. 

LENZ,  Michael— Forest  Street,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1802.  Listed  at  36 
Light  St.,  in  the  1804  Directory. 

LENZHAUR  &  OTTO— St.  Louis,  Mo.  at  4  No.  3rd  in  1864. 

LEONARD,  A. — Saxons  River,  Vt.  Sharpshooter's  percussion  tele- 
scope sight  rifle,  lock  by  Warren  &  Steele,  Albany;  fine,  heavy 
target  rifles. 

LEONARD,  A.  &  SON— Saxons  River,  Vt,  about  1840-1860.  Another 
son  had  a  shop  in  Keene,  N.  H.  Heavy  match  rifles;  over-under 
percussion  rifle-shotgun,  German  silver  mounted. 

LEONARD,  Eliphalet — Easton,  Mass.,  musket  maker  for  Committee 
of  Safety,  1776.  Reputed  to  be  one  of  the  first  steel  makers  in  the 
Colonies,  Eliphalet  Leonard  was  one  of  the  very  few  Revolu- 
tionary War  arms  makers  with  sufficient  courage  and  conviction 
of  ultimate  victory,  to  mark  his  arms  with  his  name  and  location. 
A  description  of  one  of  his  muskets,  made  after  the  British, 
pinned-barrel  model,  records  the  marking  of  "E.  Leonard  in 
Easton  1776." 

LEONARD,  George — Chariestown,  Mass.  Ring-trigger,  pepperbox 

LEONARD,  George  R.— Keene,  N.  H.,  1859-69.  Gun-barrel  maker. 

LEONARD,  Geo.  O. — Keene,  N.  H.  Heavy  barrel,  percussion,  sniper's 
rifle  with  telescope  sight. 

LEONARD,  Jonathan— Also  called  "Quaker."  Son  of  Eliphalet  Leon- 
ard. In  association  with  Kinsley  founded  a  gun  forge  at  Stough- 
ton,  Mass.,  in  1778.  A  part  of  Stoughton  later  became  Canton, 
where  Jonathan's  son  Charles,  made  arms  on  contract  of  1808. 

LEONARD,  Charles — Canton,  Mass.  Son  of  Jonathan  Leonard.  In 
association  with  R.  Leonard,  a  relative,  contracted  for  5,000 
muskets  on  Oct.  29,  1808.  Charles  Leonard  was  a  captain  of  Can- 
ton militia  company  from  1815  to  1823.  Left  Canton  destitute  in 

LEONARD,  R.  &  C. — Canton,  Mass.,  musket  makers.  Contractors  Oct. 
29,  1808,  for  5,000  Model  1808  muskets,  duration  5  years.  Of  these 
2,125  are  recorded  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

LESCHER— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1730. 

LESSIER,  P.— See  Suter,  C.  &  Co. 

LESTER,  L.  M.  &  H.  H.— 252  Broadway,  New  York,  1875.  Makers  of 

Lester  safety  locking  pistol. 

LETHER,  Jacob — York,  Pa.,  musket  contractor  to  State  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. See  Lether  &  Co.,  and  Laethers,  Jacob.  In  addition  to 
muskets  made  rifles  and  according  to  family  tradition  pistols 
also,  but  probably  not  military  type.  Family  records  note  that 

American  Gun  Makers  125 

"Jacob  Lether,  gunsmith,  petitioned  for  a  tavern  license  in  1760, 
to  be  located  on  High  Street,  (now  Market)  in  York,  Pa.  Estab- 
lished as  gunsmith  a  few  years  prior."  Son,  Jacob  Jr.  also  a  gun- 

LETHER  &  CO. — Jacob  Laether  and  Kunrat  Welhance,  York,  Pa., 
musket  makers,  contractors  to  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania 
for  1,200  Charleville  pattern  muskets  on  April  11,  1798.  Arms 
marked  "LETHER  &  CO.,"  "CP"  on  rear  of  lockplate. 

LEWIS,  A.  W.— Unidentified.  1861.  Double  barreled  rifle  with  con- 
cealed triggers  and  inside  hammers. 

LEWIS,  Charles— Perry,  below  Washington  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 

LEWIS,  Col.  Fielding — With  Major  Charles  Dick,  operator  of  an 
arsenal  at  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  for  the  manufacture  of  small  arms 
to  equip  Continental  Line  regiments  raised  in  Virginia.  Fielding 
Lewis  and  Charles  Dick  were  appointed  Commissioners  to  build 
and  operate  the  Government  Gun  Factory  of  the  Commonwealth 
of  Virginia  by  the  Second  Virginia  Revolutionary  Convention 
Commissioners  in  July  1775. 

LEWIS,  Jacob — Unlocated.  Light  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with 
Truitt  lock  and  maple  stock  carved  in  relief. 

LEWIS,  John— Upper  Sandusky,  Wyandot,  Huntsville  Co.,  Ohio,  1820. 
Repaired  firearms  for  Indians. 

LEWIS,  Joseph — Pike  Co.,  Pa.  Late  Kentucky  rifles,  percussion 

LEWIS,  Joseph — Groton,  Conn.  Repaired  arms  for  the  State  in  1780. 

LEWIS,  Morgan— 22  Market  St.,  Youngstown,  Ohio,  1881-83. 

LEWIS,  Nelson — Troy,  N.  Y.  Born  1811  near  Speigletown,  north  of 
Troy.  A  market  hunter,  later  apprenticed  to  J.  M.  Caswell  at 
Lansingburg,  N.  Y.  Set  up  shop  at  Congress  &  Church  streets, 
Troy,  in  1843;  active  there  more  than  40  years.  Heavy  flintlock 
duelling  pistol,  percussion  single  and  double  rifles,  rifle-shotgun 
combinations,  target  rifles  in  many  weights  and  calibers,  Civil 
War  sharpshooters'  rifles;  all  rifled  with  gain  twist.  In  1870,'s 
experimented  with  100-rod  rifles.  Made  many  fine-quality  arms, 
and  excelled  at  match  shooting.  Died  in  Troy,  N.  Y.  Aug.  4,  1888. 

LEWIS,  Warner— Tulip,  Ohio.  Born  1870  a  descendant  of  Nelson 
Lewis.  Accurate  12-lb.  .36  caliber  rifle  made  in  1843.  Still  living 
in  1947. 

LEY,  Frederick — Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  Rose,  in  1829. 

L.  G.  &  Y. — See  Lamson,  Goodnow  &  Yale. 

LIBEAU,  V.  C.  W.— New  Orleans,  La.,  about  1835-47.  Libeau  revolver. 

UBEAU,  Valentine— Gunsmith.  In  Columbus,  Ohio  in  1827;  at  127 
Main,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1829. 

LIBEAU,  Charles — Gunsmith.  127  Main,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1829. 

LIDDLE  &  READING— 538  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif., 

LIDDLE,  R. — San  Francisco,  Calif.  Walnut  half-stock,  octagonal 
barrel  percussion  rifle  turned  at  muzzle  for  starter.  Liddle  was  a 
member  of  Liddle  &  Keading.  In  1859-64  Robert  Liddle  is  listed 
at  418  Washington  and  in  1865  at  538  Washington. 

LIGHT,  Elmore— Shelby,  Ohio;  81  in  1948.  Gunsmith  and  gunstocker 
in  curly  maple  and  burl  walnut. 


126  American  Gun  Makers 

LIGHT,  Peter — Berkley  County,  Va.  In  association  with  David  Hunter 
contracted  with  the  State  of  Virginia,  Sept.  28,  1776,  for  200 
muskets,  at  £6  per  stand. 

LIGHTENER,  Ignatius— York  County,  Pa.,  1784-86.  Worked  on  public 
cci  arms. 

LILLIE,  P.  T.— See  Lilly,  P.  T. 

LILLY,  P.  T.— Or  Lillie,  "Pat."  Carmichaels,  Greene  Co.,  Pa.,  1850's. 
Southern  sympathizer;  left  just  after  outbreak  of  Civil  War, 
never  returned. 

LINDBURG,  C. — Unlocated.  Percussion  over-under  rifle  and  shotgun. 

LINDE,  A. — Memphis,  Tenn.  Had  workerd  for  Schneider  &  Glassick 
before  and  probably  during  the  Civil  War.  Later  made  imitation 
Deringer  pistols.  Moved  to  Little  Rock,  Ark.,  and  died  there 
about  1904. 

LINDE,  J. — Unlocated.  Percussion  pistol. 

LINDNER,  Edward — Percussion  carbine  patentee  and  maker.  Patent 
March  29,  1859,  No.  23,378.  Lindner  carbines  (old  model)  were 
also  made  by  the  Amoskeag  Mfg.  Co.,  at  Manchester,  N.  H.  The 
government  purchased  501  Lindner  carbines  in  1863,  at  $20.00 

LINDSAY,  C.  W. — Unidentified.  Percussion,  2-shot,  2-hammer,  single- 
barrel  rifle. 

LINDSAY,  J.  P.  MAN'F'G  CO.— 208  Orange  St.,  New  Haven,  Conn., 
1864-67,  and  20  Howard  Street,  1867-69.  Makers  of  John  P.  Lind- 
say patent  two-shot  single  barrel  pistols,  and  two-shot,  single 
barrel  rifle  muskets,  patented  Oct.  9,  1864.  One  thousand  of  these 
muskets,  which  were  manufactured  in  New  Haven,  were  pur- 
chased by  the  War  Department,  Aug.  16,  1864,  on  contract  of 
Dec.  17,  1863,  at  $25.00  each.  These  arms  were  probably  made  for 
Lindsay  on  contract  by  Cyrus  Manville,  whose  plant  was  at  208 
Orange  Street,  the  site  of  the  old  Volcanic  factory. 

LINDSAY,  John  Parker — Connected  with  the  Lindsay  Firearms  Co. 
See  above.  Lindsay  was  a  former  employee  of  the  Springfield 
Armory.  Legend  has  it  that  Lindsay  designed  his  2-shot,  single- 
barrel  arm  to  surprise  Indians,  who  had  wiped  out  a  command 
in  which  Lindsay's  brother  was  a  soldier.  The  Indians  drew  the 
fire  of  troops  equipped  with  the  usual  single  shot  muskets,  and 
then  charged  in  overwhelming  numbers,  before  the  muzzle- 
loaders  could  be  reloaded. 

LINDSEY,  William— Porsmouth,  Scioto  Co.,  Ohio,  1829. 

LINS,  A.  Frederick — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Maker  of  percussion  der- 

LIPEL,  C. — Listed  as  maker  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  Believed  to 
be  a  misreading  for  script  name  of  C.  Sipel  or  Siple.  See  Siple,  C. 

LIPLEY— Unidentified.  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.  Silver  inlaid  rifle. 

LISTON,  Perry — Born  in  Maryland  or  Pennsylvania  in  1798.  In  1800 
his  family  moved  to  Scioto  Co.,  Ohio,  on  Brush  Creek,  two  miles 
east  of  Otway.  Made  rifles  1822-1882,  but  apparently  did  not 
mark  them.  Died  in  1882. 

LITTLE,  Charlie— Ashtabula,  Ohio.  Percussion  shotguns. 

LITTLE,  D.— Bellefonte,  Pa.,  19th  Century. 

LITTLE,  Jv— Bellefonte,  Pa.  Member  of  firm  J.  &  D.  Little.  Name 
stamped  and  copper   inlaid   under  barrel   of  heavy  percussion 

American  Gun  Makers  127 

Kentucky  rifle  with  openwork  patchbox  and  silver  inlays.  Tryon 
back-action  lock. 

LITTLE,  J.  &  D. — Bellefonte,  Pa.,  mid-19th  century.  Gun  and  gun- 
barrel  makers.  Made  percussion  rifle  barrels  for  J.  D.  McKahan; 
McKahan  &  Noble,  and  others. 

LITTLE,  R.— 112  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1859-60.  (With 
Bogart  Bros.?)   (Same  as  Liddle,  R.?). 

LIVERMORE,  E.  K. — New  York,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

LIVINGSTON — Marathon,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles  of  fine  workman- 

LIVINGSTON,  F.— Marathon,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  percussion  rifles  of  fine 
workmanship,  and  of  over-under,  walnut  half  stock,  percussion, 
rifle-shotgun  with  double  side-by-side  locks  and  long  nipple  for 
firing  the  lower  barrel. 

LIVINGSTON,  John — Walpole,  N.  H.  Musket  maker.  In  association 
with  Gurdon  Huntington,  Josiah  Bellow  and  David  Stone,  con- 
tracted under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern 
(Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  608  were 
delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

LIVINGSTON,  J.  W.— Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Combination  rifle-shotgun. 

LLEWLLIN,  Mathew — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  associated  with 
Jacob  Dickert  in  a  contract  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsyl- 
vania of  April  17,  1801,  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern  muskets. 

LLOYD,  William—Snyder  County,  Pa.  No  details. 

L.  N.  D. — Script  initials  of  Lewis  N.  Donham. 

LOCKE,  H. — Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles. 

LOCKE,  James — Born  1790  in  New  Hampshire  or  Vermont;  moved 
to  Wellsborough  (now  Wellsboro),  Pa.,  before  1820,  and  soon 
made  rifles;  died  ca.  1870.  Made  unique  Miguelet-type  percussion 
locks.  A  walnut  halfstock  with  part-octagon  barrel  marked  "J. 
Locke"  in  script;  lock,  marked  "J.  L."  in  script,  has  external 
mainstring  and  parts  mounted  in  a  boxlike  brass  casting.  Also  a 
fancy  inlaid  Kentucky  rifle  with  identical  but  unmarked  lock, 
marked  "James  Locke  Wellsborough"  in  script  on  barrel. 

LODER — Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1770.  Kentucky  rifles. 

LODGE  BROS.— Columbia  Co.,  Pa.,  period  of  1810;  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifles.  See  Jonathan  Lodge. 

LODGE,  Jonathan — Columbia  Co.,  Pa.;  came  there  with  his  parents  in 
1768;  there  in  1810.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

LOGAN,  G.  S. — Unlocated.  Artificially  striped,  maple  full-stock  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle. 

LOGAN  &  KENNEDY— Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Makers  of  late  flint(?)  and 
percussion  rifle  locks. 

LOBTNER,  C. — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  derringer. 

LOMBARD,  H.  C.  &  CO.— Market  Street,  Springfield,  Mass.  1860-1861 
and  later.  Makers  of  rim-fire  cartridge  pistol. 

LONDON  PISTOL  CO.— Newark,  N.  J.  The  forerunner  of  the  Man- 
hattan Firearms  Co.,  about  1859-60.  Makers  of  percussion  re- 
volvers patented  Dec.  27,  1859  by  Joseph  Gruler  and  Augustus 
Rebetey  of  Norwich,  Conn.,  patent  No.  26,641,  and  assigned  to 
Manhattan  Firearms   Co.   of  Newark,   N.  J. 

LONG,  George — Unlocated.  Penna.  made,  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

LONG,  J.— Yeagerstown,  Pa.,  1865-1886.  Percussion  rifles. 

LONG,  James — Beaver  Springs,  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

128  American  Gun  Makers 

LONG,  John — Pennsylvania,  active  about  1790.  Flintlock  Kentucky 

LONG,  John  E. — Detroit  gunsmith.  Member  of  firm  of  Fisher  &  Long. 

LONG,  Jos. — Mendon,  Westmoreland  Co.,  Pa.  Percussion  period. 

LONG,  Joseph— "J.  L."  Middle  Creek,  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  Flintlock  and 
early  percussion,  inlaid  Kentucky  rifles. 

LONG,  Wm.  J. — Jonathan  Creek,  near  Thornville,  Perry  County, 
Ohio.  Lived  29  August  1858-19  March  1948.  Had  been  apprenticed 
to  Peter  Humbarger  III. 

LONGSTRETH  &  COOK— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Inlaid  flintlock  Kentucky 

LOOMIS,  E. — Hubbardsville,  N.  Y.  Percussion  sporting  rifles. 

LOOMIS,  Earl — Colchester  (now  East  Hamilton),  N.  Y.  Learned  gun- 
smithing  in  New  England,  flintlock  period;  living  in  1870's.  Gun- 
mith  son  Alonzo,  born  1824,  died  in  1900's.  Late  flintlock  and 
percussion  rifles,  most  German  silver  mounted. 

LOOMIS,  F. — Unlocated.  Double  barrel,  breech-loading  hammer  shot- 

LOOMIS,  J.  D.  &  CO.— 1850.  Kentucky  rifle  with  lock  by  B.  Samples. 

LOOS,  F. — Albany,  N.  Y.  Short,  half -stock  percussion  rifle  with  lock 
marked  "WARREN  &  STEELE,  ALBANY." 

LORD,  J. — Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1830-1855.  Master  workman;  flintlock 
and  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

LORNEY,  M.— Boalsburg,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

LOSEY.  B. — Shop  located  near  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  Made  fine  shotgun  and 
rifle  barrels.  Percussion  period. 

LOSEY.  B. — Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Percussion  over-under  rifles. 

LOTZ,  Peter— Lancaster,  Pa.  1857. 

LOUDENSLAGER,  H.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

LOUDENSLAGER,  Simon — Mexico,  Juniata  Co.,  Pa.  Percussion  rifles, 
mostly  stocked  in  plain  maple  with  stained  stripes  or  curls. 

LOVEL,  James— Gunsmith.  Green  above  Third,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

LOVELL  ARMS  CO.— Also  J.  P.  Lovell  Arms  Co.,  Boston  Mass.  Suc- 
ceeded by  Iver  Johnson  in  1868. 

LOVELL,  John  P.— Boston,  Mass.;  born  1820,  died  1897.  Fine  per- 
cussion target  pistol;  breech-loading  shotguns.  See  Lovell  Arms 

LOW,  William— Ovid,  Seneca  Co.,  N.  Y.  Contracted  April  18,  1818, 
with  the  State  of  New  York  to  furnish  300  rifles  and  250  swords 
for  the  frontier  militia. 

LOWE,  William  V.— Massachusetts,  about  1875-95.  Active  at  Fitch- 
burg,  Winchester  and  Woburn. 

LOWE,  William  V. — Of  Warner  &  Lowe,  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  1880.  Born 
1820,  died  1897. 

LOWELL  ARMS  CO.— Lowell,  Mass.,  about  1864-68.  Makers  of  7-shot 
rim-fire  revolvers.  The  firm's  name  had  been  Rollin  White  Arms 
Co.,  assumed  without  permission  of  Mr.  White.  On  Rollin  White's 
protest  against  the  use  of  his  name,  it  was  changed  to  the  Lowell 
Arms  Co. 

LOWER,  John  P.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  and  Denver,  Colo.  Born  1833;  ap- 
prenticed at  Philadelphia  to  Joseph  C.  Grubb;  independent  after 

American  Gun  Makers  129 

Aug.  4,  1850.  Made  halfstock  rifles  (used  J.  H.  Johnston  barrels, 
Geo.  Golcher  locks),  percussion  derringers.  Made  6-shot,  .32  rim- 
fire,  sheathed-trigger  revolvers  marked  with  his  name,  "W.  L. 
Grant,"  or  "D.  D.  Cone,  Washington,  D.  C."  until  1855  when 
Smith  &  Wesson  sued  for  patent  infringement.  Came  to  Colorado 
in  1868.  Became  a  partner  of  Carlos  Gove  in  Denver  in  1873 
until  1876  when  he  opened  his  own  shop,  doing  business  at  a 
number  of  successive  locations:  Blake  Street,  Larimer,  Fifteenth 
and  at  Champa.  Died  in  1917,  at  age  of  84. 

LOWERY,  David— See  Lawrey,  David. 

LOWNDES,  Edward— Greeley,  Co.,  1875. 

L.  P.— Unidentified.  Ornamented,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

L.S. — Initials  of  Luther  Sage,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1818- 
1823.  Inspected  arms  in  the  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Lemuel 
Pomeroy,  Simeon  North,  Nathan  Starr,  Asa  Waters  and  Eli 

LUCAN — Bellefonte,  Pa.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

LUDINGTON — Lancaster,  Pa.,  Revolutionary  War  period. 

LUDRODA — Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

LUDWIG,  Paul— Pennsylvania,  1831. 

LULL  &  THOMAS— Ilion,  N.  Y.,  1857.  Double  barrel,  side-by-side, 

LULL,  M.  P.  &  A.  G. — Woodstock,  Vt.  Underhammer  percussion 

LUMBARD,  Joseph — Welded  and  forged  pistol  barrels  at  Springfield 
Armory  in  1808.  Also  drew  sword  blades. 

LUPUS,  A. — Dover,  N.  H.  Percussion  holster  pistol. 

LURCH,  David  and  Joseph— Grand  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.  1869-75. 
Percussion  target  rifles. 

L.  &  W. — Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

LYDICK,  Peter— Baltimore,  Md.,  gun  maker  to  Council  of  Safety.  Be- 
lieved to  be  identical  with  Riddick  who  reported  January  31, 
1778,  that  he  had  70  guns  ready  to  be  proved.  On  January  31, 
1776,  Keener,  Messersmith  and  Riddick  reported  they  were  ready 
for  an  inspector.  On  February  7,  1776,  an  inspector  was  sent  who 
proved  the  arms  made  by  Sam  Keener,  Sam  Messersmith  and 
Peter  Lydick. 

LYON,  H.  A. — Sioux  City,  Iowa.  Stamped  his  name  on  barrels  of 
arms  assembled  by  purchase  of  component  parts.  His  son  manu- 
factured ammunition. 

LYONS — Of  Soper  &  Lyons,  Sioux  City,  Iowa.  A  .44  caliber  plains 


M — Unidentified.  Possibly  Ohio.  Crude,  homemade  percussion  (pos- 
sibly converted)  fullstock  rifle  with  strap-iron  trigger  guard. 
Marked  "M"  on  barrel. 

MACK  &  MUNGER— Dubuque,  Iowa. 

MACKEY,  James  J.— Gunsmith.  Born  at  No.  6  Dutch  St.,  New  York, 
N.  Y.,  date  unknown.  Was  either  superintendent  in  charge  of  op- 
erations or  foreman  of  a  department  at  State  Rifle  Works,  Green- 

130  American  Gun  Makers 

ville,  S.  C,  1863-64.  The  plant  was  operated  by  George  W.  Morse. 
See  Morse. 

MACON  ARMORY — Macon,  Ga.  Confederate  arms  manufactory 
established  by  Col.  James  Burton,  C.  S.,  former  Commandant  of 
the  Richmond  Armory,  who  was  relieved  at  Richmond  May  27, 
1862,  and  the  next  day  left  with  his  family  for  Atlanta,  Ga., 
where  Spiller  &  Burr  were  already  located.  The  riflestock  making 
machinery  in  the  Richmond  Armory  was  also  sent  along.  Due  to 
high  cost  of  real  estate  in  Atlanta,  Col.  Burton  was  offered  and 
accepted  a  free  site  in  Macon,  Ga.,  where  he  located  about  June 
28th,  using  the  old  Macon  &  Western  Railroad  shops  temporarily. 
Brick  buildings  were  started,  and  machinery  purchased  in  Eng- 
land, Col.  Burton  making  a  trip  there  for  that  purpose  May  6  to 
Oct.  14,  1863.  At  the  end  of  the  Civil  War,  the  buildings  were 
finished  up  to  the  roof,  and  one  building  that  housed  the  Pistol 
Factory,  which  had  formerly  been  Spiller  &  Burr's,  had  been 

Although  the  machinery  of  Jones,  McElwaine  &  Co.,  had 
arrived  at  Macon,  Ga.,  there  seems  to  be  no  record  of  any  guns 
made  there,  outside  of  pistols.  The  stocking  machinery  from 
Richmond  was  set  up  in  the  railroad  shops  and  stocks  evidently 
made.  The  stocking  machinery  was  later  sent  to  Columbia,  S.  C. 
Part  of  the  Macon  Armory  was  in  existence  until  a  few  years 
ago,  at  Elm  and  Jackson  Streets  being  occupied  by  a  carpet 
cleaning  establishment. 

MADESIE,  John— See  Matthesiee,  J.  N. 

MAIZE,  Henry — Uniontown,  (Now  Ashland),  Ohio,  1828-30. 

MALBERT  CARLISS  &  CO.— Probably  New  York,  N.  Y.  Double  ac- 
tion pocket  revolvers  patented  in  1883. 

MALCOLM,  John — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  the  Committee  of 
Safety,  1776. 

MALCOLM,  Wm. — Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  precussion  target  rifle 
with  lock  marked  "A.  SPIES."  Also  detachable  stock  target  pistol 
marked  "Wm.  Malcolm,  W.  A.  Sweet.  Syracuse." 

MALITZ,  Charles — Gunsmith,  Melicerte,  between  Magazine  and  Con- 
stance, New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

MALONE,  M.— Gunsmith.  New  Orleans,  1861. 

MALTBY,  Jasper  Adalmont — Galena,  Illinois  gunmaker  with  shop 
and  home  at  184  (in  1854)  and  later  186  (1858-59)  Main  Street. 
Born  in  Astabula  Co.,  Ohio,  Nov  3,  1826.  Served  as  a  private  in 
Mexican  War  and  was  wounded  at  Chapultepec.  After  discharge 
established  himself  as  gunsmith  in  Galena,  making  and  selling 
"rifles,  sporting  and  target,  pistols,  revolvers"  and  doing  general 
gunsmithing.  Well  made  rifle  known  marked  on  barrel  "J.  A. 
MALTBY,  GALENA  No.  209."  He  served  in  Civil  War  with 
Illinois  troops.  Appointed  Lt.  Colonel  March  5,  1863;  Brig.  Gen- 
eral of  Volunteers  Aug.  4,  1863;  Mustered  out  Jan.  15,  1866.  Died 
March  20,  1868. 

MALTBY,  CORLISS  &  CO.  New  York,  N.  Y.  Five  shot  double-action 
pocket  revolvers,  patents  of  1878  and  1885,  marked  "Metropolitan 

MALTBY,  HENLY  &  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Makers  of  rim-fire  and 
center-fire  cartridge  revolvers  under  patents  of  John  T.  Smoth, 
Rockwell,  Conn.,  of  Jan.  24,  1888,  No.  376,922  and  Oct.  28,  1889, 
No.  413,975. 

American  Gun  Makers  131 

MANGE,  H.— Unlocated. 

MANHATTAN  FIREARMS  CO.— Also  Manhattan  Firearms  Mfg.  Co., 
Newark,  N.  J.,  and  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1864-69.  Makers  of  per- 
cussion, pepperbox  pistols  and  later  of  percussion  and  rim-fire 
cartridge  revolvers.  About  1870  reorganized  as  American  Stand- 
ard Tool  Co. 

MANN,  M.  D.— Main  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1817-19. 

MANNING,  Richard— Ipswich,  Mass.,  1749. 

MANNY,  Postman — Blairsville,  Ga.  Percussion  rifles. 

MANVILLE,  Cyrus— 208  Orange  St.,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  1866-67. 
Firearms  maker.  Probably  made  the  Lindsay  two-shot  muskets 
for  the  J.  P.  Lindsay  Mfg.  Co.  whose  address  was  identical  with 
that  of  Manville.  Manville  was  also  surety  for  Lindsay  in  his 
government  contract.  The  site  of  the  old  Volcanic  factory  was 
208  Orange  Street. 

MARBLE  ARMS  &  MFG.  CO.— Gladstone,  Mich.  Organized  by  W. 
L.  Marble  in  1908.  Makers  of  the  Game  Getter  Gun  and  producers 
of  gun  sights. 

MARBLE,  Simeon — Sunderland,  Vt.  Flintlock  and  percussion  rifles. 

MARCUM,  J.  E. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Halstock  percussion  target  rifle. 

MARK.  F.  H.— Bellows  Falls,  Vt.  Percussion  arms. 

MARKER,  Daniel— Pennsylvania,  "D*  MARKER"  is  stamped  on  a 
full  stock,  curly  maple,  brass  trim,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle 
with  43  inch  octagonal  barrel  and  lock  by  "R.  NORRIS."  Made 
highly  decorated  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  Marker's  son  was  also 
a  gunsmith. 

MARKER,  George— Gettysburg,  Drake  Co.,  Ohio,  1844. 

MARKER,  James — (Son  of  Daniel  Marker?)  Percussion  Kentucky 

MARKHAM,  T.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle. 

MARLIN  FIREARMS  CO.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1881  to  date.  Op- 
erated by  John  Mahlon  Marlin,  maker  of  Ballard  patent  rifles. 
and  rim-fire  "OK."  and  "Victor"  pistols,  "XL"  derringers  and 
"XXX  Standard"  revolvers  manufactured  under  the  numerous 
John  M.  Marlin  patents. 

In  1915  the  Marlin  family  sold  out  to  Marlin-Rockwell 
Corpn.,  arms  makers  during  the  World  War  I.  The  Company  was 
turned  back  in  1920  and  operated  by  receivers  until  1926,  when 
it  was  sold  again  and  reorganized,  resuming  the  name  of  Marlin 
Firearms  Company.  Its  recent  products  include  magazine  and 
lever  action  rifles  and  over-under  shotguns. 

MARLIN,  J.  M.— John  Mahlon  Marlin,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  1870-81. 
Inventor  and  arms  maker.  Incorporated  in  1881.  See  Marlin  Fire- 
arms Co. 

MARLIN,  ROCKWELL  &  CO.— See  Marlin  Firearms  Co. 

MARS,  Andrew — Middle  West.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

MARSH,  J.— Binghamton,  N.  Y.,  1850-70. 

MARSHALL,  Job — Fairmount  Township,  Luzerne  Co.,  Pa. 

MARSHALL,  M. — A  plain,  southern  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with 
barrel  crudely  marked  "M.  MARSHALL"  in  large  letters. 

Miss.  The  corporate  name  of  Jones,  McElwaine  &  Co.,  Confed- 
erate arms  manufacturers.  See  Jones,  McElwaine  &  Co. 

132  American  Gun  Makers 

MARSHALL  MANUFACTURING  CO.— See  Jones,  McElwaine  &  Co. 

MARSTON,  David— Gunsmith.  179  No.  Fourth,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

MARSTON,  John— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  179  N.  4th,  in 

MARSTON  &  KNOX— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1864.  Single-shot  percussion 
pistols  of  same  construction  as  the  Sprague  &  Marston  arms. 

MARSTON,  W.  P.— Toronto,  Ontario,  Canada.  Percussion  rifles. 

MARSTON,  W.  W.  ARMORY— See  Marston,  W.  W. 

MARSTON,  W.  W.— William  W.  Marston,  22nd  St.,  and  Second  Ave., 
New  York,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after  1866.  Patentee  and  maker  of 
the  Marston  single-shot,  sliding  breeck-block  pistols,  patented 
June  18,  1850,  No.  7,443,  pepperboxes,  percussion  revolvers  and 
3-shot  superposed  barrel,  rim-fire  cartridge  pistols.  Plant  also 
called  "Phoenix  Armory." 

MARTIN,  George — Matinsville,  is.  Odd,  breech-loading,  cartridge 

MARTIN,  Hacker — Current  maker  of  Kentucky  type,  flintlock  and 
percussion  rifles  and  pistols.  Born  1895.  Lives  about  ten  miles 
from  Johnson  City,  Tenn.  Operates  a  water-wheel  grist  mill  and 
has  his  gun  shop  on  the  second  floor  of  the  mill.  Great-grand- 
father, grandfather  and  father  were  all  gunsmiths.  Is  a  descend- 
ant of  the  Bean  family  of  gunsmiths  and  water-wheel  mill  oper- 
ators, whose  mill  stood  at  the  mouth  of  Boones  Creek;  and  to 
whom  is  credited  the  birth  of  the  first  white  child  south  of  the 
Alleghanies.  Hacker  Martin  still  uses  the  Bean  anvil. 

MARTIN,  HACKER  &  SON— See  Martin,  Hacker. 

MARTIN,  John — Charles  County,  Maryland.  Was  paid  4,180  pounds  of 
tobacco  in  1682,  for  "scowering  Cleansing  and  fixing  of  Arms." 

MARTIN,  M. — Unlocated.  Fine  silver-inlaid  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

MARTIN,  Robert— 20  Frederick  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1808,  and  after. 

MARTIN  &  SMITH— 98  Market  St.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Marking  on  a 
Kentucky  type  percussion  pistol. 

MARTIN,  T.— Unlocated. 

MARTIN,  William — Born  1810  in  Kentucky.  A  cabinet  maker  and 
gunsmith,  he  moved  to  Jackson  Co.,  one  mile  east  of  Leesville, 
Lawrence  Co.,  Indiana,  in  1840.  In  1852  moved  two  miles  east  to 
near  Weddleville;  died  1902,  aged  92.  Made  any  type  of  gun  in 
demand;  specialized  in  match  rifles  with  14  grooves  and  lands. 
Bought  barrel  blanks  from  Cincinnati  and  St.  Louis;  stocked 
mostly  with  hard  maple  root.  A  heavy,  curly  maple  halfstocked 
Plains  rifle  marked  "W.  Martin"  in  script. 

MARTIN,  W.  L.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1873-77. 

MARYLAND  STATE  GUN  LOCK  FACTORY— Frederick,  Md.  1777- 
78.  Operated  by  Chares  Beatty,  James  Johnson  and  John  Hanson, 
Commissioners.  Manager  of  the  factory  was  Samuel  Boone,  who 
June  17,  1777,  was  ordered  to  deliver  to  Nicholas  White  110-gun- 

MASLIN,  M.  M.— Unlocated.  Maker  of  a  flint  Kentucky  rifle  lock 
with  reinforced  hammer,  waterproof  pan  and  roller  frizzen- 
spring  bearing;  marked  "M.  M.  MASLIN  WARRANTED." 

MASON— Ashtabula,  Ohio,  in  1812.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

MASON,  J. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  Kentucky  rifle.  (Same  as  Mason 
of  Ashtabula,  Ohio?) 

American  Gun  Makers  133 

MASON,  J.  C. — Keene,  N.  H.  Fowling  pieces  and  halfstock  percus- 
sion rifles. 

MASON,  Wm. — William  Mason,  Taunton,  Mass.,  Civil  War  con- 
tractor of  Jan.  7,  1862,  for  50,000  Springfield  Model  1861  rifle 
muskets  at  $20.00  each.  Of  these  30,000  were  delivered. 

MASS  A,  George— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

MASSACHUSETTS  ARMS  CO.— Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.  Incorporated 
under  a  special  act  of  legislature  of  March  5,  1850,  authorizing 
Timothy  W.  Carter,  James  T.  Ames,  Benjamin  F.  Warner  and 
their  associates,  which  included  heirs  and  kin  of  Edwin  Wesson, 
to  manufacture  firearms  and  machinery.  The  company  was  or- 
ganized primarily  for  the  manufacture  of  percussion  revolvers 
under  the  Wesson  patents.  Edwin  Wesson,  who  died  in  1850, 
had  been  previously  associated  with  Daniel  Leavitt  in  the  manu- 
facture of  the  Leavitt  revolver,  made  with  a  hand-turned  cylinder 
under  the  Leavitt  Patent  No.  182,  April  29,  1837.  At  the  time  of 
his  death,  Wesson  had  a  patent  pending  for  an  improvement 
embodying  mechanical  operation,  the  patent  rights  to  which 
formed  a  part  of  the  Wesson  inheritance. 

With  the  receipt  of  the  patent  right  to  mechanical  opera- 
tion. Patent  No.  6669,  dated  as  of  August  28,  1849,  the  Massa- 
chusetts Arms  Company,  which  had  been  making  the  older 
hand-turned  models,  started  the  production  of  the  new  model 
revolver,  which  in  addition  to  mechanical  operation  had  several 
other  desirable  features,  among  them  a  frame  that  pivoted  for- 
ward of  the  hammer,  permitting  easy  and  rapid  removal  of 
the  cylinder.  The  new  models  were  barely  on  the  market,  when 
the  Company  was  faced  with  a  suit  brought  by  Colt  Patent  Fire 
Arms  Company  for  the  infringement  of  Colt  patents.  The  Colt 
Company,  represented  by  Edward  S.  Dickinson,  foremost  patent 
attorney  «f  the  day,  won  the  suit,  though  the  Massachusetts 
Arms  Company  had  retained  Hon.  Rufus  Choate,  one  of  the 
famous  lawyers  of  the  era,  as  its  counsel.  On  August  4,  1851, 
the  Massachusetts  Arms  Company  had  to  cease  the  manufacture 
of  revolvers  under  the  Edwin  Wesson  patent  until  the  expira- 
tion of  the  Colt  patents,  for  a  mechanically  operated  cylinder, 
in  the  fall  of  1856.  __ 

The  firm  also  manufactured  small  revolvers  using  the  May- 
nard  tape  lock  priming  system,  Maynard,  Greene  and  Smith 
carbines,  and  percussion  revolvers  made  under  the  Robert 
Adams  (British)  U.  S.  patent  No.  9694,  of  May  5,  1853.  The 
government  bought  20,202  Maynard  carbines  during  the  Civil 
War,  in  addition  to  400  purchased  in  1857.  Government  records 
indicate  that  30,062  Smith  carbines  were  also  obtained  during  the 
war,  but  that  most  likely  includes  arms  made  by  the  American 
Machine  Works,  the  American  Arms  Co.  and  by  Poultney  & 

At  the  close  of  the  Civil  War,  with  the  decreasing  demand 
for  firearms,  the  business  of  the  company  fell  off,  and  the 
assets,  stock  and  franchise  were  bought  out  and  operated  by 
T.  W.  Carter,  who  had  been  in  charge  of  operations. 

On  Feb.  1,  1876,  the  works  were  taken  over  by  the  Lamb 
Knitting  Machine  Mfg.  Co.,  owners  (since  1867)  of  the  water 
power  and  shops  in  which  the  Massachusetts  Arms  Co.,  con- 
ducted its  business.  The  firm  continued  the  manufacture  of 
arms   under   the   Maynard   patents,   until   about    1890,   Wm.   F. 

134  American  Gun  Makers 

McFarland,   ex-employee  of  the  Springfield  Armory  being   the 
superintendent  in  charge  of  production. 

MASTER,  Christopher — Employed  as  musket  barrel  maker  by  Hugh 
Shannon  in  1810. 

MATHESON,  Welcome— Rhode  Island.  Pre-Revolutionary  period. 

MATHIS,  B. — Maker  of  an  early  flintlock  fowling  piece. 

MATSON,  Thomas— Boston,  Mass.,  1658-82. 

MATTHESIEE,  John  Nicholas— Union  Township,  Bedford  County, 
Pa.,  1876.  "J.  N.  MATTHESIEE"  marking  on  barrel  of  relief 
carved,  fancy  inlaid  percussion  rifle.  Also  used  American  deriva- 
tions "Medasia,  J.  Nicholas"  and  "Madesie,  John." 

MATTOON,  C.  B. — Unlocated.  Heavy  percussion  target  rifle. 

MAUGER,  H.— Unlocated,  about  1780.  Fine  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles 
with  carved  curly  maple  fullstocks. 

MAUS,  Jacob — Pennsylvania.  Son  of  Philip  Maus;  Kentucky  rifles. 

MAUS,  Philip — Central  Pennsylvania,  making  Kentucky  rifles  in  1798. 
Father  of  gunsmith  Jacob  Maus;  family  settled  in  Berks  Co. 
before  1776.  Fine  flintlock  target  rifle. 

MAUSE,  F.  E.— Mausdale,  Montour  Co.,  Pa. 

MAXWELL,  A.  L.,  Jr.  &  CO. — Knoxville,  Tenn.,  iron  mongery  and 
foundry  at  Broad  and  Southern  R.R.,  which  during  the  Civil 
War  undertook  the  manufacture  of  Mississippi  (Model  1841)  rifles 
for  the  Confederacy.  The  arms  manufacturing  department,  em- 
ploying about  one  hundred  hands,  was  in  charge  of  Thomas 
Riggins  and  was  active  until  about  October  21,  1863,  when  it 
was  seized  by  the  Federals,  held  two  months  and  then  destroyed 
to  prevent  recapture  by  Confederates. 

The  plant  originally  was  established  in  1853,  as  Maxwell, 
Briggs  &  Co.,  by  Anthony  L.  Maxwell,  a  New  York  engineer, 
as  a  machine  shop  for  the  manufacture  of  iron  bridge  materiel. 
In  1855  it  became  Knoxville  Mfg.  Co.,  making  engines  and 
boilers  until  the  advent  of  Civil  War,  when  it  became  an  arms 
plant.  Colonel  Maxwell,  though  a  native  of  Old  Saratoga,  New 
York,  was  commissioned  in  the  Confederate  Army. 

MAYDAT,  V.— Pacific  near  Front  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1855. 

MAYER,  George — Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1810-20. 

MAYESCH— Unidentified,  Kentucky  rifles,  about  1775. 

MAYNARD,  Edward— Washington,  D.  C,  and  Chicopee  Falls,  Mass. 
Dental  surgeon.  Inventor  and  patentee  of  the  Maynard  breech- 
loading  system,  patented  May  27,  1851,  No.  8,126,  and  Dec.  6, 
1859,  No.  26,364.  Also  invented  the  Maynard  primer.  On  Dec.  25, 
1857,  Dr.  Maynard  furnished  the  government  400  Maynard  car- 
bines at  $30.00  each,  delivery  from  Chicopee  Falls;  presumably 
made  by  the  Maynard  Arms  Company.  The  Maynard  primer 
system  was  adopted  and  incorporated  in  the  Model  1855  rifle 
musket,  in  addition  to  a  large  quantity  installed  in  altered 
(flintlock)  muskets.  A  total  of  $75,000.00  was  paid  Dr.  Maynard 
for  the  government  rights  to  his  tape  primer  system. 

MAYNARD  GUN  CO.— Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.  Early  Maynard  car- 
bines. See  Maynard,  Edward. 

MAYNARD,  John— 3  Beaver  St.,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  in  1823.  Evidently 
an  employee  of  the  master  gunsmith  Henry  Turner.  At  672 
Market  St.,  in  1825;  not  listed  in  1826  directory. 

MAYWEG,  John— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  133  Dillwyn,  in 

American  Gun  Makers  135 

MAYWEG,  John  &  Wm.— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmiths  at  Dillwyn 
near  Green  in  1829. 

MB — Letters  directed  to  be  stamped  on  musket  barrels,  near  locks  of 
arms  made  for  the  Massachusetts  Committee  of  Safety  by  specifi- 
cations issued  by  Massachusetts  House  of  Representatives  Novem- 
ber 3,  1775,  which  also  reads: 

".  .  .  Resolved,  That  for  every  effective  and  substantial  Fire- 
Arm  which  shall  be  manufactured  in  this  Colony,  with  a  barrel 
of  three  feet  and  nine  inches  in  length  that  will  carry  an  ounce 
ball,  a  good  bayonet  with  a  blade  not  less  than  eighteen  inches 
in  length,  a  steel  ramrod  with  a  spring  to  retain  same,  two  loops 
for  gun  strings,  and  the  makers  name  stamped  or  engraved  on 
the  lock  .  .  .  and  resemble  in  construction,  and,  as  nearly  as 
may  be,  equal  in  goodness  with  King's  new  arms,  there  shall  be 
allowed  .  .  .  the  sum  of  three  Pounds." 

MCALLISTER,  Coll.— Pittsburgh,  Pa.  The  only  gunsmith  listed  in  the 
Directory  in  1815,  "Gun  and  white  smith,  sw  corner  of  Redoubt 
Alley  and  3rd." 

McAUSLAND,  Alexander  D.— Born  1835.  First  listed  in  1866  Omaha 
City,  Nebraska,  directory  as  gunsmith,  machinist,  and  sporting 
goods  dealer,  corner  Douglas  and  14th.  1870  directory  lists 
McAusland  Bros. — A.  D.,  John,  and  William  (clerk),  242  Douglas 
corner  14th — dealers  in  firearms,  guns,  pistols,  ammunition,  and 
agents  for  Hazard  Powder  Co.  A.  D.  McAusland  last  listed  there 
in  1874-75. 

A.  D.  McAusland  moved  from  Deadwood  City,  S.  D.  (where 
John  is  listed  as  a  merchant,  1878-79)  to  Miles  City,  Mont.,  on 
Christmas  1878.  The  1882  Miles  City  directory  lists  the  "CREED- 
MORE  ARMORY,  A.  D.  McAusland  prop.,  guns  and  ammunition." 
Main  St.,  between  6th  and  7th.  Early  in  the  1900's  the  shop 
was  moved  to  16th  and  Main;  McAusland  sold  out  and  returned 
to  Omaha  where  he  died  Nov.  26,  1919,  aged  84.  He  specialized 
in  fitting  Remington  barrels  to  Sharps  actions  for  the  buffalo 
hunters;  one  brother  was  a  Remington  representative.  A  40-90-370 
paper-patch  Sharps  rifle  is  known,  marked  "A.  D.  McAusland 

McCARTNEY,  Robert—Boston,  Mass.,  1805-15. 

McCARTNEY,  William  G.— 3Q0  Liberty  St.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  in  1850; 

176   First  Ave.   in    1870-71.   Curly  maple  fullstocked  Kentucky 

M'CLALLEN,  H.— Also  McClalen.  Auburn,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  under- 

hammer  percussion  sporting  rifles  of  fine  workmanship. 
McCLALLEN,  J.  M. — Auburn,  N.  Y.  Percussion  sporting  rifle.   (Re- 
lated to  H.  M.  McClallen?) 
McCLELLAN,  Hugh-— 16  Beaver  St.,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  1819;  8  Beaver 

St.  in  1820;  not  in  1821  directory.  (Same  as  Hugh  M'Clelland  of 

Philadelphia,  1829?) 
M'CLELLAND,  Hugh— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gun  stock  maker  at  Julian 

near  Green,  in  1829. 

McCLELLAND,  Wm. — Nappanee,  Ind.  A  fine  percussion  rifle  so 
marked  in  script  on  the  barrel. 

McCLELLAND,  Wm.— Uniontown,  Pa.,   1820-1850.   Gunsmith. 

McCOMAS,  Alexander— 51  South  Calvert  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.  Estab- 
lished in  1843.  Born  in  Hartford  County  in  1821.  For  50  years 
one  of  the  best  known  gunsmiths  of  Baltimore. 

136  American  Gun  Makers 

McCOMAS,  Nicholas — 44  Pratt  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  in  1853  listed 
as  dealer  and  manufacturer.  In  1860  at  44  West  Pratt  St 

McCONKLIN,  G.  &  H.— Unlocated.  Halstock,  brass  mounted  per- 
cussion rifle. 

McCONNANT,  J.— Unlocated. 

McCORMICK,  Robert — Philadelphia  musket  maker  and  contractor 
under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  3,000  Charleville  pattern  (Model 
1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  $4,000  recorded  paid  on 
account  in  1799.  Believed  to  have  failed  on  this  contract. 

On  Nov.  5,  1799,  McCormick  contracted  with  the  State  of 
Virginia  for  4,000  Charleville  pattern  muskets  at  $13.40  per 
stand.  After  delivering  a  few  hundred  stands  McCormick  failed 
in  business  in  July,  1801,  and  was  imprisoned  for  debt,  and 
a  part  of  his  uncompleted  contract  was  taken  over  by  his  shop 
superintendent,  James  Haslett.  Prior  to  his  failure  in  July,  on 
May  4,  1801,  McComick  in  association  with  Richard  Johnson, 
contracted  with  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  for  1,000  Charleville 
pattern  muskets. 

The  McCormick  muskets  were  made  at  Globe  Mill,  which 
stood  on  the  west  side  of  Germantown  Road  and  St.  John 
Street,  Philadelphia.  Originally  Globe  Mill  was  called  Gov- 
ernor's Mill  and  was  erected  for  William  Penn  in  1700.  It 
was  used  in  turn  as  a  grist  mill,  mustard  and  chocolate  mill, 
spinning  mill  and  in  about  1796  was  known  as  the  Globe  Mill. 
It  was  leased  by  Mr.  McCormick,  an  Irish  immigrant,  about 
1798-99.  After  the  completion  of  Haslett's  contract  of  600  muskets 
of  the  uncompleted  McCormick  award,  it  is  believed  that  the 
mill  was  leased  to  one  Hewson,  and  was  used  for  block  calico 

McCORY — Canton,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio.  Came  from  Penna. 

McCOSH,  S. — Full  stock,  percussion  Kentucky  rifles  marked  "S. 
McCOSH"  in  script  on  barrels.  Possibly  same  as,  more  probably 
father  of  Sam  McCosh,  below. 

McCOSH,  Sam — Gastonville,  Union  Township,  Washington  Co.,  Pa., 
1860-1880  at  least.  Half  stock  rifles  stamped  on  barrels  "S. 
McCOSH";  sometimes  stamped  also  on  purchased  lock.  Some 
known  stamped  "S.  McCOSH  PITTSBURGH."  McCosh  was  an 
extensive  maker. 

McCOY,  Alexander—Dock  Ward,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1779. 

McCOY  &  BAKER — Princeton,  Ky.  Percussion  combination  rifle- 

McCOY,  Kester — Upper  Paxton  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1770- 

McCULLOUGH,  George— Dromore  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa., 

McCULLOUGH,  N.  G.— Muncie,  Ind.  Percussion  rifle. 

McCULLOUGH,  W.— Brookville,  Pa.  Over-under  rifle  with  locks 

McDERMIT,  A.  P. — Unlocated.  Heavy  barrel  curly  maple  half  stock 
Kentucky  rifle. 

McDANIELS— Mifflin  Co.,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

McELHANEY— Unlocated.  Riflesmith,  died  20  years  after  Civil  War. 

McELROY,  T — 38  Third  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1861. 

McELWAIN,  R.  G. — Huntingdon,  Pa.,  Over-under  percussion  rifle. 

American  Gun  Makers  137 

McELWAINE,  W.  S.— Holly  Springs,  Miss.,  1859-62.  Confederate 
rifles  and  rifled  muskets.  See  Jones,  McElwaine  &  Co. 

McGIRK,  A.  C. — Marietta,  Ohio.  Halfstock  percussion  Kentucky- 
style  rifle. 

McGREGOR,  Eli — Lebanon,  O.  Percussion  rifles. 

McKAHAN,  John  D.— Washington,  Pa.  About  1840-April  20,  1861, 
gunmaker.  Service  in  National  Blues,  3rd  Brigade,  17th  Division, 
Pennsylvania  Militia,  Sept.  10,  1852  to  July  4,  1856;  then  Wash- 
ington Blues  to  Jan.  8,  1859;  April  20,  1861,  with  Co.  "E", 
(Washington  Blues),  12th  Pennsylvania  Volunteer  Infantry,  for 
3  months  enlistment.  Later  worked  with  Ordnance  Department. 
On  July  14,  1863  mustered  into  Co.  "H",  46th  Pennsylvania 
Volunteer  Infantry.  Died  July  25,  1864  of  wounds  received  at 
the  Battle  of  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga.,  July  20th.  Buried  in  Atlanta, 

McKAHAN  &  GALL— Washington,  Pa.  John  D.  McKahan  above. 

McKAHAN  &  NOBLE— Washington,  Pa.  See  John  D.  McKahan.  A 
curly  maple  halfstocked  percussion  rifle  with  brass  rib  and  en- 
graved patchbox;  barrel  by  J.  D.  Little,  marked  "McKahan  & 
Noble  117." 

McKENNA — Unlocated.  Cast  in  brass  trigger  plate  of  halfstock  per- 
cussion target  rifle,  probably  of  Middle  West  origin. 

McILROY,  J.  W. — Unlocated.  Percussion  period. 

McK   BROTHERS— Baltimore,   Md.   Probably   McKim    and   Brother. 

Martial  pistols. 
McKEE,  Wm.— Gough  Street,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1817. 
McKENNY  &  BEAN— 166  Main  St.,  Biddleford,  Me.,  1866-71. 
McKIM  &  BROTHER— Baltimore,  Md.,  about  1800.  Martial  pistols. 
McLAIN,  G.  W. — Maker  of  a  heavy,  single  shot  percussion  target 

rifle  with  double  set  triggers  and  curly  maple  stock. 
McLEISH,  Charles— Williamsburg,  Ohio. 

McMAHON,  John — Lock  and  gunsmith,  Tchoupitoulas,  between 
Benjamin  and  Suzette,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

McMANT,  John— Wellsburg,  W.  Va.,  1837.  Percussion  sporting  rifle. 

McMULLEN,  Peter — Maker  of  gun  skelps  for  musket  barrels.  In  em- 
ploy of  Col.  Peter  Grubb,  who  operated  a  gun  skelp  forge  for 
the  Lancaster  Committee  of  Safety  in  1776. 

McNAUGHT,  James — Richmond,  Va.  Advertised  in  1821  in  Richmond 
Enquirer:  "Fowling  pieces,  Pistols  and  Rifles  with  or  without  hair 
triggers:  patent  breeched,  double  and  single  twisted  stubb  and 
Damascus  barrels  of  all  lengths  and  sizes.  Duelling  Pistols,  locks 
and  mountings,  dirks,  hangers,  flasks,  etc." 

McNEILL,  Thomas  E.— Macon,  Ga.,  1861.  Self  styled  "Acting  Super- 
intendent" of  a  proposed  "Southern  Armory  &  Foundry"  and 
enterprise  to  be  subscribed  for  by  the  public,  for  the  manufacture 
of  "Artillery,  Small  Arms,  Laboratory  Stores  and  Projectiles." 
The  project  got  only  as  far  as  proposals  for  construction.  On 
July  29,  1862  McNeill  entered  into  a  contract  with  Capt.  Burton 
of  the  Confederate  Ordnance  for  services  in  connection  with 
manufacture  of  20,000  breech-loading  carbines  of  C.  W.  Alex- 
ander's invention,  but  could  not  raise  the  $5,000  required  for 
patterns,  machinery,  etc.  and  the  arm  of  which  a  pilot  model 

138  American  Gun  Makers 

had  been  made  under  supervision  of  Capt.  Burton,  never  ma- 
terialized beyond  the  experimental  stage.  See  C.  W.  Alexander. 

McNICHOLS,  Joseph— Goshen  Township,  Belmont  Co.  Ohio,  1828- 

McPHAIL'S  ARMORY— See  Columbia  Armory. 

McRAE,  Alexander — Richmond,  Va.  Contracted  with  United  States 
on  July  28,  1817,  for  10,000  muskets  at  $14.00  per  stand,  to 
be  delivered  over  a  period  of  five  years  at  2,000  per  annum. 
McRae  failed  on  his  contract  and  with  the  consent  of  the 
government,  on  March  21,  1821,  John  Rogers  and  Brooke 
Evans  of  Pennsylvania,  took  over  the  McRae  contract,  and 
by  Dec.  31,  1823,  delivered  5,730  stands.  McRae  is  also  men- 
tioned as  M'Rea  in  some  reports.  Also  marking  on  fullstock  Ken- 
tucky rifle  with  name  on  barrel  and  "VIRGINIA  1811"  on  lock. 

MEACHAM,  C.  D.,  ARMS  CO.— St.  Louis,  Mo.,  about  1880.  Double- 
barrel  hammerless  shotguns. 

MEACHAM,  I.  &  H.— Albany,  N.  Y.  Makers  of  pinned-barrel,  flint- 
lock muskets  for  the  State  of  New  York. 

MEACHAM  &  POND— Albany,  N.  Y.  Flintlock  pistols. 

MEAKIN,  Ben— Cherry  Hill,  New  Paltz,  N.  Y.  German  silver 
mounted,  double  barrel  percussion  shotgun.  Had  worked  for  John 
P.  Moore.  Born  1835:  died  1907. 

MEALS,  John — Unlocated.  Late  flintlock  and  early  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifles  and  swivel-breech,  double-barrel  Kentucky  rifles. 

MEDASIA,  J.  Nicholas— Union  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1876. 
See  Matthesiee,  J.  N. 

MEDBERRY,  Joseph — Rochester,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

MEDBURY,  Thomas— New  Berlin,  Chenango  Co.,  N.  Y.,  after  1800. 
Moved  to  Erieville,  N.  Y.,  in  1818,  and  still  active  there  in  1828, 
assisted  by  his  son,  Issac.  Flintlock  rifles  and  fowling  pieces. 

MEDEER,  Bruce — Brownsville,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa.  Post  Civil  War. 
Taught  gun  making  to  Uriah  Fisher,  Leather  workers  by  trade, 
made  percussion  rifles  as  a  hobby. 

MEEKIN,  George — Pike  Co.,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles.  His  old  shop  was 
standing  in  1927. 

MEFFORD  (or  Miff ord?)— Mays ville,  Ky.,  period  of  1803.  Flintlock 
Kentucky  rifles.  Father  of  T.  Mifford? 

MEIER— Wooster,  Wayne  Co.,  Ohio.  1880,  1902. 

MEIER,  Adolphus — St.  Louis,  Mo.,  1845-50.  Heavy  barrel  percussion 

target  pistol. 

MEIGS— Unidentified.   1870. 

MEISGER,  Henry — Ashland,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles,  especially  double- 

MEISSNER,  Charles— Zanesville,  Ohio,  1859.  Maker  of  halfstock,  pill 
lock,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  of  fine  workmanship.  See  C. 
Meissner  &  Son. 

MEISSNER,  C.  &  SON— 12  South  6th  St.,  Zanesville,  Ohio,  1880-1902. 
MELCHIOR,  M.— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

MELCHIOR,  Nathaniel— Mercer  at  Grant  Streets,  Baltimore,  Md., 
about  1830-40.  Maker  of  handsome  sporting  rifles. 

MEMPHIS   ARMORY— Memphis,   Tenn.   Confederate  shoulder  arms 

American  Gun  Makers  139 

plant.  Remodelling  and  conversion  of  sporting  arms  to  military 
use.  Some  arms  marked  with  name. 

MEMPHIS  ARMS  CO.— Incorporated  Jan.  1861,  and  on  May  6th 
amended  to  include  others,  total  number  of  20  subscribers. 
Marcus  J.  Wright,  Confederate  Historian,  and  Wm.  R.  Hunt, 
who  was  in  charge  of  the  Memphis  Armory  were  among  the 
twenty.  It  is  not  believed  that  any  guns  were  made  by  them. 

MENCH,  J. — (Or  S.)  Unlocated.  Revolutionary  period  flintlock  rifle 
with  name  in  crude  script  on  lock;  1/3  octagon  barrel,  relief 
carved  butt,  long  brass  patchbox  with  secret  release  under  brass 
side  strip. 

MENDENHALL,  A.  R.— Unlocated.  1840-50. 

MENDENHALL,  JONES  &  GARDNER— Cyrus  P.  Mendenhall,  Col. 
E.  P.  Jones  and  Grafton  Gardner,  operators  of  the  Deep  River 
Armory,  (formerly  Oakdale  Cotton  Mills),  at  Old  Jamestown, 
Guilford  Co.,  N.  C.  Mendenhall,  Jones  &  Gardner  were  Con- 
federate contractors  to  the  State  of  North  Carolina  for  10,000 
Model  1841  type,  sabre-bayonet  rifles  marked  "M.  J.  &  G."  and 
"N.  C." 

The  partnership  was  dissolved  Dec.  5,  1864,  and  the  machin- 
ery of  the  Deep  River  Armory  was  sold  at  auction  Dec.  15,  1864. 
The  shops  of  the  Deep  River  Armory  were  established  at 
Old  Jamestown,  about  six  miles  southwest  of  Greensboro,  with 
Oakdale  Cotton  Mills  machinery  removed  from  Petersburg,  Va., 
in  1862,  and  were  operated  by  slave  labor  largely  trained  in 
industrial  work  by  George  C.  Mendenhall,  father  of  Cyrus  P. 

MERCKLEY,  Jacob— New  Hanover  Township,  Philadelphia  Co.,  Pa., 

MEREDITH,  Benjamin— Baltimore  and  Paca  Streets,  Baltimore,  Md., 

MERIDEN  FIREARMS  CO.— Meriden,  Conn.  Makers  of  5-shot  ham- 
merless,  auto-ejecting  revolvers  (Fryburg  type)  and  of  Miller 
breech-block  system  for  alteration  of  muzzle-loading  arms. 

MERIDEN  MFG.  CO. — Meriden,  Conn.  Civil  War  arms.  Makers  of 
Triplett  &  Scott  repeating,  breech  loading  carbines,  Louis  Trip- 
lett's  patent  of  Dec.  6,  1864,  No.  45,361.  Also  of  Miller  conversion 
of  rifles  to  breech-loading  system. 

MERMAN,  D.— Spring  Mills,  Pa.  Set  triggers  Kentucky  rifle  with 
large  brass  patchbox  and  silver  inlays. 

MERRILL  FIREARMS  CO.— Baltimore,  Md.,  1864-67.  Operated  by 
James  H.  Merrill.  Manufacturers  of  carbines,  rifle  and  sporting 
arms  using  the  Merrill  system  of  breech-loading  by  a  lever  type 
breech-block.  Merrill  was  associated  with  Latrobe  and  Thomas 
in  1855  to  about  1864,  when  the  Merrill  Firearms  Company  was 
formed.  In  addition  to  170  Merrill,  Latrobe  &  Thomas  carbines 
purchased  by  the  government  July  26,  1855,  at  $35.00  each,  100 
each  of  Merrill  carbines,  muskets  and  rifles  were  bought  in  1859. 
During  the  Civil  War,  14,695  Merrill  carbines  and  583  rifles  were 
purchased  by  the  government.  In  addition  many  thousands  of 
muzzle  loading  rifles  Model  1841,  and  rifled  muskets  were 
changed  to  the  Merrill  system.  The  firm  ceased  operations  in 
1869.  While  muzzle  loading  arms  are  known  to  have  been  altered 
to  the  Merrill  system  in  Baltimore  it  is  believed  that  the  Merrill 
rifles  and  carbines  were  made  for  the  firm  by  Remingtons. 

140  American  Gun  Makers 

MERRILL,  James  H.— Baltimore,  Md.,  about  1852-64.  Inventor,  pat- 
entee and  maker  of  Merrill  breech-loading  system  carbines. 
Associated  with  Latrobe  and  Thomas,  1855-64.  See  Merrill  Fire- 
arms Co. 

MERRILL,  LATROBE  &  THOMAS— Baltimore,  Md.  Makers  of 
breech-loading  carbines  on  the  early  Merrill  system.  The  govern- 
ment purchased  170  Merrill,  Latrobe  and  Thomas  carbines  July 
26,  1855,  at  $35.00  each.  See  Merrill  Firearms  Co.,  above. 

MERRIMACK  ARMS  &  MFG.  CO.— Newburyport,  Mass.,  1867-69. 
Makers  of  military  and  sporting  rifles  and  carbines  under  Ballard 
patents.  Taken  over  by  Brown  Mfg.  Co. 

MERRIMAN,  Silas — Repaired  public  arms  for  the  State  of  Connecti- 
cut, April,  1777. 

MERRITT,  Allen— East  Randolph,  Mass.,  about  1855. 

MERRITT,  John— Boston,  Mass.,  about  1789-98  and  after. 

MERWIN  &  BRAY  FIREARMS  CO.— Or  Merwin  &  Bray,  New  York, 
N.  Y.  Though  this  firm's  name  appears  on  revolvers,  they  are 
not  known  to  have  manufactured  arms,  but  have  acted  as  sales 
agents  or  promoters  of  a  number  of  arms  companies. 

MERWIN  HULBERT  &  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Revolver  patentees 
1874-77.  Army  type  revolvers  under  their  patents  and  bearing 
the  firm's  name  were  manufactured  for  them  by  Hopkins  & 

MESSER,  W.  W. — Boston,  Mass.   Percussion  period. 

MESSERSMITH,  Jacob— Lancaster  Borough,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa., 

MESSERSMITH,  John— Lancaster,  Pa.,  gun-lock  maker,  1776.  Came 
from  Maryland. 

MESSERSMITH,  Samuel— Baltimore,  Md.  Contracted  with  Maryland 
Council  for  musket-locks  at  $3.00  each  in  1776.  In  July  of  the 
same  year  was  given  a  contract  to  repair  public  arms  for  the 

MESSMER,  Casper— Manitowoc,  Wis.,  1843  and  later. 

METLER,  John  E.— Easton,  Pa.  Died  1879. 

METROPOLITAN  ARMS  CO.— 97  Pearl  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1859 
to  about  1880.  Makers  of  percussion  revolvers  similar  to  the 
Colt  Model  1851,  Colt  Model  1862,  and  of  rim-fire  cartridge 

METZEGER,  J.  or  Metzger,  J. — Penna.  Maker  of  Kentucky  rifles 
about  1778. 

METZGER,  Jacob — Frederick  Town,  Md.  Musket  maker,  associated 
with  Nicholas  White,  Thomas  Crabb  and  Christopher  Barnhizzle 
in  a  contract  under  the  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville 
pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  235 
were   delivered   by   June   10,    1801. 

METZGER,  Jacob  T.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857  to  about  1870. 

METZGER,  John— Fredericksburg,  Md.  1790. 

MEUNIER,  John— Milwaukee,  Wis.,  1855-1919.  West  Water  Street. 
Maker  of  very  fine  percussion  schuetzen  rifles.  Listed  as  John 
Meunier  Gun  Co.  after  1893.  After  the  general  adoption  of  breech 
loading  target  rifle,  Meunier  built  schuetzens  on  Ballard,  Mar- 
tini and  Patt-Martini  actions.  After  Meunier's  death  in  1919,  his 

American  Gun  Makers  141 

son  Stephen,  maintained  the  shop  until  1940  doing  repair  work 
and  selling  guns  and  ammunition.  Located  at  254  W.  Water  in 
1862,  West  Water  at  Cedar  in  1863,  293  West  Water  in  1865,  West 
Water  between  Wells  and  Cedar  in  1867-68  and  at  272  W.  Water 
1868-1932.  In  1932  listed  at  946  N.  5th  St.,  in  1933  at  827  N. 
3rd  St.,  and  1937-40  at  144  East  Water  Street. 

MEUNIER,  Stephen — Brother  and  employee  of  John  Meunier,  Mil- 
waukee. Died  in  early  1930's. 

MEWHIRTER,  S.— Unlocated.  Late  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  of  good 

MEYERS,  Jacob— Somerset  Co.,  Pa.,  1830.  (Same  as  J.  Meyer  and 
Jacob  Mier?) 

MEYER,  J. — Unlocated.  Reported  stamping  on  lock  and  barrel  of  a 
walnut  half  stock  percussion  rifle. 

MEYERS,  D. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  Penna.  type  Kentucky  rifle 
circa  1825-35,  with  lock  marked  "DREPPERD,  LANCASTER." 

MEYER,  C.  H.  J.— 604  Pacific  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1865. 

MEYERS,  Jacob — Gunsmith,  99  Front  Levee,  third  district,  New 
Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

MEYLAN,  Martin— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1719— about  1730;  Reading,  Pa., 
about  1760-1800  (two  men?).  Erected  a  barrel-boring  mill  in  1719. 
Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

M.  H. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles  of  fine  workmanship. 

MICKSELL,  Martin — Apprentice  gunmaker  to  Christian  Werger, 
Leacock  Township,  Pa.,  musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety  in 

MIDDLETON,  Edward — Unlocated.  Maker  of  muzzle  loading,  percus- 
sion shotguns. 

MIDNIGHT,  I.  E.— -Unidentified.  Percussion  duelling  pistols. 

MIER,  I.  or  J. — Somerset  Co.,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles.  (See  Mier,  Jacob). 

MIER,  Jacob — Near  Salisbury,  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.,  early  19th  century. 
Father  of  Samuel  Mier.  Kentucky  rifles  marked  "J.  MIER"  in 

MIER,  Samuel — Near  Salisbury,  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.,  period  of  1850- 
1870.  Son  of  Jacob  Mier.  Long,  elaborate  percussion  Kentucky 
rifles  with  German  silver  inlays  or  brass  wire  ornament  and 
engraved  fancy  patchboxes,  hand-made  lockplates,  and  narrow- 
butt,  light  Somerset  Co.  stocks;  name  in  script. 

MIFFORD,  T.— Maysville,  Ky.  Born  1803,  died  1890.  Flintlock  and 
percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

MILES,  John,  Sr. — Philadelphia,  Pa.  John  Miles,  Sr.,  was  born  in 
London,  England,  in  1752,  where  also  was  born  his  son,  John, 
Jr.,  in  1777.  They  came  to  United  States  about  1790  and  settled 
in  Philadelphia,  where  John  Miles  the  elder,  is  listed  as  residing 
at  500  North  Second  St.,  from  1790  to  1798,  and  at  30  South 
3rd  St.,  in  1805-08.  He  died  May  1,  1808,  and  is  buried  in  the  All 
Saints  Churchyard  at  Torresdale,  Pa. 

John  Miles,  Sr.,  of  Northern  Liberties,  near  Philadelphia,  had 
contracts  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  of  Sept. 
3,  1798,  for  2,000  muskets,  Charleville  pattern,  and  of  April  16, 
1801,  for  2,000  additional.  Miles  also  had  a  U.  S.  contract  under 
Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  400  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795) 
muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand,  on  which  account  he  was  paid 
$5,332.00  in  1800. 

142  American  Gun  Makers 

Records  indicate  that  on  July  23,  1801,  Miles  purchased  the 
McCormick  "instruments  for  gun  making,"  and  on  Aug.  9th, 
1801,  agreed  to  take  over  a  part  of  the  defaulted  McCormick 
contract  "to  complete  the  work  undertaken  by  McCormick"  for 
the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania.  The  barrels  of  some  of 
the  early  Miles  muskets  are  proof  marked  with  a  "liberty  cap" 
instead  of  the  usual  eagle  head. 

Mary  Miles,  widow  of  John  Miles,  gunsmith  is  listed  at  86 
Callowhill,  Phila.,  Pa.  in  1819. 

MILES,  John,  Jr. — Bordentown,  N.  J.  Son  of  John  Miles,  Sr.  Born 
in  London,  England,  in  1777.  Came  to  United  States  about  1790 
and  lived  with  his  father  in  Philadelphia,  until  about  1805,  in 
which  year  he  is  listed  at  43  Chestnut  Street,  while  his  father 
is  shown  at  30  S.  3rd  Street.  Upon  his  father's  death  in  1808, 
John  Miles  moved  to  Bordentown,  N.  J.,  where  on  July  30,  1808, 
he  obtained  a  U.  S.  contract  for  9,200  muskets  at  $10.75  per 
stand,  of  which  2,407  were  recorded  delivered  before  Oct.  7, 

Of  the  arms  delivered  by  Miles  under  the  1808  contract, 
many  parts  were  obtained  from  sub-contractors  in  Philadelphia 
and  vicinity,  as  was  quite  common  in  those  days.  Among  the 
latter  was  John  Kerlin  who  furnished  Miles  with  400  musket 
barrels.  When  Miles  defaulted  on  the  balance  of  his  1808  con- 
tract, it  was  completed  by  Miles'  surety,  or  guarantor;  the  same 
John  Kerlin,  who  on  Feb.  12,  1811,  entered  into  a  new  contract 
with  the  government  for  the  unfinished  balance  of  the  Miles 
muskets.  In  all  probability  the  marking  was  not  changed. 

About  1826,  when  Congress  authorized  a  refund  for  im- 
provements and  modifications  made  in  contract  muskets,  Model 
1808,  involving  deviation  from  pattern,  the  estate  of  John  Kerlin 
received  the  refund. 

There  is  no  record  available  of  pistol  contracts  awarded  to 
Miles,  father  or  son.  However,  judging  the  existing  specimens 
of  Miles  pistols,  made  in  resemblance  of  the  North  Navy  pistols 
of  1808,  probabilities  are  that  John  Miles,  Jr.,  had  a  pistol  con- 
tract, and  also  made  martial  pistols  for  sale  to  states'  militia, 
individual  officers  or  to  privateers. 

John  Miles  (Jr.)  died  in  1852,  and  is  buried  in  the  church- 
yard at  Bordentown. 

MILES,  Thomas — Pennsylvania  rifle  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety, 
1782-97.  Payments  recorded  in  August  and  September,  1776, 
for  rifling  of  arms  and  furnishing  rifles.  Thomas  Miles  was  one 
of  the  petitioners  representing  Pennsylvania  arms  makers  to  the 
Committee  of  Safety  of  Philadelphia,  in  November,  1776,  com- 
plaining against  the  high  cost  of  material  and  labor  entering 
into  gun  making,  and  quoting  the  advances  in  prices  in  one  year, 
since  1775. 

MILITARY  LABORATORY— 34  Dock  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.  Ad- 
vertised in  the  Aurora  "Advertiser,"  Jan.  1,  1800,  as  the  place 
"where  owners  and  commanders  of  armed  vessels  may  be  sup- 
plied with  Muskets  &  Pistols." 

MILLARD,  Seth  P.— Lockport,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

MILLBENZ— 1825.  Unidentified. 

MILLER — Resided  six  miles  north  of  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 
Maker  of  4-  and  8-gauge  shotguns  for  market  hunting  on  Cayuga 

American  Gun  Makers  143 

MILLER — Washington,  Mo.  Percussion  rifles. 

MILLER,  Abner— Easton,  Pa.  Flintlock  rifles  circa  1810-20;  over- 
under  percussion  rifle. 

MILLER,  B. — Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

MILLER,  C. — Honeoye,  N.  Y.,  about  1850.  Over-under,  mule  ear  rifles. 

MILLER,  C.  A. — New  Haven,  Conn.  Magazine  sporting  rifle. 

MILLER,  Daniel — Unlocated.  Curly  maple  full-stock,  octagonal  bar- 
rel Kentucky  rifle  converted  from  flintlock  to  percussion.  Deeply 
curved  butt;  engraved  patchbox. 

MILLER,  David— 209  Market  St.,  Springfield,  Ohio,  1870-78. 

MILLER,  Elmer  E.— Millersburg,  Pa.  Died  August  1952,  aged  70.  Gun- 
smith and  inventor  of  a  single  trigger  for  double-barreled  shot- 
guns, and  the  Miller  set  trigger. 

MILLER,  Franklin — Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  near  Reading. 
Built  two  shops,  one  30  feet  by  60,  with  three  water  wheels,  on 
Wyomissing  Creek  between  Mohn's  Store  and  Gouglersville,  in 
1821,  using  the  creek  water  power  to  bore  and  grind  gun  barrels. 
Made  4,000  barrels  a  year.  By  1854  had  three  factories  on  Wyo- 
missing and  several  in  other  parts  of  the  state.  Also  conducted  a 
hardware  store  at  the  corner  of  4th  and  Penn  Streets,  in  Reading, 
Pa.  Later  was  forced  to  dispose  of  his  gun  shops  as  a  result  of 
unfortunate  investments  and  they  were  transformed  into  other 
commercial  plants. 

MILLER,  G.  C. — New  Haven,  Conn.  Heavy,  Civil  War  period  percus- 
sion sharpshooter's  rifle. 

MILLER,  H. — Unlocated.  Early  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

MILLER,  J. — Curly  maple,  full  stock,  brass  mounted,  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle  (converted  to  percussion).  Made  without  patchbox. 

MILLER,  J. — Rochester,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period,  1829.  Inventor  of 
pre-Colt  percussion  revolver  and  pill-lock  revolving  rifles. 

MILLER,  John — Lancaster  Borough,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  1773-82.  Pay- 
ments recorded  for  work  on  public  arms  in  1777. 

MILLER,  John— Penfleld  and  Monroe,  Mich.,  about  1830-75. 

MILLER,  M.— Unlocated.  About  1850. 

MILLER,  Mathias — Strasburg  County,  Pa.,  in  1779,  and  at  Easton, 
Northampton  Co.,  Pa.,  in  1788.  Famed  for  the  excellent  workman- 
ship of  his  gun-locks. 

MILLER,  Samuel— Boston,  Mass.,  1730.  Early,  42  inch  half  octagonal 
pinned  barrel  flintlock  rifle  with  gooseneck  hammer.  Full  cherry 
stock  with  deeply  curved  butt  and  brass  butt  plate,  Marked  "S. 
MILLER"  on  barrel  flat. 

MILLER,  S.  C— New  Haven,  Conn.,   1855. 

MILLER,  Simon— Hamburg,  Pa.,  about  1770-1820.  Master  riflesmith; 
long  silver-inlaid  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  with  incised  carving. 
Possibly  same  as  "S.  M.'\  maker  of  a  pair  of  flintlock  Kentucky 
pistols  carried  by  Col.  Nathan  Dennison  at  Battle  of  Wyoming, 
Pa.,  July  3,  1778. 

MILLER,  W.  D.— Pittsfield,  Mass.,  about  1850. 

MILLER,  W.  G. — Unlocated.  Late  period  flintlock  and  percussion 
Kentucky  rifles. 

MILLER,  William  H.— Patentee  of  Miller  alteration  of  U.  S.  musket. 
In  1888  made  a  deposition  that  he  had  been  in  the  cutlery  busi- 

144  American  Gun  Makers 

ness  since  1868,  was  now  postmaster  at  Meriden,  Conn.  Age  66. 
Prior  to  1868  manufactured  firearms  as  supt.  and  contractor.  Be- 
gan as  apprentice  in  firearms  in  Paterson,  N.  J.  Until  1868  con- 
tinually in  that  business.  After  leaving  Paterson  went  to  Chicopee 
manufacturing  Jenks  carbines,  also  at  Mill  Creek,  Pa.  manu- 
facturing muskets,  at  Cincinnati  manufacturing  rifles  for  the 
Government  as  contractor  with  John  W.  Griffith.  Came  back  to 
Paterson,  N.  J.  was  in  locomotive  shops  six  months,  thence  to 
Chicopee  Falls  on  firearms,  thence  into  Springfield  Armory. 
Made  a  gun  previous  to  taking  out  his  patent  in  1865. 

MILLIRON,  C. — Dayton,  Pa.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

MILLS,  B. — Benjamin  Mills,  a  gunsmith  of  Charlottsville,  N.  C, 
who  served  with  Morgan's  Rifles  in  the  War  of  Revolution,  and 
settled  in  Harrodsburg,  Ky.,  about  1790,  and  where  he  made 
arms  until  about  1815.  The  settlement  of  Harrodsburg  was 
founded  by  Col.  James  Harrod. 

Benjamin  Mills  is  reputed  to  have  armed  Colonel  Richard 
M.  Johnson's  regiment  of  mounted  Kentucky  riflemen,  who  de- 
cisively defeated  the  British  and  their  Indian  allies  under  Gen- 
eral Proctor,  in  the  battle  of  Thames  River,  near  Moravian  Town, 
Canada,  on  Oct.  5,  1813.  Tecumseh  was  among  the  slain,  and  as  a 
result  of  this  defeat,  his  Indians  deserted  the  British  cause. 

MILLS,  Benjamin — Harrodsburg,  Ky.,  percussion  rifle  and  pistol 
maker  of  the  Civil  War  period.  Had  been  assistant  armorer  at 
Harpers  Ferry  Armory  and  was  one  of  the  hostages  held  by 
John  Brown  and  rescued  by  Col.  Robert  E.  Lee.  During  the 
Civil  War  cast  his  lot  with  the  South  and  was  rumored  to  have 
been  in  charge  of  arms  production  at  one  of  the  Confederate 
arsenals.  Was  reputed  to  make  very  fine  trigger  systems  and 
to  have  numbered  Fremont  and  Kit  Carson  among  his  clients. 

MILLS,  F.  M.— Charlottesville,  N.  C.  About  1790.  Flintlock  rifles.  Ap- 
prenticed to  Henry  Leman.  Later  opened  own  shop  at  Harrods- 
burg, Ky.  Succeeded  by  son  Benjamin  Mills. 

MILLS,  Jason— Pittsfield,  Mass.  In  1806  Jason  Mills,  of  Springfield, 
Mass.  purchased  the  old  Whitney  forge,  and  established  a  small 
gun-shop  for  the  manufacture  of  fowling-pieces  and  other 
custom-work  for  the  surrounding  country.  In  1808  the  representa- 
tives of  Mills  sold  out  to  Lemuel  Pomeroy. 

MILLS,   Joseph — Colerain  Township,   Bedford  Co.,   Pa. 
MILLS,  O.— Burnham,  Troy,  N.  Y.,  1839.  Kentucky  rifles. 
MILNOR,  Isaac— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  in  1799;  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 
MINN.   FIREARMS   CO.— Minneapolis,  Minn.  Makers  of  "The  Pro- 
tector" palm  pistols. 

MISSISSIPPI  STATE  ARMORY— Panola,  Miss.  Established  prin- 
cipally for  conversion  of  sporting  arms  to  military  caliber. 
Machinery  and  equipment  moved  to  Brandon,  Miss.,  then  on 
May  10,  1863,  moved  again  to  Meridian,  Miss.,  due  to  advance 
of  Federal  troops  on  Jackson.  The  armory  had  employed  34 
hands,  boring,  reaming,  turning  and  rifling  barrels,  fitting  locks 
and  stocking  arms. 

The  "Daily  Clarion,"  Meridian,  Miss.,  June  6,  1864,  states 
"The  carbine  factory  is  engaged  in  making  carbines  for  the 
cavalry,  chiefly  of  the  Maynard  patent  and  fully  equal  to  the 
best  product  in  Yankeedom." 

American  Gun  Makers  145 

MITCHELL,  Joseph— Born  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Nov.  19,  1798.  Was 
apprenticed  at  an  early  age  to  Joseph  Coons,  Philadelphia  gun- 
smith, and  after  finishing  his  service  worked  for  a  time  for 
Brooke  Evans  (Brook  Ivins)  at  Valley  Forge.  After  a  while 
returned  to  Philadelphia  to  manufacture  arms  on  own  account. 
Turned  to  farming  in  1841. 

M.  J.  &  G. — Marking  on  Confederate  rifles.  See  Mendehall,  Jones 
&  Gardner. 

MOCK,  A. — New  York.  Early  American  air  rifles. 

MOCK,  G.  S. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  barrel  of  a  half  stock,  heavy 
barrel,  percussion  match  rifle  of  very  good  workmanship.  Back 
action  lock. 

MOHN,  Benjamin — Wyomissing  Creek,  Pa.,  gun  maker.  Built  a  gun 
shop  in  1835.  Gave  up  the  business  before  the  Civil  War,  and 
moved  to  Reading.  The  plant  was  taken  over  by  Henry  Worley, 
Mohn's  superintendent,  who  continued  the  operation  until  about 
1880.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

MOLAN  &  FINN— Contractors  of  Nov.  19,  1807,  with  Tench  Coxe, 
Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  for  350  pair  of  pistols  at  $10.00 
the  pair  and  700  rifles  at  $10.00  each.  It  is  doubtful  if  any 
deliveries  were  made  as  the  firm  failed. 

MOLL,  F.  L.— Franklin  Co.,  Pa.,  Kentucky  rifles. 

MOLL,  William— Lehigh  Co.,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1747. 

MOLL,  John  I— Allentown,  Pa.  Son  of  William  Moll.  Listed  in  1772. 
Worked  at  the  State  Gun  Factory  with  Ebenezer  Cowell  during 
the  Revolutionary  War.  Established  the  Moll  gun  shop  on  7th 
Street  in  Allentown.  John  Moll  I  died  in  1794. 

MOLL,  John  H— Son  of  John  Moll  I.  Born  May  13,  1773.  Succeeded 
his  father  in  the  business,  on  the  latter's  death  in  1794. 

MOLL,  John  III — Rifle  maker.  Son  and  successor  to  John  Moll  II. 
Born  at  Allentown  in  1796.  In  the  later  years  of  his  life,  and 
until  his  death  in  1883,  the  business  was  managed  by  his  son, 
William  H.  Moll. 

MOLL,  William  H.— Allentown,  Pa.  Son  of  John  Moll  III.  The  last 
of  the  Molls  to  operate  the  Moll  shop  on  North  7th  Street.  The 
shop  was  demolished  in  1883. 

MOLL,  J.  &  W.  H.— Allentown,  Pa.,  until  1883.  John  Moll  III  and  son 
Wm.  H.  High-class  rifles  and  pistols. 

MOLL,  N.— Allentown,  Pa.,  about  1840.  Very  heavy  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle  with  German  silver  patchbox,  Joseph  Golcher  lock. 

MOLL,  Peter— Pennsylvania,  about  1840.  (Same  as  Peter  Moll  of 
Hellerstown,  Pa.?) 

MOLL,  P.  &  D.— Peter  and  David  Moll,  Hellerstown,  Pa.,  1812-1833, 
before  and  after.  Fancy  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  inlaid  with 
silver,  ivory,  and  brass;  Taylor  lock;  barrel  marked  in  gold  inlay 
NO.  40."  Another  dated  Jan.  30,  1833.  Rifled  brass-barreled 
flintlock  holster  pistol  with  artificially  striped  stock,  London  lock, 
S  in  silver  monogram  plate— supposedly  used  by  Sawken  Light 
Horse  Cavalry  in  War  of  1812. 

The  Molls  specialized  in  brass-barrelled,  rifled  pistols,  arti- 
ficially grained  to  produce  "tiger  striped"  stocks.  The  effect  was 
produced  by  burning  a  heavy,  tarred  twine  wrapped  around  the 

146  American  Gun  Makers 

stock   in  the  rough.   On   the   finished  stock,  the  heat-hardened 

welts  produced  the  effect  of  curly  maple  in  striped  pattern. 

Legend  has  it  that  a  sufficient  number  of  brass-barrelled,  rifled 

pistols  was  produced  by  the  Moll  brothers  to  equip  a  troop  of 

cavalry  in  the  War  of  1812. 
MOLL,  P.  &  John,  Jr. — Circa  1815,  Penna.  type  flintlock  rifle  marked 

"P.  &  JOHN  MOLL  JR."   (Same  as  Peter  Moll  of  Hellerstown, 

MOLL,  P.  &  John  S. — Circa  1815,  flintlock  swivel-breech,  superposed 

rifle  marked  "P.  &  JOHN*MOLL  S."    (Same   as  Peter  Moll  of 

Hellerstown,  Pa.?) 
MOLL,  William— Lehigh  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1747. 
MOLLER,  Louis— 712  Washington  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  1887. 
MONTAGNY,  Thomas— Vermont.  War  of  1812.  Holster  pistol  of  fine 

MONTGOMERY    ARSENAL— Montgomery,    Ala.    Confederate   plant 

engaged  in  arms  repair  and  alteration  of  flintlock  muskets   to 

MOON,  M.  A.— Buffalo,  N.  Y„  1828. 
MOORE,  Abraham— Coventry  Township,   Chester  Co.,  Pa.,   1770-76. 

Arms  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety. 
MOORE,  Benjamine — U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  1810-15. 
MOORE   &  BAKER— Unlocated.  Flintlock  .   .   .   lock  makers  only? 

"MOORE  &  BAKER"  stamped  with  separate  stamps  on  lock  plate 

of  a  converted  flintlock  on  an  extremely  long  (7'-10"),  Kentucky 

"rifle."  Also  marking  reported  on  silver  inlaid,  flintlock  Kentucky 

MOORE,  D.  &  CO. — Operated  by  Daniel  Moore  at  Brooklyn,  N.  Y., 

1862-63.    Makers    of   single    action   revolvers   under   the   Daniel 

Moore  patents  of  Sept.  18,  1860,  No.  30,079  and  Jan.  7,  1862,  No. 

34,067.  In  1863  the  arms  in  stock,  3,376  revolvers  were  turned 

over  to  Smith  &  Wesson  due  to  an  infringement  of  the  S.  &  W. 

controlled   Rollin   White  patent   for   "a   cylinder   bored  end   to 

end."  See  Moore's  Pat.  Firearms  Co.,  below. 
MOORE,  G.  A. — Barrel  marking  on  a  curly  maple  stock,  percussion 

Kentucky   rifle   with   "HENRY  PARKER   WARRANTED"   lock. 
MOORE,  Geo. — Madison  County,  Illinois. 
MOORE,  George— Mount  Vernon,  Ohio,  1886-94. 
MOORE,  HENSZEY  &  CO.— Percussion  bar  lock  marked  "MOORE, 

MOORE,  John— 96  Beaver  St.,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  in  1820.  At  8  Beaver 

St.  in   1821 — apparently  bought  out  Hugh  McClellan's  shop.  At 

11  Beaver  St.  in  1834-35. 

MOORE,  J.  P.— Union,  N.  Y.  Active  1844-46. 

MOORE,  John  P.— Established  at  302  Broadway,  New  York,  N.  Y., 
in  1823.  See  John  P.  Moore's  Sons. 

MOORE'S  JOHN  P.,  SONS— In  1885  the  firm  consisted  of  a  son,  George 
G.  Moore,  son  of  John  P.  Moore,  and  two  grandsons,  John  P.  M. 
Richards  and  Henry  M.  Richards.  The  firm  was  founded  by  John 
P.  Moore  "who  started  for  himself  in  New  York,  in  the  year  1823, 
after  serving  a  regular  apprenticeship  of  several  years  at  the 
vise.  From  a  very  small  beginning,  our  House  has  been  gradually 
built  up  by  honest  dealing  and  strict  attention  to  business  prin- 

American  Gun  Makers  147 

ciples  .  .  .".  In  spite  of  which,  the  firm  was  bought  out  by 
Schoverling,  Daly  &  Gales  in  1888. 

MOORE'S  PAT.  FIREARMS  CO.— Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  Makers  of  teat 
primer  cartridge  revolvers  under  David  Williamson's  patent  of 
Jan.  5,  1864,  No.  41,184,  put  on  the  market  to  replace  the  D. 
Moore  revolver,  which  was  an  infringement  on  Smith  &  Wesson 
controlled  patents.  The  firm  was  identical  with  or  succeeded  by 
the  National  Arms  Company  of  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  See  D.  Moore  & 
Co.,  above. 

MOORE,  R.  A. — Cortland  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  telescopic 
sight,  Civil  War,  sharpshooters  rifle. 

MOORE,  R.  R. — Seneca  Falls,  N.  Y.,  1865-67,  then  Cincinnatus,  and 
later  Cortland,  N.  Y.  Apprentice  of  Billinghurst  of  Rochester. 
Made  shotguns  and  sporting  and  match  rifles. 

MOORE,  S. — Unlocated,  early  19th  century.  Flint  rifle  and  pistol 
locks;  one  marked  "S.  MOORE  WARRANTED"  on  a  P.  &  D. 
Moll  Kentucky  pistol. 

MOORE,  W.— Colerain  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1810.  Flintlock 
Kentucky  rifles  marked  "W.  MOORE."  Possibly  father  of  William 

MOORE,  William— Colerain  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.  1850. 

MOORE,  Wm. — Madison  County,  Illinois.  (Related  to  George  Moore?) 

MOORE,  Wm.— Windsor,  Conn.,  1860. 

MOPIN,  J. — Missouri.  Percussion  rifles. 

MOPIN,  M. — New  Haven,  Mo.  Percussion  rifles. 

MORGAN  &  CLAPP— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1864-66.  Rim-fire  pocket 
pistols  using  the  L.  Morgan  side-swing  loading  system. 

MORGAN,  G.— Galena,  Ohio,  active  1863-1867;  Lansing,  Mich.,  1867- 
1874  or  later;  died  1895.  According  to  his  son  be  turned  from 
blacksmithing  to  riflemaking  about  1863.  An  overunder  per- 
cussion rifle  marked  "G.  MORGAN  LANSING,  MICH.  1874  326;" 
also  a  brass-mounted  halfstock  Indian  rifle  with  Geo.  Golcher 

MORGAN,  Joseph — Morristown,  N.  J.,  1779. 

MORGAN,   Joseph — Superintendent   of   Springfield   Armory   Nov.   1, 

1802  to  October  31,  1805.  Had  been  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  1799- 

MORGAN,  Lucius— 2  Bridge  St.,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  1858-77.  Maker 

of  rim-fire,  side-swing  pocket  pistols.  Associated  with  Clapp,  in 

the  firm  of  Morgan  &  Clapp,  in  1864-66. 
MORLITOR,  Joseph— St.  Anthony,  Minn.,  1858-65. 

MORR,  A.— Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1830-1840.  Percussion  Kentucky 

MORRETT,  L.— Friend  Street,  Columbus,  Ohio,  1847-48. 

MORRILL,  MOSMAN  &  BLAIR— East  Amherst,  Mass.,  1836-38. 
Makers  of  Elgin  cutlass-pistols.  The  firm  was  organized  Aoril 
1,  1836,  by  Henry  A.  Morrill,  Silas  Mosman,  Jr.,  and  Charles 

The  business  panic  of  1837,  and  the  failure  of  the  firm  of 
Knowles  &  Thayer  affected  the  enterprise,  and  the  partnership 
was  dissolved  in  July,  1838,  the  business  being  carried  on  by 
Mosman  and  Blair  until  February,   1839,  when  the  firm  failed, 

148  American  Gun  Makers 

and  the  machinery  and  effects  were  sold  at  assignee's  sale.  In 
1837  the  firm  employed  four  hands  and  produced  bowie-knife 
pistols  to  the  value  of  $2,000.  The  firm's  advertisement  in  the 
Hampshire  Gazette  under  date  of  March  8,  1837: 

"Wanted — Six  or  eight  filers,  who  can  do  first-rate  work, 
and  who  feel  smart  enough  to  do  a  day's  work  in  ten  hours, 
without  raising  higher  pressure  of  steam  than  cold  water  will 
make,  and  can  leave  their  long  yarns  until  their  day's  work  is 
done.   Such   will  find   good  encouragement  by   applying  imme- 

diately to 


MORRIS  &  BROWN— Morris  W.  M.  and  C.  L.  Brown  of  New  York. 
Conical  Repeater,  6  chambers,  caliber  about  .41  rim  fire.  Patent 
No.  26,919  Jan.  24,   1860. 

MORRIS,  John — Armorer.  Was  paid  $32  New  Emission  Currency  (at 
rate  of  exchange  2Vz  for  one,  equal  to  $12,  specie)  for  cleaning 
and  repairing  6  muskets,  Phila.,  Sept.  28,  1781. 

MORRIS,  H.  M. — Kentucky  rifle,  the  buttplate  tang  extends  over 
the  comb  of  the  stock  for  its  entire  length.  See  Morris  &  Brown. 

MORRISON — Virginia  musket  maker  associated  with  Wheeler  in  a 
contract  of  Oct.  21,  1808,  for  2,500  Model  1808  muskets,  dura- 
tion five  years.  Only  125  were  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

MORRISON,  S. — Milton,  Pa.  Late  flintlock  period  and  early  percus- 
sion rifles.  Also  made  mule-ear  percussion  rifles. 

MORROW,  Abraham— Also  Murrow.  Philadelphia,  Pa.  With  John 
Nicholson  received  warrants  to  repair  the  arms  of  the  militia 
of  Bucks,  Chester,  Lancaster,  Montgomery  and  Delaware  Coun- 
ties, as  well  as  of  Berks  and  Northampton,  in  1791.  Had  con- 
tracted with  U.  S.  to  furnish  "rifle  guns"  in  1792,  for  which  a 
payment  of  $312.00  was  made  on  account. 

MORSE — Painesville,  Ohio.  Percussion  rifles. 

MORSE  ARMS  CO.— Greenville,  S.  C.  about  1863-65.  Makers  of  Con- 
federate Morse  breech-loading,  brass  frame  carbines.  Operated 
by  Geo.  W.  Morse,  partly  with  machinery  which  had  been  cap- 
tured at  Harpers  Ferry  Armory.  Sufficient  arms  made  to  equip 
a  company  of  Confederate  troops.  See  Morse,  George  W. 

MORSE  ARMS  MFG.  CO.— See  Morse,  George  W. 

MORSE,  E.,  Jr. — Unlocated.  Half-stock,  brass  trim,  side-by-side 
double  rifle. 

MORSE,  George  W. — Worcester,  Mass.  Inventor  and  maker  of  Morse 
patent  carbines,  patented  Oct.  28,  1856,  Pat.  No.  15,995.  On  Mar.  5, 
1858,  the  Secretary  of  War  directed  the  purchase  of  100  Morse 
carbines  at  $40.00  each.  The  order  was  accepted  by  Mr.  Morse, 
but  no  deliveries  were  ever  made. 

On  Sept.  13,  1858,  Morse  sold  to  the  U.  S.  for  $10,000  the 
rights  to  alter  2,000  muzzle-loading  arms  to  his  breech-loading 
system.  However,  only  60  muskets  were  completed,  and  parts 
were  made  for  the  alteration  of  540  more,  before  the  appropria- 
tions allotted  for  the  purpose  were  exhausted. 

In  1875,  the  Chief  of  Ordnance  reported  that  in  the  spring 
of  1861,  Mr.  Morse,  leaving  his  family  in  Washington,  went  to 
Richmond  until  after  the  Battle  of  Manassas  Gap,  thence  to 
Nashville,  Tenn.,  where  he  was  in  charge  of  cartridge  making 
machinery   taken   by   the   Confederates    at   Harpers   Ferry.   He 

American  Gun  Makers  149 

next  took  the  machinery  to  Chattanooga,  then  to  Atlanta,  and 
lastly  to  Greenville,  S.  C,  where  he  "actually  made  arms  for  a 
company  of  rebel  soldiers,  as  he  declared,  'for  State  use  to  keep 
the  peace,'  which  probably  meant  to  enforce  Confederate  con- 
script laws." 

In  1875,  Mr.  Morse  ineffectually  entered  a  claim  against  the 
government  alleging  infringement  of  his  patents  by  every  breech- 
loading  arm  made  by  the  government  since  1865,  and  claiming 
a  royalty  of  $5.00  on  each  of  the  130,000  arms  made.  George 
Woodward  Morse  died  March  8,  1888,  at  age  of  76.  See  also  State 
Rifle  Works. 

MORSE,  Thomas— Lancaster,  N.  H.,  about  1866-90. 

MOSES,  M.  A.— Malone,  N.  Y.  About  1860-65.  Percussion  muzzle 
and  breech-loading  rifles,  the  latter  using  a  steel,  reloadable 
chamber  with  a  recessed  base  for  taking  the  primer. 

MOSHELL,  J.  H.— Columbus,  Ga.  Advertised  May  30,  1862  for  "four 
or  five  No.  1  Blacksmiths  to  forge  Gun  Barrels  by  the  piece. 
Good  prices  will  be  paid." 

MOSHER,  S.  &  S.— Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

MOSS,  Ebenezer— Maryland,  1753. 

MOSSBERG,  C.  F.  &  SONS— 200  Greene  St.,  New  Haven,  Conn., 
1920  to  date.  Single-shot  and  repeating  rifles  and  pocket  pistols. 

MOSSER,  D.  E. — Danville,  Pa.  Superposed  percussion  rifles. 

MOSSY  CREEK — Tennessee  foundry  or  gun  factory  reputed  to  have 
made  guns  at  Mossy  Creek  as  early  as  1812  (unverified).  Mossy 
Creek  bridge  and  road  at  points  were  destroyed  by  Col.  W.  P. 
Saunders  column  of  1,500  Federals  about  June  21,  1863.  Col. 
Saunders  states  "near  this  place  I  also  destroyed  the  machinery 
of  a  Gun  Factory  and  a  Saltpeter  Factory.  (Mossy  Creek,  now 
called  Jefferson  City,  is  next  station  east  of  New  Market  and 
29  miles  east  of  Knoxville. 

MOSTER,  George— Or  Morter.  Earl  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa., 

MOTT,  A. — Pennsylvania,  early  1800's.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  with 
silver- wire  inlays. 

MOULTON,  R.  B. — Proctorsville,  Vt.  Halfstock  percussion  harmonica 

MOWER— Columbia  Co.,  Pa.  Late  Kentucky  rifles. 

MOWRY,   J.   D. — Jas.  D.  Mowry,   Norwick,   Conn.,   Civil  War  con- 
tractor for  Springfield  rifle  muskets,  Model  1861: — 
Dec.  26,  1861  for  30,000  at  $20.00;  10,000  delivered. 
Nov.  27,  1863  for  20,000  at  $20.00;  20,000  delivered. 
April  6,  1864  for  10,000  at  $18.00;  10,000  delivered. 
The  barrels  for  the  Mowry  arms  were  made  by  Cole  &  Walker 
on  Franklin  Street,  on  sub-contract;  the  locks  by  C.  B.  Rogers 
&  Co.,  of  West  Chelsea,   and  the  remaining  parts   at  Mowry's 
own  plant  at  Greeneville. 

M.  S. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

M.  T.  W. — Initials  of  Marine  T.  Wickham,  Master  Armorer,  Harpers 
Ferry  Armory  before  1811.  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  1811-1815. 
Inspector  of  arms  (sabers)  at  plant  of  Nathan  Starr  in  1814.  See 
Wickham,  M.  T. 

MUELLER,  Hieronymus— Decatur,  Illinois,  maker  of  muzzle-loading, 
percussion  and  later  of  breech-loading,  shotguns.  German  trained, 

150  American  Gun  Makers 

Mueller  was  also  the  town  plumber  and  pioneered  a  water  main 
tapping  machine  which  from  the  founding  of  Mueller  Co.,  1857, 
grew  into  the  present  corporation. 

MUIR,  W.  &  CO.— William  Muir,  Windsor  Locks,  Conn.  Civil  War 
contractor  of  Dec.  7,  1861,  for  30,000  Model  1861  Springfield  rifle 
til  muskets  at  $20.00  each.  Contract  completed. 

MULHOLLAND,  James — Reading,  Pa.  Civil  War  contractor  of  Jan. 
7,  1862,  for  50,000  Model  1861  Springfield  rifle  muskets  at  $20.00 
each.  A  total  of  5,502  delivered  on  contract. 

MULL,  John^ — Northampton  Township,  Northampton  Co.,  Pa.,   1788. 

MULLEN,  Cyrus — Williamsburg,  Ind.  Percussion  rifle. 

MULLER,  J.  H.— Gunsmith,  Elysian  Fields,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853 

MULLIN,  J.  &  P.— Fulton  St.  and  36  Maiden  Lane,  New  York,  N.  Y. 
John  and  Patrick  Mullin.  Patrick  Mullin  immigrated  from  Ireland 
after  gunsmithing  in  London  and  Dublin;  on  Fulton  St.  made 
custom  percussion  shotguns,  later  occupied  shop  in  Maiden  Lane 

iand  made  plain  shotguns  and  expensive  sporting  breech-loaders. 
His  brother  John  made  percussion  rifles  in  the  same  shop. 
MUNSON,  Levi — Saybrook,  Ohio,  percussion  period. 

MUNSON,  MORSE  &  CO.— 63  Temple  St.,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  1856- 
1862.  Listed  as  pistol  as  well  as  coach,  saddlery  and  hardware 
manufactory.  At  157  Temple  St.,  in  1862. 

MUNSON,  Theophilus— New  Haven,  Conn.,  about  1700.  Doglock 

MULLIN,  Patrick— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1850. 

MULLOY,  N.  P.— Worcester,  Mass.,  1869-71. 

MURFREESBOROUGH  ARMORY— Murfreesboro,  Tenn.  Confederate 
shoulder  arms  repair  and  reconditioning  plant. 

MURPHY,  Justin— U.  S  .Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1818-1831.  In- 
spected arms  in  the  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Simeon  North, 
Lemuel  Pomeroy,  Nathan  Starr,  and  Asa  Waters. 

MURRAY,  J.  P.— Columbus,  Ga.,  1856-65.  Confederate  shoulder  arms. 
Master  armorer  for  Greenwood  &  Gray,  of  Columbus,  Ga., 
makers  of  Murray  carbines. 

J.  P.  Murray  advertised  June  8,  1860,  as  "J.  P.  Murray,  suc- 
cessor to  Happold  &  Murray,  46  Broad  Street,  Columbus,  Ga., 
maker  and  dealer  in  Shotguns,  Rifles,  Pistols  .  .  .  Restocking  and 
repairing  done  with  neatness  and  dispatch."  July  6,  1861,  he 
advertised  for  persons  who  had  arms  on  repair  to  call  for  same. 
August  28th,  1861,  Murray  received  200  flintlock  Confederate 
muskets  to  convert  to  percussion.  March  29,  1862,  J.  P.  Murray 
was  reported  by  the  Macon  Telegraph  to  be  making  Mississippi 
rifles  at  Columbus,  Ga.  See  Greenwood  &  Gray. 

MURROW,  Abraham— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1783-91. 
Worked  on  repair  of  public  arms  in  1788-91.  See  Morrow, 

MUSGROVE,  S. — Ironton,  Ohio,  percussion  period. 

MUSSER,  H.— Mulheim,  Pa. 

MYER,  Henry — Lancaster,  Pa.,  arms  maker  for  the  Committee  of 
Safety.  Excused  by  the  Executive  Council  from  military  duties 
Dec.  5,  1777,  for  the  making  of  arms  for  the  State  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, in  the  employ  and  under  direction  of  William  Henry  I  of 

American  Gun  Makers  151 


N. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  a  Kentucky  type  pistol. 

NABURY,  Thomas — Maker  of  gun  skelps  for  musket  barrels.  In  em- 
ploy of  Col.  Peter  Grubb,  who  operated  a  gun  skelp  forge  for 
the  Lancaster,  Pa.,  Committee  of  Safety  in  1776. 

NAGEBAUER,  Jean — Gunsmith,  Moreau  corner  Mandeville,  New 
Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

NAGLE,  Marcus — Maker  of  gun  skelps  for  musket  barrels.  In  employ 
of  Col.  Peter  Grubb,  who  operated  a  gun  skelp  forge  for  the 
Lancaster,  Pa.,  Committee  of  Safety  in  1776. 

NASH,  John — New  Haven,  Conn.,  1645.  Listed  as  gunsmith. 

NASH,  Thomas— New  Haven,   Conn.  Early  gunsmith.   (1638?) 

NASHVILLE  ARMORY— Confederate  arms  plant  believed  to  have 
been  located  in  the  basement  of  the  Capitol  building.  Arms 
were  made  from  parts  furnished  by  local  gunsmiths. 

NASHVILLE  GUN  FACTORY— Nashville,  Tenn.  Organized  as  a 
stock  company  in  1861  to  manufacture  arms  for  the  Confed- 
eracy. The  buildings  were  located  on  the  site  called  "Gun  Fac- 
tory Playground,"  South  3rd,  opposite  Lindsley  Street.  The 
plant  made  Model  1841,  Mississippi,  type  rifles  until  1862,  when 
it  closed  on  the  arrival  of  Federal  troops.  The  buildings  were 
used  as  a  school  for  negroes  in  1867-71,  and  then  were  occupied 
by  the  Weakley  &  Warren  Furniture  Manufactory  until  1885, 
when  the  entire  plant  burned  down. 

NASON,  C.  F.— Auburn  and  Lewisburg,  Me.,  1863-68. 

NATIONAL  ARMS  CO.— Brooklyn,  N.  Y.  After  1863.  Makers  of 
National  cartridge  derringers,  rifles  and  teat-primer  cartridge 
revolvers  made  under  David  Williamson  patent  of  Jan.  5,  1864, 
No.  41,184,  manufactured  to  avoid  infringement  of  Smith  & 
Wesson  controlled,  Rollin  White  patent  for  a  "cylinder  bored 
end  to  end." 

The  National  Arms  Company  is  believed  to  be  identical 
with,  or  successor  to,  Moore's  Patent  Firearms  Co.,  of  Brooklyn, 
both  firms  producing  identical  derringers  and  revolvers. 

NEAL,  Wm. — Bangor,  Me.  Percussion  under-hammer  pistols  without 
trigger  guard. 

NEAL,  John — Bangor,  Me.  Son  and  successor  to  Wm.  Neal.  In  partner- 
ship with  Charles  V.  Ramsdell  as  Ramsdell  &  Neal,  Harlow  St., 
post-Civil  War.  The  partnership  dissolved,  Neal's  shop  stood 
at  State  and  Harlow  Streets. 

NEAVE,  T.  &  C. — Cincinnati,  Ohio,  percussion  period. 

NEFF,  Peter  &  Sons — Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Makers  of  percussion  rifle 
locks;  one  with  brass  lockplate,  stamped  with  squirrel,  dog,  etc. 

NEIHARD,  Peter— See  Neuhard,  Peter. 

NELSON,  Alexander— Philadelphia,  Pa.  On  March  25,  1776,  con- 
tracted with  the  Colony  of  Virginia  to  furnish  600  stands  of 
arms  similar  to  the  British  pattern  to  be  delivered  at  the  Pub- 
lic Gun  Factory  at  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  at  4  pounds,  5  shillings, 
Virginia  currency  per  stand,  payable  at  Williamsburg,  delivery 
to  be  completed  before  June  15,  1777.  Bond  with  security  fur- 
nished under  penalty  of  £1,000. 

Each  stand  is  described  "to  consist  of  a  good  musquet,  3 

152  American  Gun  Makers 

feet,  8  inches  in  the  barrel,  %-inch  bore,  steel  rammers,  the 
upper  thimble  trumpet-mouthed,  the  lower  thimble  with  spring 
to  retain  the  ramrod,  bridle-lock,  brass  mounted;  a  bayonet  18 
inches  blade,  with  a  scabbard;  one  pair  bullet  molds,  to  mould 
16  bullets  to  every  40  guns;  a  priming  wire  and  brush  to  each 
musquet;  the  stand  compleat,  well  fixed  and  properly  proved." 

NELSON  &  CO,— Unlocated. 

NELSON,  Francis — Advertised  for  sale  "gun  stocks  well  seasoned 
by  the  large  or  small  quantity,"  at  his  place  of  business  opposite 
the  Bull's  Head  (tavern),  Strawberry  Alley,  Philadelphia.  Ad- 
vertisement in   the  Pennsylvania   Evening  Post,  Aug.   31,    1776. 

NELSON,  Owen  O.— See  Dickson,  Nelson  Co. 

NELSON,  Roger— Medina-Town,  Ohio,  1825. 

NELSON,  Roger— Medina,  Ohio,  1858-60.  (Same,  or  related  to  Roger 
Nelson  above?) 

NEPPERHAN  FIREARMS  CO.— Yonkers,  N.  Y.,  about  1859.  Makers 
of  5-shot,  percussion,  pocket  revolvers. 

NESBITT,  Robert— McLane,  3  miles  south  of  McKean,  Pa.,  19th 
century.  Farmer,  surveyor,  sailor,  blacksmith,  gunsmith.  Beauti- 
ful fowling  piece. 

NESTLE,  Frederick— Baltimore,  Md.,  1850-70. 

NETTER,  Solomon — Huntingdon  Co.,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

NEUHARD,  Peter— Also  Neihard.  Whitehall  Township,  Northampton 
Co.,  Pa.,  1786-88. 

NEWBAKER — Pennsylvania,  making  Kentucky  rifles  of  excellent 
workmanship  in  1831. 

NEWBERN,  D.— Linn  County,  Iowa,  1878. 

NEWBERN,  J.  C— "Jimmy"  and  "Old  Danny"  Newbern,  Mount 
Vernon,  Iowa,  rifle  maker;  1870-1900.  After  his  death  his  tools 
and  equipment  reported  to  have  been  purchased  by  Mr.  Ralph 
Williams  of  Lisbon,  Iowa,  his  former  apprentice  and  shop  worker. 

NEWBURY  ARMS  CO.— Albany  and  Catskill,  N.  Y.,  1855-60.  SmaU 
caliber  rimfire  deringers  and  percussion  revolvers  based  on 
patents  of  Frederick  D.  Newbury  of  Albany,  N.  Y. 

NEWBURY,  John— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1818-1825.  In- 
spected arms  in  the  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Simeon  North, 
Lemuel  Pomeroy,  Nathan  Starr  and  Eli  Whitney. 

NEWCOMB,  H.  W.— Eastport,  Me.,  1866-68. 

NEWCOMER,  John— Hempfield  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,   1771. 

NEWHARDT,  Jacob  and  Peter— Allentown,  Pa.,  before  and  after 

NEW  HAVEN  ARMS  CO.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1857-66.  The  firm 
was  organized  by  Oliver  F.  Winchester,  one  of  the  principal 
stockholders  of  the  Volcanic  Repeating  Arms  Co.,  which  had 
been  organized  by  Horace  Smith  and  Daniel  B.  Wesson  to 
manufacture  a  repeating  pistol  in  1854,  and  was  incorporated 
in  July,  1855,  as  the  Volcanic.  In  February,  1856,  the  Volcanic 
moved  to  New  Haven,  Conn.  The  Volcanic  failed  and  had  to 
reorganize,  and  May  1,  1857,  became  the  New  Haven  Arms 
Company,  with  Mr.  Winchester  as  President  and  principal 
owner,  and  B.  Tyler  Henry  remaining  as  the  superintendent  in 
charge  of  production. 

American  Gun  Makers  153 

Mr.  Henry  obtained  a  patent  on  an  extractor  feature  in 
an  improved  magazine  arm  using  rim-fire  cartridges,  (No. 
30,446,  of  Oct.  16,  I860,)  and  assigned  the  patent  to  Mr.  Win- 
chester. The  firm  abandoned  the  manufacture  of  the  older  Vol- 
canic type  arms,  and  began  the  production  of  the  new  Henry 
rifles,  named  in  honor  of  the  inventor,  whose  initial  "H"  was 
also  stamped  on  the  base  of  the  shells,  a  practice  followed  to 
this  date  by  the  Winchester  Company. 

About  10,000  Henry  repeating  rifles  were  acquired  and 
used  by  the  Union  forces  during  the  Civil  War,  the  arm  being 
known  to  the  Confederates  as  "that  damned  Yankee  rifle  that 
can  be  loaded  on  Sunday  and  fired  all  week."  Of  the  above 
number,  1,731  Henry  rifles  were  purchased  by  the  War  Depart- 
ment from  July  23,  1863,  to  Nov.  7,  1865. 

In  1866,  the  New  Haven  Arms  Company  was  reorganized, 
and  reappeared  as  the  Winchester  Repeating  Arms  Company, 
making  the  Winchester  rifle,  which  was  the  old  Henry  with 
certain  improvements,  principal  of  which  was  the  Nelson  King 
side-loading  gate. 

NEW  HAVEN  ARMS  CO.— New  Haven,  Conn.  Modern.  Makers  of 
Reising  automatic  target  pistols. 

NEWHIRTER,  J.— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

NEWHOFF,  F.  B.— Leidersdorff  near  Sansome,  San  Francisco,  Calif., 
1858-60.  F.  Newhoff  is  listed  at  208  Leidersdorff  in  1865.  (with 
William  Harris?). 

NEWLING,  Price — Unlocated.  Reported  lock  marking  on  a  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle  by  A.  Gompf,  Lancaster,  Pa. 

NEWTON  ARMS  CO.— Buffalo,  N.  Y.  Organized  by  Charles  New- 
ton, a  lawyer,  in  1914,  with  himself  as  President  and  John  F. 
Nagle,  brewing  equipment  manufacturer  as  Secretary,  for  the 
manufacture  of  Newton  high  power  sporting  rifles.  The  offices 
were  at  506  Mutual  Life  Building,  and  the  works  at  442  Niagara 
Street.  The  firm  went  into  receivership  in  1916,  and  failed  in 
1918.  About  2,400  rifles  had  been  made  by  the  Company  before 
they  went  into  receivership,  and  some  1,600  during  the  later 

NEWTON,  CHARLES,  RIFLE  CORP'N— 1083  Ellicott  Square  Build- 
ing, Buffalo,  N.  Y.  Organized  by  Charles  Newton  about  1918, 
in  competition  to  the  Newton  Arms  Co.,  of  which  Mr.  Newton 
had  lost  control,  and  which  was  operated  by  receivers.  This 
firm  had  100  Newton-Mauser  rifles  made  for  it  in  Germany, 
and  never  went  much  beyond  the  promotion  stage,  insofar  as 
the  domestic  production  of  arms  was  concerned.  The  Company 
went  out  of  existence  about  1932.  See  Newton  Arms  Co.,  and 
Buffalo  Newton  Rifle  Corp'n. 

NEWTON,  Moses— Connecticut,  1776.  Made  and  sold  to  Connecticut 
and  Massachusetts  Committees  of  Safety  six  guns  and  locks: 
Nov.  15,  1776. 

NEW  YORK  ARMS  CO.— Double  action,  rim-fire  pocket  revolvers. 

NICHOLS  and  CHILDS— R.  Nichols  and  E.  Childs.  Patentees  of  a 
7  shot  revolving  cylinder  rifle,  made  in  Conway,  Mass.  Patent 
No.  707  April  24,  1838.  Caliber  .36,  39  inches  long. 

NICHOLS,  John— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1776-89. 

NICHOLS,  Jonathan,  Jr.— Vergennes,  Vt.  Contractor  under  Act  of 
July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  (Model  1795)  Charleville  pattern  muskets 
at  $13.40  per  stand.  No  deliveries  recorded.  Probably  failed  in 
his  contract. 

154  American  Gun  Makers 

NICHOLS  &  LEFEVER— Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  1876-79. 

NICHOLS,  R.— See  Nichols  &  Childs. 

N.  I.  J. — Unidentified.  Script  initials  on  a  fine,  silver-inlaid  percus- 
sion Kentucky  rifle. 

NICHOLSON,  John — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety,  1775-76.  Payment  recorded  for  making  eleven  pattern 
guns.  Listed  as  having  paid  tax  in  Dock  Ward,  Philadelphia, 
in  1774.  John  Nicholson  was  one  of  the  petitioners  represent- 
ing Pennsylvania  gun  makers,  complaining  to  the  Committee 
of  Safety  against  the  high  cost  of  material  and  labor  entering 
into  arms  making  and  quoting  advances  in  prices  within  one 
year,  ince  1775.  With  Abraham  Morrow  he  had  been  awarded 
warrants  for  the  repair  of  arms  of  militia  of  Bucks,  Chester, 
Lancaster,  Montgomery  and  Delaware  Counties,  as  well  as  of 
Berks  and  Northampton,  in  1791.  Contracted  for  "rifle  guns" 
in  1792,  for  which  payments  of  $588.00  is  noted.  U.  S.  Inspector 
of  Arms  at  Phila.,  Pa.  1800-06. 

NICHOLSON,  L. — Unlocated.  Fancy  curly  maple  halfstocked  per- 
cussion rifle  marked  in  script  on  silver  inlay.  Back  action  lock; 
round  lid  cabox  and  numerous  small  brass  inlays  of  animals,  etc. 

NIPPES,  Daniel— Mill  Creek,  Pa.  Musket  contractor  of  July  16, 
1842,  for  4,000  flintlock  muskets,  Model  1840,  at  $14.75  per 
stand,  to  be  delivered  at  the  rate  of  800  per  annum  to  Jan.  1, 
1846.  On  March  3,  1846,  Nippes  obtained  an  additional  con- 
tract for  1,600  muskets,  also  at  $14.75  each.  It  it  interesting 
to  note  that  these  last  Nippes  flintlock  muskets  were  still 
being  made  on  contract,  three  years  after  the  manufacture  of 
flintlock  arms  was  discontinued  at  the  Springfield  Armory.  In 
1848,  Nippes  contracted  to  alter  2,000  muskets  to  the  Maynard 
priming  system,  1,000  on  Feb.  9,  at  $4.00  each,  and  another  1,000 
on  Nov.  22,  1848,  at  $3.00  each. 

The  earliest  record  of  the  Nippes  family  is  found  in  the 
passenger  list  of  the  ship  George  of  Portland,  Francis  White, 
Master,  which  arrived  from  Rotterdam,  Holland,  Oct.  26,  1796. 
Among  the  passengers  are  mentioned  Abram,  Daniel  and  Wil- 
helm  Nippes,  as  well  as  Anna  Christiana  and  Anna  Catharina 

The  first  record  of  the  Nippes  family,  arms  makers,  is 
found  in  a  contract  awarded  to  Nippes  in  association  with 
Winner  and  Steinman,  on  July  20,  1808,  for  9,000  Model  1808 
muskets,  five  years  duration,  of  which  3,900  are  recorded  to  have 
been  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812,  and  presumably  in  time  the  con- 
tract was  completed.  There  are  known  Model  1808  muskets  with 
lock-plates  marked  "W.  N.  &  S."  This  stands  for  Winner,  Nippes 
&  Steinman 

The  Philadelphia  City  Directory  lists  Abraham  Nippes  as  re- 
siding at  262  St.  John  Street  in  1813,  and  William  at  the  same 
address  in  1813,  and  at  254  St.  John  Street  in  1819-20.  In  1829 
Abraham  Nippes  is  listed  at  111  Dillwyn  and  William  Nippes 
at  127  Dillwyn.  Daniel  Nippes  is  not  shown,  and  may  have  been 
at  the  Nippes  Mill,  at  Mill  Creek,  where  the  Model  1840  Nippes 
muskets  were  made  later.  Daniel's  son,  Albert  S.  Nippes,  was  the 
superintendent  of  the  Nippes  works,  and  Sharps  early  rifles  are 
known  made  about  1848,  marked  A.  S.  Nippes. 

NIXON,  Austin— Washington  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1832. 

American  Gun  Makers  155 

NOBLE  &  LITTLE— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

NOLL,  J.— Maryland?  1803.  Relief  carved  fullstock  Kentucky  rifles  of 
fine  workmanship.  One  known  dated  1803. 

NORCROSS  &  ALLEN — Unlocated.  Underhammer  percussion  pistol. 

NORDHEIM,  G.  A. — Yreka,  Calif.,  maker  of  percussion  sporting  rifles 
and  target  rifles  with  burl  walnut  half  stock,  double  set  triggers, 
brass  cap  boxes  and  iron  mounts. 

NORMAN,  John— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms,  in  year  1830. 

NORRIS,  A.— Unlocated.  Reported  flint  lock  on  a  D.  Marker,  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

NORRIS,  S.  &  W.  T.  CLEMENT— Springfield,  Mass.  Civil  War  con- 
tractors to  the  State  of  Massachusetts  in  1863,  for  2,000  Model 
1863  Springfield  rifle  muskets.  Contract  extended  in  1864  for 
an  additional  1,000.  These  arms  were  marked  "S.  N.  &  W.  T.  C. 
for  Mass." 

NORRIS,  W.— Unlocated,  1833  (or  1838).  Percussion  Plains  rifle, 
back-action  lock  marked  Williams  Warranted. 

NORTH  CAROLINA  GUN  FACTORY— Established  at  Halifax  in 
1776,  James  Ransome,  Esq.,  superintendent.  Records  indicate 
manufacture  and  delivery  of  arms  in  1777.  In  1778  the  factory 
was  ordered  dismantled  and  equipment  sold,  except  for  36  com- 
pleted muskets,  which  were  to  be  turned  over  to  the  Command- 
ing Officer  of  the  Guard  at  Halifax. 

NORTH  CAROLINA  STATE  ARMORY— Florence,  N.  C.  Confederate 
small  arms  plant  operated  by  Capt.  Zimri  S.  Coffin,  Confederate 
Ordnance  Agent,  and  employing  30  to  40  hands. 

NORTH  &  COUCH— Middletown,  Conn.,  about  1860.  Makers  of  a 
six-barrel  trap  pistol. 

NORTH,  H.  S.— Middletown,  Conn.  Maker  of  North  &  Skinner  re- 
volving rifles  and  shotguns,  patented  June  1,  1852,  No.  8982. 

NORTH  &  SAVAGE— Henry  S.  North  and  Edward  Savage  of  Middle- 
town,  Conn.,  1856-59,  makers  of  the  Savage-North  figure-8  trigger, 
6-shot,  sliding  cylinder  revolvers  made  under  the  Henry  S.  North 
patent  of  June  17,  1856,  No.  15,164. 

One  hundred  revolving  pistols  were  purchased  by  the  gov- 
ernment from  North  &  Savage  May  23,  1857,  at  $20.00  each, 
and  an  additional  500  were  contracted  for  July  10,  1858.  Ninety- 
nine  were  issued  to  the  army  in  1858. 

The  firm  was  succeeded  in  1860  by  the  Savage  Revolving 
Firearms  Company,  manufacturing  the  improved  Savage  re- 
volvers. See  Savage  Revolving  Arms  Co. 

NORTH  &  SKINNER— See  H.  S.  North. 

NORTH,  Selah— Stow's  Corners,  Summit  Co.,  Ohio,  1835. 

NORTH,  Simeon — Middletown,  Conn.  Active  1799-1852.  A  descendant 
of  an  old  New  England  family,  Simeon  North  was  born  at 
Berlin,  Conn.,  July  13,  1765,  and  according  to  family  history 
began  earning  his  livelihood  as  a  farmer.  In  1795  he  purchased 
a  water  power  mill  adjoining  his  farm,  and  started  the  manu- 
facture of  scythes.  It  was  probably  this  training  as  a  metal 
worker  and  machinist,  as  well  as  a  natural  mechanical  bent, 
that  prompted  him  to  secure  a  government  contract  on  March 
9,  1799,  for  the  manufacture  of  500  horse  pistols  at  $6.50  each, 
to  be  delivered  in  one  year.  Possibilities  are  that  he  learned  the 

156  American  Gun  Makers 

rudiments  of  arms  manufacture  from  a  neighbor,  Elias  Beckley 
whose  gunsmith  shop  was  but  a  mile  away  from  North's  birth- 
place at  Berlin. 

The  first  North  pistols,  Model  1799,  patterned  after  the 
French  Model  1777  army  pistols,  were  satisfactory,  and  ever 
prior  to  the  completion  and  delivery  of  the  first  lot  of  500 
North  was  awarded  on  Feb.  6,  1800,  another  contract  by  James 
Henry,  Secretary  of  the  Department  of  War,  for  1,500  additiona 
pistols  at  $6.00  each  to  be  completed  by  Feb.  6,  1802.  These 
earliest  North  pistols  of  the  French,  brass  frame  type,  are  markec 
with  Cheney's  name  as  well  as  North's,  though  all  North  con 
tracts  known,  are  signed  by  Simeon  North  alone.  According  t( 
the  North  family  history,  Elisha  Cheney,  a  brother-in-law  anc 
clock  manufacturer  by  trade,  had  a  working  agreement  witl 
North,  about  1811,  to  make  screws  and  pins  for  North  pistols 
but  partnership  is  denied. 

After  the  completion  of  the  first  contracts,  North  resumec 
the  manufacture  of  farm  implements  until  June  30,  1808,  whei 
he  obtained  a  contract  for  1,000  pair  of  navy  boarding  pistols  a 
$11.75  a  pair,  to  be  made  according  to  Navy  Department  patterns 
but  with  certain  North  improvements.  To  fulfill  this  contrac 
North  enlarged  his  factory  and  applied  his  mechanical  abilit: 
and  inventive  genius  to  the  development  of  labor  saving  ma 
chinery  and  the  modern  principle  of  standardization  of  parts,  b: 
assigning  the  production  of  identical  parts  to  individual  work 
men,  until  a  large  number  were  finished.  This  method,  far  ahea< 
of  those  times  of  individual  craftsmanship,  not  only  saved  tim 
and  labor,  but  resulted  in  giving  North  arms  a  reputation  fo 
a  more  uniform  and  better  product. 

The  pistols  of  the  contract  for  Model  1808  having  been  "mud 
approved,"  the  contract  was  extended,  and  on  Dec.  4,  1810,  th 
navy  contracted  for  an  additional  500  pairs  at  $12.00  the  pair. 

In  the  meantime,  in  1808,  Congress  passed  an  act  for  th 
arming  and  equipping  the  whole  body  of  the  militia  of  th 
several  states  by  the  Federal  Government,  and  in  1810,  Simeoj 
North  contracted  under  the  provisions  of  this  act,  with  Tend 
Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies,  to  manufacture  horse  pistol 
for  the  army  (Model  1810).  It  is  at  about  this  time  that  Nort] 
was  commissioned  as  Lt.  Colonel  in  the  6th  Connecticut  Regi 

Shortly  before  the  declaration  of  War  of  1812,  North  a 
the  instance  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  backed  by  promise  o 
further  contracts,  enlarged  the  capacity  of  his  Berlin  shops 
and  when  on  April  16,  1813,  he  was  given  a  contract  for  20,00 
pistols  (Model  1813),  he  erected  a  new,  large  factory  at  Middle 
town,  Conn.,  six  miles  from  Berlin.  The  Berlin  shops  were  con 
tinued  in  operation  under  supervision  of  North's  eldest  sor 
Reuben,  making  forgings  for  the  Middletown  factory,  unti 
1843,  when  they  were  closed,  and  in  1857,  the  buildings  wer 
destroyed  by  a  flood. 

In  the  pistols  made  at  Middletown  factory,  which  wa 
built  according  to  the  most  advanced  ideas  of  the  time,  Co 
North  successfully  embodied  the  principle  of  standardizatio: 
and  inter  changeability  of  parts,  then  a  project  open  to  skeptics 

The  delivery  of  pistols  under  the  contract  of  1813,  whic 
was  to  be  completed  in  five  years,  was  delayed  by  a  year,  du 

American  Gun  Makers  157 

to  modifications  introduced  in  1816.  On  July  1,  1819,  before 
completing  the  delivery  under  the  old  contract,  North  entered 
into  a  new  contract  for  20,000  horse  pistols  (Model  1819),  which 
he  completed  in  1823,  well  in  advance  of  specifications. 

On  November  16,  1826,  Colonel  North  undertook  a  contract 
for  1,000  navy  pistols  (Model  1826)  at  $7.00  each.  This  contract 
was  repeated  by  another  for  the  same  model  and  same  number 
on  Dec.  12,  1827,  and  again  for  an  additional  1,000  on  Aug.  12, 
1828.  These  3,000  pistols  (Model  1826),  were  the  last  of  the 
North  pistol  contracts. 

Simeon  North  had  entered  into  the  manufacture  of  rifles 
in  1823,  and  in  1828,  with  the  expiration  of  the  last  of  the 
pistol  contracts,  he  turned  his  entire  attention  to  the  manu- 
facture of  rifles,  both  the  standard  muzzle-loading  types,  and 
the  Hall  breech-loaders.  Between  1799  and  1828,  Simeon  North 
had  manufactured  and  delivered  some  50,000  pistols  to  the 
United  States  Government. 

The  following  are  the  North  long  arms  contracts,  known 
and  recorded  at  the  date  of  publication: 

Dec.  10,  1823—6,000  Model  1817,  standard  flintlock  rifles 
at  $14.00  each,  duration  five  years,  at  1,200  per  year  from  July  1, 

July  22,  1828—1,200  Model  1817,  standard  flintlock  rifles 
at  $14.50  each,  delivery  within  one  year. 

Dec.  15,  1828—5,000  Hall  breech-loading  flintlock  rifles  at 
$17.50  each,  delivery  1,000  per  year  from  July  1,  1829. 

July,  1829—1,200  Hall  rifles. 

June,  1833—1,000  carbines  for  Dragoons  at  $20.00  each,  de- 
livery between  January  and  May,  1834. 

Jan.  27,  1835—4,000  Hall  rifles. 

June  20,  1836—2,500  Hall  carbines  at  $18.00  each,  duration  to 
Dec.  31,  1837. 

May  2,  1839—10,000  Hall  carbines  at  $18.00  each,  duration 
five  years,  at  2,000  per  year  from  Jan.  1,  1840. 

Dec.  30,  1845—2,000  Hall  carbines  at  $17.50  each. 

Feb.  4,  1848—1,000  Hall  carbines  at  $17.50  each. 

Feb.  5,  1850—3,000  Hall  carbines  at  $17.50  each. 

Simeon  North  is  reported  to  have  had  two  other  orders  of 
Nov.  23,  1835,  and  Jan.  6,  1836,  both  for  Hall  carbines,  details 
unknown  at  this  time.  Colonel  North  died  in  1852,  after  more 
than  half-century  of  providing  arms  to  the  government. 
NORTON,  Lyman — Susquehanna  District,  Pa.  Percussion  sporting 

NORWICH  ARMS  CO.— Norwich,  Conn.  About  1875.  See  Norwich 
Lock  Mfg.  Co. 

NORWICH  ARMS  CO.— Norwick,  Conn.,  Civil  War  contractors  for 
Springfield  rifle  muskets:  April  1,  1864,  for  10,000  at  $18.00  each, 
and  Oct.  16,  1864,  for  15,000  at  $19.00  each.  Both  contracts  ful- 

The  firm  also  had  produced  a  few  Armstrong  &  Taylor  rifles. 

The  Norwich  Arms  Company  had  two  plants;  barrels  and 

bayonets   were   made   at   the   Franklin   Street   shop,   the   stocks 

and   locks  in   a   plant  near   Shetucket.   The  firm  failed   at  the 

end  of  the  Civil  War,  and  the  assets  were  sold  at  auction. 

NORWICH  LOCK  MFG.  CO.— Also  Norwich  Arms  Co.,  Norwich, 
Conn.,  about   1873-77  and  later.  Makers  of  Union  Jack,  Inter- 

158  American  Gun  Makers 

national,  and  other  cartridge  revolvers.  It  is  believed  that  the 
firm  is  identical  with  the  Hood  Fire  Arms  Co.,  of  Norwich, 

NULL,  G. — Penna.  Rifle  of  indifferent  workmanship. 

NUNNEMACHER,  A.— Andrew,  Abraham  or  Abram.  New  York 
County,  Pa.,  1779-83. 

NUTTING,  Ebenezer— Falmouth,  Maine,  1724-25.  Active  in  the  trade 
about  1725-45.  Early,  43  inch,  part  octagonal,  pinned  barrel  flint- 
lock rifle  with  full  cherry  stock.  Marked  "E.  NUTTING"  on  barrel 

NOWLIN,  Abram  Cephus— Born  in  Patrick  Co.,  Va.,  1825;  died  1913. 
Flintlock  and  percussion  Kentucky  rifles.  Wounded  in  Confeder- 
ate Army;  after  Civil  War  moved  to  Stark  Creek  near  Cross 
Timbers,  Hickory  Co.,  Mo.  Complete  gunmaking;  made  one  lock. 
Father  of  Tom  Newlin. 

NOWLIN,  Tom — Stark  Creek  near  Cross  Timbers,  Hickory  Co.,  Mo. 
Born  1879,  son  of  Abram  C.  Nowlin.  Percussion  rifles.  Moved 
to  Kansas  City  before  World  War  II;  machinist,  does  restoring 
and  reconditioning. 

N.  W.  P.— Initials  of  N.  W.  Patch,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms, 
1834-1840  at  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 


OAKE,  C.  &  SON — Jacksonville,  Florida.  Side-by-side,  combination 
percussion  rifle-and-shotgun  equipped  with  back-action  locks. 

OAKES,  Samuel— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1800. 

OBERHOLTZER,  Christian— Lancaster,  Pa.,  arms  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety,  1775-77.  Excused  by  the  Executive  Council 
from  military  duties  on  Dec.  5,  1777,  for  the  making  of  arms  for 
the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  in  the  employ  and  under 
direction  of  William  Henry  I  of  Lancaster. 

OBERTEUFFER,  C.  A.— Phila.,  Pa.  Brass  barrel  flintlock  pistol  with 
lock  probably  by  Spang  &  Wallace. 

OBLINGER,  David  and  Walter— Piqua,  Ohio,  1870-88. 

OBLINGER,  S.— Troy,  Ohio,  1869-78. 

ODELL,  S.— Natchez,  Miss.  Kentucky  rifles. 

ODLIN,  John— Boston,  Mass.  1671-82. 

OFFREY,  P.— Gunsmith,   173   Chartres,  New  Orleans,  La.,   1853. 

OGDEN,  C. — Owego,  N.  Y.  Three-barrel  percussion  gun. 

OGDEN,  J.— Owego,  N.  Y.  (Related  to  C.  Ogden?) 

OGDEN,  W.  &  C. — Owego,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period.  Prolific  workmen. 

OHLENHAUSEN— Wooster,  Wayne  Co.,  Ohio. 

OLDHAM,  Thomas— East  St.  Clair  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1850. 
Maker  of  Kentucky  rifles. 

OLIVIER,  John— 37  George  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1810. 

OLMSTEAD,  Morgan  L.— Auburn,  N.  Y. 

O.  M. — Heavy,  home-made  buffalo  rifle,  oak  half  stock  with  sowbelly 
butt.  Remington  Cast  Steel  barrel.  Initials  "O.M.",  cut  in  pewter 
fore-end  tip,  both  sides. 

O'MARA  BROTHERS— Detroit,  Mich.,  1865-70?  A  three  barrel  gun, 
two  rifles  side  by  side  with  shotgun  barrel  underneath. 

American  Gun  Makers  159 

O.  N.— Initials  of  Noble  Orr,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms,  1799-1801. 

O'NEAL — Unlocated.  Rifle  maker. 

O'NEAL,  David— Geary  near  Kearny,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1858. 

ONG,  E.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1773-77.  Had  worked 
at  the  State  Gun  Factory,  at  Philadelphia,  under  Peter  Dehaven. 

ORAHOOD,  J.— Bellefontaine,  Ohio,  1858.  Percussion  rifles. 

ORGILL  BROS.  &  CO.— Memphis,  Tenn.,  1860. 

ORMSBY,  E.  S.— Unlocated.  Pill-lock  revolving  rifle. 

ORR,  Hugh — Came  to  America  from  Scotland  and  established  at 
Bridgewater,  Mass.,  in  1737.  Is  known  to  have  made  500  stands 
of  muskets  for  the  Province  of  Massachusetts  Bay  in  1748,  which 
arms  were  subsequently  removed  by  the  British  on  their  evacua- 
tion of  Boston  in  1776.  Orr  was  active  as  an  arms  maker  during 
the  Revolutionary  War.  Born  at  Lochinwinioch  in  January,  1717; 
died  in  December,  1798. 

ORR,   Noble— U.   S.  Inspector  of  Arms   1799-1801.  His  initial  "ON" 

are  found  on  Whitney  contract  musket  stocks. 
ORR,    Robert — Son    of    Hugh    Orr.    Appointed   Master    Armorer    at 

Springfield  Armory  in  1795. 
OSBORN,    Lot— Waterbury,    Conn.,    1776-77.    Musket   maker   to    the 

state.  Arms  marked  with  name  or  initials  and  "S.  C."  for  State 

of  Connecticut.  Received  payment  for  thirty-seven  guns  without 

bayonets  and  thirty-seven  with  bayonets;  Jan.  14,  1779. 
OSBORNE,  H. — Springfield,  Mass.,  musket  maker  before  and  after 

OSGOOD    GUN    WORKS— Norwich,    Conn.,    about    1880.    Rim-fire 

"Duplex"  and  "Monarch"  revolvers. 
OSHKOSH  TRAP  GUN  CO.— Oshkosh,  Wis.  About  1910.  Cheap,  single 

barrel  shotguns. 
OVERBAUGH,  C.  E.— 300  Broadway,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  before  and 

after  1879-87.  Top  action  target  rifles. 
OVERLY,  Peter— Kentucky.  About  1812. 
OVERTON,  J. — Arkadelphia,  Ark.,  percussion  period. 
O.  W.  A. — Initials   of   O.   W.   Ainsworth,   U.   S.   Inspector   of   Arms 

within  years  1831-1850. 
OWENS,  E.  G.— Denver,  Col.,  1879-80. 
OWENS,  Lemuel— Zanesville,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio,  1810-20. 

P — See  Pennsylvania  State  Gun  Factory. 

P.A.— Phil  Anglin,  ("Old  Uncle  Phil"),  Robertson  Co.,  Tenn.,  maker 
of  flintlock  and  later  percussion,  Kentucky  rifles.  Maker  of  a  61" 
flintlock  rifle  marked  "P.A.",  with  lock  by  John  Kirkman,  Ash- 
ville,  Pa.  Also  made  tiger  maple,  full  stock,  .38  caliber,  percus- 
sion rifle  with  set  triggers  and  lock  apparently  of  own  manu- 

PACHARD,  William— Elyria,  Ohio,  1859-60. 

PACHMEYER,  A.  M.— Los  Angeles,  Calif.  Modern. 

PACKARD,   Charles— Arms  stocker,  Springfield  Armory,   1795. 

PACKARD,  William— Elyria,  Lorain  Co.,  Ohio,  1859-60.  Half-stock, 
percussion,  octagonal  barrel  rifle. 

160  American  Gun  Makers 

PACKSON— With  Bennett  settled  on  Kent  Island,  Md.,  in  1631. 
Maryland's  first  gun  makers.  Established  three  years  before  the 
founding  of  the  Province  by  Calvert. 

PAGE,  Allen  W.— 108  Maiden  Lane,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1801. 

PAGE,  John — Preston,  Conn.,  Gun-lock  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Delivery  recorded  of  twenty-four  bridled  gun-locks,  and 
payment  made  in  August,  1777. 

PAGE,  John — Norwich,  Conn.,  gunsmith,  1780.  Originally  from 
Preston,  England.  (Same  as  John  Page,  gun-lock  maker  to  C.  of 
S.  above?) 

PAGE,  LEWIS  ARMS  CO.— Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.  Small  caliber  rim- 
fire  cartridge  rifles. 

PAINE,  KNOX  &  CO.— Kentucky.  About  1860.  Squirrel  rifles.  Elihu 

PAINE,  S.  T.— Unlocated.  Half  stock  target  rifles. 

PALM,  Isaac — Pennsylvania. 

PALM,  Frederick-— Ulster  County,  New  York,  rifle  maker,  1769-1775. 
One  of  four  rifle  makers  induced  by  Sir  William  Johnson  to  come 
out  from  Pennsylvania  and  settle  in  New  York  State  by  grants 
of  buildings  and  tools.  By  1775  rifle  making  became  an  enter- 
prising industry  with  most  of  the  settlers  and  Indians  trading 
their  smoothbores  for  rifled  arms,  and  New  York  was  second 
only  to  Pennsylvania  in  their  manufacture. 

PALM,  Jacob — Pennsylvania  about  1764-68  and  Ulster  County,  New 
York  1769-1775,  rifle  maker.  One  of  four  rifle  makers  induced 
by  Sir  William  Johnson  to  come  out  and  settle  in  New  York 
State  by  grants  of  buildings  and  tools.  Flintlock  Kentucky  type 
target  and  hunting  rifles,  numbered.  Heavy  flintlock  match  rifle, 
silver-inlaid  stock,  marked  No.  4;  numbers  109  and  206  known. 
Related  to  Frederick  Palm? 

PALM,  John — Lancaster,  Pa. 

PALMATEER  &  WRIGHT— Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.,  1835-46. 

PALMER,  Amasa — Connecticut.  Musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  May  3,  1776,  with  Hezekiah  Huntington  applied  for  pay- 
ment for  27  muskets  and  25  gun-locks  made  by  them. 

PALMER,  Thomas— North  Ward,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1773-76,  before 
and  after.  Musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety  of  Philadelphia 
in  1776.  President  of  the  committee  of  petitioners,  representing 
gun  makers,  complaining  to  the  Committee  of  Safety  in  Novem- 
ber, 1776,  against  the  high  and  rising  cost  of  materials  and  labor 
entering  into  gun  making,  and  quoting  advances  in  prices  within 
one   year,    since    1775. 

He  advertised  in  the  Pennsylvania  "Gazette,"  March  31,  1773: 
"Tho:  Palmer,  Gun  Smith,  at  his  shop:  the  north  side  of  Market- 
street,  between  Fourth  and  Fifth-streets  .  .  .  well  made  Rifles, 
of  different  lengths  and  Sizes  of  Bores,  which  he  will  insure  to 
the  Purchasers,  to  be  as  good  and  as  handsomely  fitted  up  as  any 
made  in  America;  he  likewise  makes  Fowling  Pieces,  of  different 
Sizes,  such  as  have  been  approved  of  by  Gentlemen  of  this  City. 
All  persons  that  will  please  to  favour  him  with  their  Custom, 
shall  be  served  with  great  Dispatch  and  care." 

PALMER,  Thomas — Inspector  of  Arms  for  U.  S.  in  Philadelphia, 

PALMER,  W.  R.— New  York  City,  1848-51. 

American  Gun  Makers  161 

PALMETTO  ARMORY— Established  at  Columbia,  S.  C,  by  Messrs. 
Glaze  &  Boatwright  in  1852,  with  machinery  bought  from  the 
Waters  Armory  of  Millbury,  Mass.,  to  manufacture  arms  for 
South  Carolina,  when  and  if  the  state  were  to  secede  from  the 
Union.  In  1852-53,  the  armory  produced  Model  1842  percussion 
pistols,  Model  1842  muskets,  and  a  few  Model  1841  percussion 
rifles.  From  1861  until  February,  1865,  when  the  armory  was 
burned  by  Sherman's  troops,  the  plant  manufactured  cannon, 
minie  rifle  balls  and  18  pdr.  shells  for  the  Confederacy.  Proba- 
bilities are  that  flintlock  muskets  were  altered  to  percussion  at 
the  armory  during  the  Civil  War,  but  no  new  arms  manufac- 
tured. The  plant  was  rebuilt  later,  and  was  known  as  the 
Palmetto  Iron  Works,  or  Shields'  Foundry.  The  firm  was  in 
existence  until  several  years  ago,  and  the  building  still  standing, 
although  in  rather  delapidated  condition,  at  the  northeast  corner 
of  Lincoln  and  Laurel  Streets. 

PALMETEER,  Peter— Or  Polmateer.  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.,  1835-60. 

PALMETEER  &  WRIGHT— Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.,  1835-1846. 

PANCOAST,  A.  R. — Vicinity  of  Morganstown,  W.  Va.  Rifle  maker. 

PANCOST,  E.  L.— Greensboro,  Greene  Co.;  later  at  Elizabeth,  Alleg- 
heny Co.,  Pa.  Trained  under  Barney  Engle  at  Greensboro  in  the 
early  1870's.  Made  gain-twist  rifles.  Maker  of  a  fine,  curly  maple, 
full  stock  .33  caliber  percussion  rifle  with  lock  marked  "G. 
GJULCHER,"  (G.  Goulcher). 

PANNABECKER,  Daniel— Employed  as  musket  barrel  maker  by 
Joseph  Henry  in  1810. 

PANNABECKER,  Jefferson — Hopeland,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  about 
1790-1810.  According  to  Mr.  R.  E.  Gardner,  the  family  of  Panne- 
beker,  (including  variations  in  spelling),  Pennsylvania  gun- 
smiths, are  descended  from  a  Dirck  Clasen,  a  "panne  backer" 
or  tile  baker,  an  early  (1640)  Manhattan  settler,  whose  descend- 
ants migrated  to  Pennsylvania,  and  founded  the  line.  One  of  the 
descendants  was  the  late  governor  of  that  state,  Samuel  Penne- 

PANNABECKER,  Jess— Adamstown,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1820- 

PANNABECKER,  Samuel — Muddy  Run,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  about 
1780.  Heavy  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

PANNEBECKER,  Jess— Or  Pennypacker.  Elizabeth  Township,  Pa., 
about  1820-40.  (Same  as  Jess  Pannabecker  of  Adamstown,  Pa.?) 

PANNEBECKER,  John— Adamstown,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,  before  and 
after  1863-66. 

PANNEBECKER,  L.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  Rifle. 

PANNEBECKER,  Wm.,  Sr.  (or  Pannabecker)— Mohnton,  Berks  Co., 
Pa.,  about  1800-1818  and  later.  Made  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles, 
also  locks  and  barrels  for  shotguns.  Thirteen-pound  Kentucky 
match  rifle  with  carved  curly  maple  fullstock,  globe  and  peep 

PANNEBECKER,  William,  Jr.— Son  of  William,  above.  Born  1818 
and  associated  with  his  father,  whom  he  succeeded.  At  Trenton, 
N.  J.,  1860-65,  then  back  at  Mohnton,  where  he  died  in  1880. 

PANNET,  W.— Unlocated.  Marking  on  barrel  of  circa  1845  rifle. 

PARK,  John— Williamsburg,  Clermont  Co.,  Ohio,  1878-82. 

162  American  Gun  Makers 

PARKE,  Henry — Maker  of  a  curly  maple,  full  stock,  brass  trimmed, 
percussion,  smoothbore  sporting  gun. 

PARKER,  A. — DeSoto,  Iowa.  Set  trigger  percussion  rifle  of  fine  work- 
manship. Name  of  town  obsolete,  having  been  changed  in  the 

PARKER,  A.  B.— Three  Mile  Bay,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

PARKER,  Charles— Meriden,  Mass.,  before  and  after  1868.  Double 
barrel  percussion  hammer,  later  hammerless,  shotguns. 

PARKER,  FIELD  &  SON— Makers  of  flint  locks  for  sporting  rifles. 

PARKER,  Henry — Unlocated.  Probably  lock  maker  only.  Late  flint 
and  early  percussion  locks  marked  "HENRY  PARKER  WAR- 
RANTED," in  old  English  letters.  Flint  lock  on  Jason  L.  Harris 
Kentucky  rifle;  percussion  lock  on  J.L.  (Joe  Long)  Kentucky 

PARKER,  Henry— Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

PARKER,  H.  &  CO.— Trenton,  N.  J.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

PARKER,  H.  &  CO.— Trenton,  N.  J.  Modern. 

PARKER,  J.  or  I.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

PARKER,  Samuel — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  musket  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety,  1776.  One  of  the  petitioners,  representing  the  gun 
makers,  to  the  Committee  of  Safety  at  Philadelphia,  November, 
1776,  complaining  against  the  high  cost  of  materials  and  labor 
entering  into  gun  making,  and  quoting  advances  in  prices  within 
one  year,  from  1775. 

PARKERS,  SNOW  &  CO.— Meriden,  Conn.  Civil  War  contractors 
of  Sept.  28,  1863,  for  15,000  Model  1861  Springfield  rifle  muskets 
at  $19.00  each.  Contract  fulfilled. 

PARKER,  W.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle  marked  "W.  PARKER 

PARKESON,  B.  L.— W.  Va.  Late  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

PARKHILL,  Andrew— Dock  Ward,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1779. 

PARKHURST,  Wm.  (or  Henry?)— Amherst,  N.  H.  Percussion  rifles. 

PARKS,  Horace — Columbus,  Ohio,  1873-93.  Associated  with  Charles 
McLeish,  1878-80;  with  W.  L.  Garber,  1886-88,  and  with  Irwin 

PARMALEE,  Phineas — Armorer  to  the  Continental  forces  in  1775. 

PARRISS,  W.  A. — Pensylvania;  very  early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

PARSON— Plattsburg,  N.  Y.,  1857-60. 

PARSONS,  Hiram— Baltimore,  Md.,  1819. 

PARTRIDGE,  W. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  the  lock  of  a  percussion 
sporting  rifle. 

PASSAGE,  C. — Rochester,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

PATCH,  N.  W.— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1834-40.  Inspected 
arms  at  the  Nathan  Starr  plant  1834-40. 

PATCHEN,   I. — Unlocated.   Percussion   over-under   rifle-and-shotgun. 

PATENT  ARMS  MFG.  CO.— Paterson,  N.  J.,  1836-42.  Manufacturers 
of  revolving  arms  under  Colt's  patents  of  Feb.  26,  1836,  and 
Aug.  29,  1839.  See  Colt  Patent  Arms  Mfg.  Co. 

PATERSON — Unlocated.  Marking  on  silver  inlaid,  artificially  striped, 
fullstock  Kentucky  rifle. 

PATT,    Christopher — Alma,    Wis.    Made    Martini-style    rifle    actions 

American  Gun  Makers  163 

(some  of  which  were  used  by  John  Meunier.)  Is  believed  to  have 
made  complete  rifles  also. 

PATTERSON — Juniata  Co.,  Pa.  Father  and  son  made  Kentucky  rifles. 

PATTERSON,  R.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  flintlock  rifle  with  N.  Beyer 
barrel,  Golcher  lock.  Possibly  one  of  the  Pattersons  of  Juniata 
Co.,  Pa. 

PATTON,  William— Springfield,  Ohio,  1850-68. 

PAUL,  Andrew — Pennsylvania,  1831. 

PAUL,  C. — Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Percussion,  Schuetzen  type  rifle. 

PAUL,  I. — Unlocated.  A  half  stock,  .52  caliber  percussion  rifle. 

PAUL,  Wm.— Bedford  Co.,  Pa. 

PAULI,  C. — Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Percussion  target  rifles. 

PAULMER,  Jacob  S. — Unlocated.  Script  marking  on  half  stock  per- 
cussion rifle. 

PAXSON,  W.  &  J.  R.~ Philadelphia,  Pa.  Flintlock  on  early  Kentucky 

PAYNE,  S.  L.— Erie,  Pa.,  1850. 

PAYSON  &  NURSE— Boston,  Mass.  Late  flint  sporting  rifle  with  33" 
octagonal  barrel  and  full  cherry  stock  with  cheekpiece  and 
patchbox.  Also  of  a  heavy  barrel,  muzzle-loading  percussion  rifle. 

P.  B. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  Kentucky  rifles. 

P.  C.  V.  R. — Unidentified.  Stamped  inside  hand-forged  lock  of  early 
flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  by  I.  P.  Beck. 

PEACOCK,  J.  &  THATCHER,  H.  C— Chicago,  111.  Percussion  match 
rifle  of  fine  workmanship,  with  back  action  lock  and  barrel 
marked  (in  separate  stamps),  "J.  PEACOCK  &  H.  C.  THATCH- 

PEARSON,    James — Pennsylvania    musket   maker    to    Committee    of 

Safety,  1775-76. 
PEAVEY,  A.  J.— South  Montville,  Me.  Maker  of  a  .22  cal.  knife-pistol 

patented  in  September,  1865,  and  March  27,  1866. 

PECARE    &    SMITH— 180-182   Center   St.,   New   York,   N.   Y.,    1849. 

Makers  of  10-shot  and  4-shot  percussion  pepperbox  pistols.  Jacob 

Pecare  and  Josiah  Smith. 
PECK,   Abijah — Hartford,   Conn.   Contractor  to  U.  S.  under  Act  of 

July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795),  muskets 

at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  775  were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 
PECK,   Eli— Gunsmith.   139   Green.,  Phila.,   Pa.,   1819. 

PECK,  John  C. — Atlanta,  Ga.,  1861.  Maker  of  a  percussion  rampart 
rifle  listed  as  "rifled  wall  piece"  on  p.  85,  Catalog  of  Arms  and 
Accoutrements  of  Springfield  Armory.  John  C.  Peck,  Atlanta 
business  man  had  been  owner  of  a  planning  mill.  With  Francis 
Day  owned  a  building  on  south  side  of  Decatur  St.,  at  Pratt 
where  "Joe  Brown  Pikes"  used  to  arm  the  Georgia  militia  are 
reputed  to  have  been  made.  (J.  C.  Peck  is  not  in  the  list  of 
pikes  furnished,  nor  is  Francis  Day.) 

The  property  was  sold  July  1,  1863  to  G.  A.  Trenholm  of  Tren- 
holm,  Frazer  &  Co.,  fiscal  agents  for  the  Confederacy.  Reputed 
to  have  been  used  as  a  Confederate  Armory,  but  this  lacks 

PECK,  Levi— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  137  Green,  in  1829. 

164  American  Gun  Makers 

PECKHAM  &  BARKER — Providence,  R.  I.  Half-stock,  curly  maple, 
brass  trim,  flintlock  sporting  gun. 

PEDEN,  D.  T.— Greenville  Co.,  S.  C.  Percussion  rifle. 

PELAUX,  Peter—Skilled  armorer  employed  at  U.  S.  Arsenal  at 
Schuylkill,  Phila.  Same  as  Peter  Peloux? 

PELOUX  Peter— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  in  Philadelphia  Di- 
rectory in  1816,  back  of  190  Cedar  St.,  as  Peter  Palaix.  In  1819  and 
1829  he  is  listed  as  Peter  Peloux.  His  name  "Peloux,"  obliterated, 
is  marked  on  locks  of  a  pair  of  "Roman  candle  3-shot?"  or 
Chambers  system?"  type  of  flintlock  pistols  with  external  main 

PENCE,   Jacob— Earl  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa.,   1771. 

PENNABECKER,  James  &  Jesse — Clay  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa. 
Erected  a  rifle-barrel  factory  on  the  site  of  an  old  grist  and  saw 
mill  which  had  been  erected  on  Middle  Creek  in  1755.  Rebuilt 
into  a  grist  mill  in  1861  by  Jesse  Pennabecker. 

PENNEL,   Joshua— Southampton   Township,   Bedford  Co.,   Pa.,   1844. 

PENNSYLVANIA  RIFLE  WORKS— G.  Dunlap,  operator.  Percussion 
period.  Makers  of  "hardware  store"  guns. 

PENNSYLVANIA  STATE  GUN  FACTORY— Established  by  the  state 
at  Philadelphia  in  February,  1776,  as  a  gun-lock  factory  under 
the  direction  of  Peter  De  Haven  and  Benjamin  Rittenhouse,  Major 
Meredith,  Captain  Wilcocks  and  Captain  Peters  are  also  men- 
tioned on  the  Board.  Later  the  activities  of  the  factory  were  ex- 
panded to  include  gun  manufacturing.  About  Dec.  13,  1776,  on 
the  approach  of  the  British  to  Trenton,  the  stock  and  equipment 
were  hastily  moved  to  French  Creek,  a  little  west  of  Valley 
Forge,  where  the  factory  was  re-established  on  the  grounds  of 
the  Continental  Powder  Mills  erected  by  the  state  in  1776.  The 
factory  was  moved  again  to  Hummelstown,  east  of  Reading, 
Lancaster  Co.,  about  the  12th  of  September,  1777,  on  the  approach 
of  the  British  under  General  Wm.  Howe;  Peter  De  Haven  being 
furnished  a  warrant  to  "impress  wagons  to  carry  off  Gunpowder 
and  Stores  from  French  Creek  and  raise  a  guard  .  .  ." 

Dec.  17,  1778,  the  factory  was  ordered  dismantled  by  the 
Supreme  Council  of  Philadelphia,  and  the  equipment  and  stock 
sold  at  auction  by  George  Henry,  who  on  May  3,  1779,  accounted 
for  the  sale  to  the  Council. 

Robert  Towers,  later  an  employee  of  the  factory,  had  been 
ordered  as  early  as  Oct.  27th,  1775,  to  mark  muskets  made  and 
proved  in  Philadelphia  with  the  letter  "P,"  (probably  for 
"proved"  rather  than  "Philadelphia"  or  the  state  initial),  and 
probabilities  are  that  this  letter  "P"  was  marked  on  all  arms 
made  at  the  factory. 

While  the  gun  factory  was  at  Hummelstown,  a  petition  re- 
garding prices,  signed  Oct.  30,  1777,  shows  the  following  to  have 
been  employed  as  gun  stockers  at  the  plant:  Joseph  DeLaven, 
William  Atkinson,  Conrad  Switzer,  Conrad  Bartling,  William 
Faries,  Archibald  Curry,  Frederick  Wharton,  Joseph  Weaver, 
Joseph  Eastburn  and  Isaac  Johns. 

name  was  Northampton),  Pa.  Probably  established  about  Sep- 
tember, 1777,  when  the  British  took  Philadelphia.  The  shop  also 
served  as  an  arsenal  or  depot,  where  on  May  11,  1778,  were 
stored  800  complete  stands  of  arms  and  150  in  assembly,  as  well 

American  Gun  Makers  165 

as  other  field  equipment.  James  Walsh  was  Superintendent  of 

PENNYPACKER,  Daniel  and  William—Daniel,  a  German  gunsmith, 
located  in  Cumru  Township  on  Wyomissing  Creek,  Pa.,  in  1773. 
Employed  five  hands  by  1776,  disposing  of  his  arms  in  Philadel- 
phia during  the  Revolutionary  War.  Made  locks  and  stocks  by 
hand,  using  Wyomissing  Creek  water  power  to  bore  and  grind 
barrels.  His  son  William  took  over  the  shop  in  1808.  William 
retired  from  the  trade  about  1858,  when  the  gun  making  busi- 
ness on  the  Wyomissing  went  into  a  decline. 

PENSHALLOW,  Capt.  John— Boston,  Mass.,  1726. 

PERKIN — Probably  same  as  Joseph  Perkin(s),  Philadelphia,  and  I. 
Perkin.  Born  in  England;  first  master  armorer  at  Harpers  Ferry 
Armory,  Va.  A  long  goose  gun  marked  PERKIN  PHILADA., 
about  1785.  Brass-barreled  flintlock  pistols;  brass-mounted  flint- 
lock holster  pistol. 

PERKIN,  Henry  H.— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms  1813  to  Jan. 
1817.  Inspected  arms  (sabers  and  N.C.O.  swords)  at  plant  of 
Nathan  Starr. 

PERKIN,  Joseph — First  Superintendent  Harpers  Ferry  Armory 
(1803).  Inspector  of  Arm  for  New  England  District,  1813.  Prob- 
ably identical  with  Joseph  Perkins. 

PERKINS,  Jacob— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms  at  Asa  Waters 
plant  in  1821. 

PERKINS,  James — Bridgewater,  Mass.,  musket  maker  associated  with 
Adam  Kinsley  in  a  contract  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  2,000 
Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand. 
There  were  1,550  reported  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

PERKINS,  Joseph— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1783-89.  Worked  on  public 
arms,  with  five  payments  recorded  in  1788,  totalling  1078  pounds, 
14  shilling,  5  pence. 

PERKINS,  Luke— Bridgewater,  Mass.,  before  and  after  1800. 

PERKINS,  Rufus — North  Bridgewater,  Mass.,  musket  contractor  on 
Oct.  31,  1808,  for  2,500  Model  1808  muskets;  duration  five  years. 
Of  these  200  were  reported  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

PERRY,  A.  D.— Alonzo  D.  Perry  of  Newark,  N.  J.  1855-58.  Maker  of 
Perry  breech-loading,  percussion,  mechanically  primed  pistols, 
carbines  and  sporting  rifles  under  patent  of  Jan.  16,  1855,  No. 
12,244.  Two  hundred  carbines  were  ordered  from  A.  D.  Perry  by 
the  War  Department  April  12,  1855,  at  $25.00  each.  Some  Perry 
carbines  were  also  purchased  and  used  by  the  navy. 

PERRY  &  GODDARD— 1868.  Makers  of  double-derringers. 

PERRY,  H.  V.— Fredonia,  N.  Y.,  from  about  1840;  3-barrel  rifles. 
Moved  to  Jamestown,  N.  Y.,  in  1850;  percussion  hunting  rifles, 
mule-ear  shotguns,  3-,  4-,  5-,  and  6-shot  revolving  rifles.  After 
about  1875  specialized  in  heavy  match  and  40-rod  rifles  an  ex- 
pert match  shooter.  Died  May  7,  1897. 

PERRY  &  JARRELL— Seborn  Perry  and  Manlief  Jarrell.  W.  Green 
St.,  High  Point,  N.  C.  Operators  of  a  gun  stock  factory  under 
the  supervision  of  the  Confederate  Government. 

PERRY  PATENT  ARMS  CO.— Operated  at  Newark,  N.  J.,  by  A.  D. 

Perry,  as  above.  The  firm  made  Perry  percussion,  breech-loading, 
automatic  capping  pistols,  which  were  offered  to  the  government, 

166  American  Gun  Makers 

but  were  rejected.  The  Company  became  involved  in  financial 
difficulties  about  1855,  and  failed. 

PERSONS,  H.— Plattsburg,  N.  Y.  Reported  maker  of  superposed  rifle- 

PETERMAN,  A— 131  Walnut  St.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1852-60.  Breech 
and  muzzle-loading  arms. 

PETERS,  Sell— Two  miles  north  of  Getaway,  Lawrence  Co.,  Ohio. 
Learned  the  trade  at  Harpers  Ferry  Armory  before  Civil  War. 
In  his  90's  at  time  of  death. 

PETERSON,  A.  W.  &  SON— Axel  W.  Peterson,  Larimer  Street, 
Denver,  gun  maker,  former  partner  of  George  Schoyen.  Of  Scan- 
dinavian origin,  Peterson  came  to  U.  S.  as  a  boy.  He  came  to 
Denver  after  working  briefly  in  Chicago,  in  1879  and  became 
associated  with  George  Schoyen  in  1904.  Continued  the  business 
of  making  fine  arms  and  accurate  barrels  after  Schoyen's  death 
in  1916,  being  joined  by  his  son  Roy  Peterson  who  now  operates 
the  shop. 

PETTENGILL,  C.  S.— Patentee  with  Raymond  &  Robitaille,  in  1856 
of  hammerless  percussion  revolvers  made  in  belt,  navy  and  army 
sizes  by  Rogers  &  Spencer. 

PETTIBONE,  Daniel— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  1808-1809.  Inspected 
sabers  of  contract  of  Dec.  9,  1807  for  2,000  horsemen's  swords, 
awarded  to  Rose  &  Sons,  Blockley  Township,  Phila.,  Pa.,  by 
Tench  Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies. 

PETTIT,  A.— Pennsylvania?  Kentucky  rifles.  A  highly  decorated  half 
stock  percussion  rifle.  Same  as  Pettit,  Andrew? 

PETTIT,  Andrew— Salem,  Columbiana  Co.,  Ohio,  1835. 

P.  F, — Unidentified.  Marking  on  Kentucky  rifle. 

PFEIFER,  Charles — Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

PFEIFFER,  George— 160  Main  St.,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1859-60. 

PFLOEGER,  John  and  Wm.  A. — See  John  Fleeger. 

P.  G. — Unidentified;  Kentucky  rifles. 

P.  G.  F. — Unidentified.  Silver  inlaid,  cheekpiece,  curly  maple  full- 
stock,  octagonal  barrel,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

PHEATT,  G.  K.— Toledo,  Ohio,   1882-83. 

PHELPS,  Jedediah — Lebanon,  Conn.  Gun-lock  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety.  Thirty-six  double-bridled  gun-locks  delivered  to 
Hezekiah  Huntington,  musket  maker  to  the  Committee,  Jan.  14, 

PHELPS,  Silas — Lebanon,  Conn.,  1770-77.  Gun-lock  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety.  Petitioned  for  payment  for  fifty-five  gun-locks 
made  for  the  army,  on  which  he  could  not  collect  premium  on 
account  of  design.  Three  shillings  allowed  for  each  lock  in  No- 
vember, 1776.  Additional  payment  for  gun-locks  made  in  August, 

PHILADELPHIA  ARMS  CO.— Incorporated  in  1903  with  capital  stock 
of  $200,000  to  manufacture  firearms.  Principal  office  was  in  the 
Guaranty  and  Trust  Building,  419  Market  St.,  Camden,  N.  J. 
Incorporators  were  Alfred  P.  Shannon,  C.  William  Haywood, 
Isaac  Elwall,  Ansley  H.  Fox  and  Henry  J.  Kingsbury 

PHILIPPI,  Samuel  and  Solon  C— Easton,  Pa.  Samuel  Philippi,  born 
1801,  died  1877.  Succeeded  by  son  Solon  C,  born  in  1841,  appren- 
ticed in  1855. 

American  Gun  Makers  167 

PHILLIPS — Prosperity  Co.,  Pa.  Late  percussion  period.  Made  a  few 
very  good  rifles  as  a  hobby. 

PHILLIPS,  A.— Geneva,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  slim,  full  stock,  mule-ear 

PHILLIPS,  E. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  percussion  sharp-shoot- 
er's rifle  with  heavy  barrel  and  telescope  sight 

PHILPY,  J.— Unlocated;  buried  in  northern  Ohio.  Oddly  designed 
flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  incised  carving. 

PHIPS,  James — Kennebec  River,  Mass.,  before  and  after  1643-51. 
(Father  of  Sir  William  Phips,  Governor  of  Massachusetts.) 

PHOENIX  ARMORY— See  W.  W.  Marston. 

PHOENIX  CO.— Makers  of  breech-loading,  12  gauge  shotguns  pat- 
ented in  1874. 

P*I — Part  marking  on  locks  and  barrels  by  Desverneys,  Charleston, 
S.  C. 

PIATT — Portsmouth,  Lawrence  Co.,  Ohio. 

PICKELL,  Henry — Also  Pickel,  York,  Pa.,  musket  maker.  In  asso- 
ciation with  Jacob  Doll  and  Conrad  Welshanze,  contractor  on 
April  17,  1801,  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  for  1,000 
Charleville  pattern  muskets.  Contracted  with  Tench  Coxe,  Pur- 
veyor of  Public  Supplies  on  Dec.  9,  1807,  for  100  rifles. 

PICKETT — Tennessee.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

PICKETT,  R.  M. — Ionia,  Mich.  Over-under  and  three  barrel  rifles. 

PICKLE,  Henry— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1800. 

PIEPER,  Abraham — Lancaster,  Pa.,  gun  maker.  Petitioner  to  the  7th 
Congress  on  June  28,  1803,  for  the  non-removal  of  import  duties 
on  arms. 

PIEPER,  H. — Maker  of  Flobert  type  cartridge  rifle  and  Pieper  target 

PIERCE,  H. — Liverpool,  Ohio.  Maker  of  a  double  barrel,  side-by- 
side,  muzzle-loading,  percussion  rifle. 

PIERCE,  J.  J.— Liverpool,  Ohio.  Flintlock  rifles. 

PIKE,  Samuel— Troy,  N.  Y.,  in  1834;  Kentucky  rifles. 

PIM — Boston,  Mass.,  1722.  Reputed  to  have  made  an  11-shot  flintlock 

PIPER,  C.  Y. — Natchez,  Miss.  Unique  brass-halfstock  percussion  rifle, 
with  patent  breech  and  breechplate  hook.  Six  gold  bands  at 
breech  one  at  muzzle,  one  in  muzzle.  Cast  brass  skeleton  half- 
stock  with  engraved  silver  inlays  in  the  brass.  Burl  walnut 
insert  with  silver  patchbox  and  cheekpiece  inlay  engraved  with 
13  stars,  eagle,  "E  PLURIBUS  UNUM,"  flowers  and  scroll  wire 

PIPER,  S. — Oswego,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 

PIPINO,  Jacob— 18  Ensor  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1853. 

PIPPERT,  Carl— Bladensburg,  Md.  Fine,  modern,  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifles  and  restorations  of  old.  Made  his  first  gun  in  1940. 

PISTOR,  G.  &  W. — Unlocated.  Twenty  gauge  percussion  double- 
barrel  shotgun. 

Wis.  Formed  in  1889,  to  make  gas-operated,  semi-automatic  rifles 
invented  by  Henry  A.  Pitcher,  dentist  of  Neilsville.  At  least  two 

168  American  Gun  Makers 

or  three  specimens  are  believed  to  have  been  made  and  one  was 
tested  by  the  Army  in  1891.  It  is  believed  to  the  first  semi-auto- 
matic rifle  tested  by  the  Army. 

PITTINGER,  J.  S. — Unlocated.  Half  stock  percussion  target  rifle. 

PITTSBURGH  FIRE  ARMS  CO.— Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  period  of  1860. 
Barrel  stamping  on  walnut  halfstocked,  brass-mounted  smooth 
rifle  with  Leman  lock. 

P.  K. — Unidentified,  Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

PLANTS,  Christian— East  Finley  Township,  Washnigton  Co.,  Pa.  Post 
Civil  War.  A  very  ornate  gun  dated  "1873"  on  the  barrel. 

PLANT'S  &  HOTCHKISS— New  Haven,  Conn.  See  Plant's  Mfg.  Co. 

PLANT'S  MFG.  CO— New  Haven,  Conn.,  about  1863.  Makers  of  re- 
volvers under  Willard  C.  Ellis  and  N.  White's  patents  of  July 
12,  1859,  No.  24,476  and  July  21,  1863,  No.  39,318,  assigned  to 
Ebenezer  H.  Plant,  Henry  Reynolds,  Amzi  H.  Plant  and  Alfred 
Hotchkiss.  The  Plant  revolver  was  sold  by  Merwin  &  Bray, 
agents  and  distributors  to  supercede  the  Prescott,  which  was  an 
infringement  on  the  Rollin  White  patent  of  a  "cylinder  bored 
end  to  end,"  controlled  by  Smith  &  Wesson. 

PLATE,  A.  J.— San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1849-1875.  Dealer  and  importer; 
marked  rifles  made  by  Slotter  &  Co.,  Philadelphia.  Agent  for 
Henry  Deringer;  induced  Deringer  employees  to  quit  and  make 
thousands  of  imitation  Deringer  pistols  marked  "J.  DERINGER." 
Listed  at  103  Commercial  St.,  1859-60,  at  507  Commercial  in  1861 
and  at  411  Sansome  in  1864-65. 

PLATH,  C. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  plain,  serviceable,  half 
stock  percussion  rifle  with  brass  furniture. 

PLEASANTS' — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Single-barrel,  percussion  goose  gun. 

P.  L.  H.— Unidentified;  Kentucky  rifles.  Possibly  P.  L.  Hain  of  Pa. 

PLUSHEL,  F.— Cedar  Falls,  Iowa,  1868. 

POEL,  Van  der— Albany,  N.  Y.,  1740. 

POINT  OF  FORK  (VA.)  STATE  ARSENAL— Point  of  Fork,  Va.,  at 
the  confluence  of  the  Rivanna  and  James  Rivers,  on  the  land  of 
David  Ross.  Virginia  State  Arsenal  in  which  equipment  and 
clothing  were  manufactured,  arms  repaired  and  restocked,  bay- 
onets forged  and  filed,  ramrods  fitted  and  locks  made.  It  is  not 
known  when  the  arsenal  was  established,  but  probabilities  are 
that  it  was  set  up  in  January,  1781,  for  the  storage  of  supplies 
partially  evacuated  from  Richmond,  Va.,  when  Benedict  Arnold 
attacked  it  Jan.  5-6th,  1781,  in  the  course  of  which  2,200  small 
arms,  and  two  large  casks  containing  2,000  new  French  musket 
locks  (used  for  repair  and  replacement)  were  destroyed  by 
Arnold.  At  the  same  time  another  raiding  column  of  Lt.  Col. 
Simcoe's  dragoons  destroyed  at  Westham  1,800  cartridge  boxes 
and  bayonets,  330  barrels  of  powder,  19  chests  of  musquet  cart- 
ridges, 3  chests  of  flints,  a  foundry  for  casting  iron  cannon,  a 
magazine,  etc.,  etc. 

The  arsenal  was  raided  by  Col.  Simcoe  about  June  5,  1781, 
buildings  were  burned  and  some  supplies  and  arms  destroyed; 
however  a  portion  of  the  latter  had  been  evacuated  and  saved 
on  warning  of  the  approach  of  the  British.  The  arsenal  was  re- 
occupied  by  State  troops  after  the  raid,  but  the  machinery  and 
equipment  for  repair  of  arms  had  not  been  replaced  by  Sept.  24, 
1782,  (report  of  Capt.  John  Peyton,  in  charge),  though  a  limited 
amount  of  clothing  and  shoes  had  been  produced  that  year.  A 
shortage  of  thread,  tools  and  materials  is  mentioned  in  May  of 
that  year. 

American  Gun  Makers  169 

In  1784,  the  machinery,  equipment,  tools  and  supplies  of  the 
discontinued  Public  Gun  Factory  at  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  were 
moved  to  Point  of  Fork  Arsenal,  and  three  new,  large,  stone 
buildings  were  ordered  erected  for  the  storage  of  powder,  small 
arms  and  artillery.  Gunsmiths  were  hired,  and  the  arsenal  re- 
sumed its  functions  of  repair  of  arms.  It  was  intended  for  the 
state  to  accumulate  and  recondition  a  reserve  of  10,000  service- 
able arms,  which  was  accomplished  by  October,  1791,  including 
about  3,000  French  arms  purchased  by  the  State  of  Virginia  in 

From  1802,  with  the  establishment  of  a  state  manufacturing 
armory  at  Richmond,  the  business  of  the  arsenal  fell  off,  and 
it  was  absorbed  in  the  Virginia  Manufactory,  the  new  State 
Armory,  about  1802. 

POLE  &  CUTTER — Silver  mounted  percussion  rifle. 

POLLARD,  John — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety  in  1776.  John  Pollard  was  one  of  the  petitioners,  repre- 
senting the  gun  makers,  complaining  to  the  Committee  of  Safety 
of  Philadelphia,  in  November,  1776,  against  the  high  cost  of  labor 
and  materials  entering  into  gun-making,  and  quoting  advances 
in  prices  within  one  year,  since  1775. 

POLLARD,  Robert — Arms  contractor  to  the  State  of  Virginia,  1799- 

POLLOCK,  B.(?) — Unlocated,  probably  southwestern  Pa.,  period  of 
1800-1820.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  marked  in  script.  Perhaps 
related  to  S.  Pollock,  New  Castle,  Pa.,  1841. 

POMEROY— Canton,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio. 

POMEROY,  Elty— Also  Pumery,  Eltweed,  Eltwud,  or  Eltwood.  Ar- 
rived at  Boston,  Mass.,  from  England  in  1630.  In  Dorchester, 
1633-37,  and  later  at  Hartford  and  Windsor,  Conn.  Living  with 
his  son  Medad,  in  Northampton,  Mass.,  1670-71. 

POMEROY,  Eldad— Son  of  Elty  Pomeroy.  Active  from  1630  at  Boston, 
Northampton  and  Hampshire  until  his  death  May  22,  1662. 

POMEROY,  Medad — Son  of  Elty  Pomeroy.  Northampton,  Mass.  Born 
about  1637;  died  Dec.  30,  1716. 

POMEROY,  Ebenezer — Son  of  Medad  Pomeroy.  Northampton,  Mass. 
Born  May  30,  1669;  died  Jan.  27,  1754. 

POMEROY,  Seth— General.  Son  of  Ebenezer  Pomeroy,  Born  May  20, 
1706;  died  in  the  military  service,  at  Peeks-kill,  N.  Y.,  Feb.  19, 

POMEROY,  Lemuel— Pittsfield,  Mass.,  musket  maker.  Contracted 
with  United  States  May  17,  1823,  for  10,000  muskets  Model  1816 
to  be  delivered  over  a  period  of  five  years,  2,000  per  annum. 
Contract  of  Jan.  26,  1829,  details  unknown.  On  Feb.  26,  1840, 
Lemuel  Pomeroy  contracted  for  6,000  flintlock  muskets,  Model 
1835,  at  $12.75  per  stand,  duration  five  years,  at  1,200  per  an- 
num. On  March  18,  1842,  be  obtained  an  additional  contract  for 
1,000  of  the  same  arms  at  $14.50  each,  duration  to  Jan.  1,  1845. 

Lemuel  Pomeroy,  grandson  of  Gen.  Seth  Pomeroy  of  French, 
Indian  and  Revolutionary  Wars,  was  born  in  Northampton, 
Hampshire  Co.,  Mass.,  in  1778.  In  1799  he  moved  to  Pittsfield, 
Mass.,  and  started  the  manufacture  of  plows,  sleighs  and  wagons. 
The  plant  burned  down  in  1805,  and  was  rebuilt,  apparently 
with  some  provision  for  arms  manufacture,  for  though  not  listed 

170  American  Gun  Makers 

among  the  eighteen  government  contractors  of  1808,  he  reputedly 
started  musket  manufacture  that  year,  making  arms  for  the 
states'  militia  and  the  Federal  Government.  The  Pomeroy  (priv- 
ate) Armory  became  one  of  the  six  accorded  national  recognition 
and  subsidies,  at  one  time  employing  thirty  expert  gunsmiths. 
Pomeroy  continued  musket  manufacture  until  about  1846, 
when  the  portion  of  his  plant  containing  arms  manufacturing 
facilities  burned  down  and  was  not  rebulit,  for  the  output  of 
Government  Armories  at  Springfield  and  Harpers  Ferry  became 
adequate  io  supply  the  military  establishment,  and  the  award  of 
musket  contracts  to  private  manufacturers  was  curtailed.  Lemuel 
Pomeroy  died  at  Pittsfield  August  25,  1849,  after  a  protracted 

The  following  advertisement  in  PITTSFIELD  SUN,  Pittsfield, 
Mass.,  of  Jan.  27,  1809,  is  of  interest:— 

Lemuel  Pomeroy  wishes  to  purchase  a  quantity  of  good  hard 
and  chestnut  coal,  2  or  3  tons  of  good  horse  hay  and  3  or  4  well 
fatted  hogs:  for  which  good  pay  will  be  made.  He  has  now  on 
hand  and  is  constantly  making  a  large  quantity  of  military 
musquets  of  the  English  and  French  initiation.  Likewise  some 
first  rate  fowling  pieces  .  .  .  articles  which  may  soon  be  sub- 
stituted for  our  blessed  embargo.  He  also  has  all  kinds  of  Black- 
smith and  Harness  work  executed  at  his  shop  by  the  best  of 

The  patronage  of  his  friends  is  once  more  solicited." 

POND  &  CO.— Albany,  N.  Y.  Flintlock  pistols. 

POND,  L.  W.— Lucius  W.  Pond,  Worcester,  Mass.,  before  1863  to  about 
1870.  Maker  of  a  top-break  cartridge  revolver,  infringement  on 
the  Smith  &  Wesson  patents.  There  were  4,486  Pond  revolvers 
turned  over  to  the  S.  &  W.  Co.  in  settlement,  in  March,  1863.  To 
avoid  infringement,  from  1863  manufactured  a  front-loading 
revolver  with  removable  steel  shells. 

POOL,  Lemon—Springfield,  Ohio,  1874-76. 

POOLEY,  James— Memphis,  Tenn.,  1860. 

POPE,  Harry  M.— Hartford,  Conn.,  active  to  1901. 

PORTER  &  PRICHITT— Phila.,  Pa.  Makers  of  a  full  stocked,  brass 
mounted,  side-hammer  percussion  pistol. 

PORTER,  P.  W.— Patrick  W.  Porter  of  Memphis,  Tenn.,  and  later  New 
York,  N.  Y.  Manufacturer  of  percussion  revolvers  and  inventor 
and  maker  of  9-shot,  pill-lock,  turret  type,  revolving-breech 
rifles,  patented  July  8,  1851,  No.  8,210.  Mr.  Porter  was  killed 
while  demonstrating  one  of  his  rifles  to  Col.  Colt. 

PORTS,  J.  A.— Or  J.  E.,  Sunbury,  Ohio,  1877-82. 

POST,  J. — Newark,  N.  J.  Maker  of  a  hammerless,  ring-trigger,  per- 
cussion pepperbox  pistol  patented  May  15,  1849,  patent  No.  6453. 

POST  Samuel  B. — Washington  Co.,  Pa.  Learned  the  trade  under 
George  W.  Craft,  on  Craft  Creek,  Morris  Township,  about  1880; 
in  business  at  England  (now  Pleasant  Grove)  Pa.  Made  about 
100  guns  before  1900,  largely  half  stock,  with  locks  and  barrels 
mostly  purchased  in  Pittsburgh.  Did  his  own  rifling  and  marked 
barrels  "S.  POST,"  in  script.  Died  in  1947. 

POSTLEY,  NELSON  &  CO.— Unlocated  (Pittsburgh,  Pa.?)  before 
about  1880;  barrelmakers.  Brown  &  Hirth  of  Pittsburgh  adver- 
tised in  1886  that  "the  hands  we  employ  have  been  making  Rifle 
Barrels  for  over  thirty  years,  with  the  late  firm  of  Messrs.  Post- 

American  Gun  Makers  171 

ley,  Nelson  &  Co.,  who  carried  on  the  Gun  Barrel  business  for 
a  period  of  twenty-five  years."  Barrel  of  a  rifle  by  J.  V.  Hoff- 
man, Attica,  Ind. 

POTTER,  Daniel— Hartford,  Conn.,  1867.  Percussion  rifles,  full-length 
telescope  sights. 

POTTER,  H.  &  CO.— New  York  State.  Percussion  rifles. 

POTTER,  N. — Unlocated.  Percussion  sporting  rifle. 

POTTS,  William— Columbus,  Ohio,  1883-84. 

POULTNEY  &  TRIMBLE— 200  West  Balto  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1860 
and  later.  Makers  of  Smith  carbines,  patented  by  Gilbert  Smith 
June  23,  1857.  There  were  300  Smith  carbines  bought  by  the 
War  Department  in  1860,  and  30,062  during  the  Civil  War.  The 
carbines  were  also  manufactured  for  Poultney  &  Trimble  by  the 
American  Machine  Works  at  Springfield,  Mass.;  the  American 
Arms  Company  of  Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.,  and  Massachusetts  Arms 
Company  of  the  same  city.  It  is  uncertain  whether  any  Smith 
carbines  were  actually  manufactured  by  Poultney  &  Trimble  in 

POUNDS,  I.  D.— Columbus,  Ohio,  1834-55.  Rifle,  pistol  and  shotgun 

POWELL  &  BROWN— See  Powell  Palemon. 

POWELL  &  CLEMENT— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1890-92. 

POWELL,  Jacob— Logan  Co,  "The  Indian  Country"  (now  Richland 
Co.)  Ashland  Co.,  and  Bowling  Green,  1825.  Made  and  repaired 
rifles  for  Indians  1808. 

POWELL,  Palemon— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  active  about  1839-73.  Asso- 
ciated with  Brown,  1856-58.  Firm  changed  to  Powell  &  Son  in 
1871  to  1873  and  later. 

POWELL  &  SON— See  Powell,  Palemon. 

POYAS,  F.  D.— Charleston,  S.  C.  Percussion  duelling  pistols. 

P.  R. — Unidentified.  Maker  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  Lock  by  R.  & 
W.  C.  Biddle. 

PRAHL,  Lewis — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Contracted  Oct.  23,  1775,  for  150  stands.  Made  the  pattern 
musket  for  the  Sebastian  Keeley  contract  for  100  fire-locks. 

PRAILISH,  Charles— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

PRATT — New  Harmony,  Ind.  Percussion  rifle. 

PRATT,  Alvan — Concord,  Mass.,  gun  maker,  was  born  at  Sherborn, 
Mass.,  Nov.  23,  1790,  and  served  his  apprenticeship  at  the  Whitte- 
more  gun  factory  in  Sutton,  Mass.  After  serving  full  time  as 
apprentice  and  some  months  as  journeyman,  went  into  business 
with  his  brother  Nathaniel,  also  a  gunsmith,  in  Water  town;  how- 
ever, they  failed  and  Alvan  returned  to  Sutton.  His  establish- 
ment prospered  for  a  while,  then  was  burned  out,  after  which  he 
returned  to  Concord,  his  birthplace,  where  he  remained  until  his 
death  Jan.  20,  1877. 

Pratt  was  well  known  for  the  accuracy  of  his  rifles  and  excel- 
lent quality  of  his  products.  However,  being  over-conservative, 
if  not  actually  old  fashioned,  he  was  opposed  to  improvements 
and  new  machinery,  and  gradually  his  custom  fell  off  and  the 
last  ten  years  of  his  life  were  spent  in  repair  work. 

A  musket  lock-plate  marked  "A.  PRATT"  is  described  by 
Mr.  Walter  White,  which  though  converted  to  percussion  shows 

172  American  Gun  Makers 

the  characteristics  of  a  Model  1795  musket.  Certainly  the  arm  is 
of  not  later  than  1808  vintage.  In  view  of  Alvan  Pratt's  birth 
in  1790,  it  is  not  likely  that  he  is  the  maker.  An  Asa  Pratts 
blacksmith,  was  located  in  Essex  County,  Mass.,  in  1756-1811. 
There  is  no  record  known  to  date  of  Pratt  contract. 

PRATT,  AZARIAH— Settled  at  Marietta,  Ohio,  in  1788.  Silversmith, 
locksmith  and  gunsmith;  made  the  lock  for  the  first  jail  in  the 
Northwest  Territory. 

PRATT,  G.  D.— Attica,  N.  Y.  Cased  percussion  target  rifles. 

PRATT,  Henry— Roxbury,  Mass.  Born  1790;  died  1880.  New  England 
type  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

PRESCOTT,  E.  A.— Worcester,  Mass.,  1860-74.  Ex-employee  of  Ethan 
Allen.  Maker  of  a  rim-fire  cartridge  revolver  distributed  by 
Merwin  &  Bray.  The  arm  was  an  infringement  on  the  Rollin 
White  patent  controlled  by  Smith  &  Wesson,  and  production  was 
discontinued  in  1863. 

PRESCOTT,  Benjamin — Superintendent  Springfield  Armory  from 
November  1,  1805  to  August  31,  1813,  and  from  January  16,  1815 
to  May  31,  1815. 

PRETCHEL,  J.  A.— Cleveland,  Ohio. 

PRETZSCH,  Charles — Unlocated.  Percussion  sporting  rifle. 

PRICE,  Cal — Orange,  Texas.  Modern.  Percussion,  small-bore  hunting 

PRICE,  J. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  late  Colonial  period,  brass 
mounted,  sling  swivel  equipped,  sporting  flintlock  musket  of  large 
caliber,  with  engraved  lock,  goose-neck  hammer,  and  frizzen 
separated  from  the  pan.  Marked  on  barrel  "J.  PRICE  N.  YORK," 
in  rounded,  engraved  type  lettering.  Inside  of  trigger  guard 
marked  "ANNELY."  Probably  Edward  Annely,  New  Jersey  gun 
maker  active  1771  and  before. 

PRICHITT— See  Porter  &  Prichitt. 

PRIEST,  Josiah— Marietta,  Ohio,  1840. 

PRINDLE,  A. — Unlocated.  Script  marking  on  halfstock  percussion 

PRINGLE,  John — Pennsylvania  gun-lock  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety,  1775-76. 

PRISSEY,   Elias— Hooversville,  Pa.,   active   about   1855   and  after. 

PROTECTOR  ARMS  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Makers  of  .22  caliber 
7-shot  rim-fire  cartridge  revolvers. 

PROVIDENCE  TOOL  CO.— Providence,  R.  I.  Civil  War  contractors 
for  Model  1861  Springfield  rifle  muskets: 

July  13,  1861—25,000  at  $20.00  each.  25,000  delivered. 
Nov.  26,  1861—25,000  at  $20.00  each.  13,000  delivered. 
May     1,  1864—32,000  at  $18.00  each.  32,000  delivered. 
The  firm  also  made  Robert's  breech-loading  military  rifles 
and  Peabody  breech-loading  cartridge  carbines,  rifles  and  sport- 
ing arms  patented  July  22,  1862,  No.  35,947.  The  Peabody  arms 
were  tested  by  an  Ordnance  Board  in  January,  1865,  and  though 
favorably   reported   on,   were   not  adopted   due   to   termination 
of  hostilities  during  the  session   of   the  Board.   Peabody   arms 
were  however,  adopted  and  purchased  by  the  State  of  Connecti- 
cut. Providence  Tool  Company  also  was  active  in  the  alteration 
of  muzzle-loading  arms  to  the  Peabody  system,  and  also  made 
the  Peabody-Martini  carbines  and  rifles  for  foreign  governments. 

American  Gun  Makers  173 

P.  S.  J.  &  CO.— (P.  S.  Justice?)  Percussion  Kentucky  type  pistol. 

PUBLIC  GUN  FACTORY— Also  Public  Arms  Factory  and  Fred- 
ericksburg Armory.  Established  by  Col.  Fielding  Lewis  and 
Charles  Dick  at  Fredericksburg,  Va.,  to  make  arms  for  the 
Continental  Line  Regiments.  See  Virginia  Public  Gun  Factory, 

PULASKI  GUN  FACTORY— Pulaski,  Tenn.  Confederate  arms  plant 
authorized  by  Act  of  General  Assembly  of  Tennessee,  June  28, 
1861.  Operated  by  Major  Joseph  Stacy  and  James  McCullum, 
Esq.  The  plant  repaired,  overhauled  and  rebored  arms  for  use 
of  Confederate  forces,  with  N.  B.  Zuccarello  and  James  McLean 
as  chief  mechanics. 

The  plant,  erected  on  a  site  leased  from  Thomas  Davis,  had 
been  the  property  of  Mr.  Zuccarello,  who  owned  the  building, 
iron  works  and  foundry,  prior  to  their  conversion  to  war  uses. 
The  factory  was  destroyed  by  Federal  troops  shortly  after  opera- 
tions had  begun.  The  total  output  is  believed  to  have  been  under 
500  rifles. 

PULING,  J.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles.  See  J.  P. 

PULLIAM,  T. — Crudely  done  overstamp  on  a  repaired,  percussion, 
G.  Goulcher  lock  of  a  brass  and  silver  mounted,  maple  half  stock, 
heavy,  half-octagon,  .45  caliber,  smoothbore  barrel,  long  gun. 

PURDY,   C.  K.— Unlocated.  Percussion  target  rifle. 

PURMONT,  T.  B.— Heuvelton,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period;  riflesmith. 

PUTNAM,  Enoch — Granby,  Mass.,  gunsmith  to  Committee  of  Safety. 
Recommended  for  appointment  as  Armorer  to  the  Colony,  July 
13,  1775. 

P.  Y. — Maker  of  a  full  curly  maple  stock,  brass  mounted,  double  set 
trigger,  Kentucky  type  percussion  rifle. 


QUAKENBUSH,  H.  M.— Ilion  and  Herkimer,  N.  Y.,  1871-76  and  after. 

Maker  of  air  rifles  and  .22  caliber  rim-fire  cartridge  rifles. 
QUINBY,  Dennis— Northfield,  Vt.,  1864-68. 
QUINNEBAUG    RIFLE    MFG.    CO.— Southbridge,    Mass.    Makers   of 

under-hammer,  percussion  pistols. 


RADCLIFFE  &  GLAZE— Columbia,  S.  C,  after  1865  and  before 
1870.  T.  W.  Radcliffe  and  William  Glaze  (q.v.).  Sporting  goods; 
name  stamped  on  percussion  double-barreled  shotguns  made  else- 

RADCLIFFE  &  GUIGNARD— Columbia,  S.  C.  Marking  on  long  per- 
cussion fowling  piece,  probably  imported.  See  T.  W.  Radcliffe. 

RADCLIFFE,  T.  W.— Columbia,  S.  C,  1856-64.  Importer  of  shoulder 
arms  and  hand  arms  for  the  Confederacy.  English  Tranter  revol- 
vers known  marked  with  Radcliffe's  name.  Reputed  to  have  made 
shoulder  arms:  doubtful. 

RADFONG,  Frederick — Conestoga  Township,  Lancaster  Co.,  Pa., 

RADFONG,  George— See  Redfang,  George. 

174  American  Gun  Makers 

RAFFSNYDER,  John—Or  Reiffsnyder.  Reading,  Berks  Co.,  Pa., 

RAIKE,  Levi — Lincoln  Co.,  Ky.  Reported  percussion  half  stock  rifle. 

RALPH,  N.  H. — Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle  that  came  from  West 

RAMAGE  &  CARRIER— Trinidad,  Col.,  1877-81. 

RAMSDELL,  Charles  V. — In  partnership  with  John  Neal  as  Ramsdell 
&  Neal,  Harlow  St.,  Bangor,  Me.,  post-Civil  War.  The  parner- 
ship  dissolved,  Ramsdell  opened  a  shop  on  State  St.;  later  sold 
to  James  Holt  and  committed  suicide.  Fine  heavy  percussion 
target  rifles;  Snider-action  breechloaders.  Heavy  telescope-sight 
match  rifle,  lock  marked  "C.  V.  &  J.  W.  RAMSDELL,  BANGOR, 

RAMSDELL,  V.  G.— Buckport,  Me. 

RANDALL,  Joseph  C. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  the  lock  of  a  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle. 

RANDALL,  Myron — Waupaca,  Wis.  Made  .44  caliber  muzzle-loading 
percussion  rifles  as  late  as  1935.  Also  invented  and  made  spring- 
operated  air  guns.  Born  1878,  died  1944. 

RANKIN— See  Clark  &  Rankin. 

RANKIN,  John— York  Co.,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

RANKIN  &  WERTER— Unlocated.  (Probably  Pennsylvania).  Barrel- 
maker's  stamp  under  breech  of  late  Kentucky  percussion  rifle 
from  Maryland. 

RANSOME,  James — Or  Ransom.  Superintendent  of  the  State  Gun 
Factory  at  Halifax,  N.  C,  1776-78.  See  North  Carolina  Gun 

RAPPAHANNOCK  FORGE— Falmouth,  Va.,  on  the  north  side  of 
Rappahannock  River.  Rappahannock  Forge  was  the  alternate 
name  of  the  Hunter  Iron  Works  established  by  James  Hunter 
at  Falmouth,  Va.,  some  time  before  the  Revolution.  At  the 
outbreak  of  the  war,  the  works  were  considerably  enlarged;  a 
manufactory  of  small  arms  was  added,  slitting  mills  were  con- 
structed, and  anchors  and  war  material  manufactured. 

The  factory  was  dismantled  on  May  30,  1781,  due  to  the 
approach  of  a  British  raiding  party  under  Tarleton,  who  was 
operating  from  Cornwall's  force,  which  had  arrived  at  Peters- 
burg, about  seven  miles  south  of  Richmond  on  May  20,  1781. 
The  removal  of  the  equipment  and  machinery  was  supervised 
by  General  Weedon,  a  laid-on*  Continental  officer.  Later  the 
workmen  were  recalled  and  the  works  enlarged,  but  failing  to 
receive  financial  support  from  the  State  of  Virginia,  James 
Hunter  dismissed  the  remaining  workmen  and  closed  the  fac- 
tory Dec.  1,  1781.  Doubtless  the  threat  of  a  possible  raid  and 
destruction  of  the  works  by  a  raiding  party  from  the  British 
fleet  was  a  contributing  factor  in  permitting  the  closing  of 
Rappahannock  Forge.  See  Hunter,  James. 

RASH,  B. — Unlocated.   Percussion   rifle   with   lock  by   G.   Goulcher. 

RAUB,  William— New  York,  N.  Y.,  at  3rd  Ave.,  and  67th  St.,  and 
later  629  Union  Ave.,  Bronx.  Born  in  Germany  in  1810.  Emigrated 
to  U.  S.  in  boyhood.  Claimed  to  have  made  guns  for  Buffalo  Bill 
Shows;  repaired  arms  for  Union  forces  stationed  around  New 
York  City  during  Civil  War.  Died  Jan.  9,  1921. 

RAUBER,  Feder— Berks  County,  Pa.,  1730. 

American  Gun  Makers  175 

RAURMAN,  G. — Unlocated.  Percussion  rifles. 

RAYMOND,  William— Winona,  Minn.,   1864-65. 

RAYNES— New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  target  rifle. 

RJ5. — Lock  marking  of  a  maple  half  stock,  octagon  barrel,  late  per- 
cussion Kentucky  rifle  with  two  patch  boxes  and  set  triggers. 

R.C. — Initials  of  R.  Chandler,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within  years 

READ,  N.  T. — Danville,  Va.  Inventor  of  the  Read  breech-loading 
carbine,  Confederate  patent  No.  154  of  March  20,  1863.  The 
arm  is  believed  to  have  been  made  by  Keen  Walker  &  Co.,  of 
Danville,  with  Read  in  charge  of  operations. 

READ,  Robert — Chesterton,  Md.,  arms  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety, 

READ,  William— 11  Water  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1802-04. 

READ,  William — Boston,  Mass.  Apparently  dealer  and  importer.  Sold 
a  quantity  of  .44  Allen  &  Wheelock  revolvers  to  the  Government 
during  the  Civil  War. 

READING— Pennsylvania,  period  of  1780.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles, 
also  an  original  "smooth  bore  rifle." 

READING'S  FACTORY— Vicksburg,  Miss.  Said  to  have  made  fire- 
arms for  the  Confederacy.  Machinery  shipped  to  Atlanta,  Ga. 
in  1862.  On  Sept.  11,  1862  Col.  James  H.  Burton  with  Capt.  M. 
M.  Wright  and  Maj.  Cuyler  made  a  selection  of  machinery 
from  it. 

READY,  L.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  of  about  1780-1800 

REASON,  Jacob — (Also  Reagon?)  Frederickstown,  Md.,  Revolutionary 
War  rifle  and  musket  maker  to  Councils  of  Safety  in  both 
Virginia  and  Maryland.  Financed  by  Josiah  Chapman  who  rented 
his  shop,  and  hired  him  and  his  men  on  a  wage  basis.  Procured 
many  of  his  parts,  if  not  most,  by  purchase  all  over  Maryland 
area,  to  be  used  in  assembly  of  arms. 

REASOR,  David— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1749. 

REASOR,  David— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1770-80.   (Same  as  above?) 

RECTOR,  C.  A.  &  J.  H.— Syracuse,  N.  Y.  J.  H.  Rector  (also  Rocketer), 
Syracuse,  1845-55.  Halfstock  percussion  Plains  rifles. 

RECTOR,  J.  H.  &  J.  O.  ROBSON— 109  Main  St.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y., 
1850-53.  Percussion  sporting  rifles,  marked  "J.  H.  Rector  and 
J.  O.  Robson,  Buffalo." 

RECTOR,  J.  H.  &  L.  W.  ROBINSON— Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Percussion 
sporting  rifles. 

REDFANG,  George — Also  Redfan,  Radfong,  Raddfong,  or  Rathfong. 
Pennsylvania  arms  maker.  Excused  by  the  Executive  Council, 
Dec.  5,  1777,  from  military  duties  for  the  making  of  arms  for 
the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  in  the  employ,  and  under  supervision 
of  William  Henry  I  of  Lancaster. 

REDFORD,  Arter— Near  Jefferson  City,  Mo.  Percussion  Kentucky 

REED— Seville,  Ohio,  about   1850.  Patent  breech  half-stock  percus- 
sion rifle. 
REED,  E.  M.— Unlocated.  Percussion  pistol. 
REED,  John— Troy,  N.  Y.,  in  1836;  Kentucky  rifles. 

176  American  Gun  Makers 

REED,  Joseph — Lancaster,  Pa.  About  1800  and  after. 

REED,  J.  P. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  light,  walnut  halfstock,  Penna. 
squirrel  rifle. 

REED,  Robert — Chestertown,  Md.,  Revolutionary  War  musket  con- 

REED,  William— 11  Water  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1802. 

REEDY,  L.— "KRATZTOWN"  (Pa.?)  Marking  on  barrels  of  a  curved 
stock,  swivel-breech,  superposed  Penna.  rifle,  circa  1820. 

REID,  James— New  York,  N.  Y.  At  167  E.  26th  St.,  in  1862  and  at 
171  E.  26th  St.,  in  1863-64.  Maker  of  Reid  cartridge  revolvers. 
These  were  infringements  on  the  Smith  &  Wesson  controlled 
patents,  and  in  1865,  Reid  started  the  manufacture  of  "My 
Friend"  knuckle-duster  revolvers,  believed  to  have  been  made 
by  Reid  at  Catskill,  N.  Y. 

REID,  Samuel — Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gun  stocker  at  91  Dillwyn  in 

REID,  William— Spartanburg  Co.,  S.  C.  Early  gunsmith. 

REID,  Templeton— Milledgeville,  Ga.,  1824. 

REIGART,  Peter — Lancaster,  Pa.,  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  "Agreed  to  set  to  work  Monday,  Nov.  20,  1775,  to  make 
muskets  and  bayonets." 

REIN — New  York,  N.  Y.,  on  the  Bowery.  Fancy  Schuetzen  rifle. 
Died  1914. 

REINHARD,  J.  C— Also  Reihart.  Ohio. 

REINHARD,  P.  A.— Also  Reinhart.  Rifle  maker  known  for  fine  work- 
manship and  accuracy  of  his  arms.  Arrived  from  Germany  at  the 
age  of  six,  and  lived  with  his  parents  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  until  22 
years  old,  when  he  was  apprenticed  to  one  Sprague,  a  gunsmith  of 
Loudonville,  Ohio.  In  about  1850,  Reinhard  worked  under  Billing- 
hurst  at  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  thence  went  back  to  Loudonville,  on  his 
own.  Reinhard  died  about  1899,  at  Dayton,  Ohio,  where  he  had 
moved  in  1896.  Rifles  usually  marked  with  name,  address  and 
masonic  emblems. 

REINHART,  J.— Maddensville,  Pa. 

REINHART,  P.  A.— See  Reinhard,  P.  A. 

REISS,  A. — Utica,  N.  Y.,  percussion  telescope  rifle. 

REMINGTON  ARMS  CO.,  INC.— Established  by  Eliphalet  Reming- 
ton and  his  son,  Eliphalet,  Jr.,  makers  of  rifle  barrels,  in  Ilion 
Gorge,  N.  Y.,  in  1816,  when  young  Remington  turned  to  the 
manufacture  of  complete  firearms.  In  1825,  the  plant  was 
moved  to  Ilion,  to  take  advantage  of  the  transportation  facil- 
ities afforded  by  the  Erie  Canal.  Eliphalet,  Sr.  died  three  years 
later,  in  1828.  In  1844,  Eliphalet  (Jr.)  took  his  son  Philo  into 
the  firm,  the  name  being  changed  to  E.  Remington  &  Son. 
In  1845,  Remington  took  over  a  contract  of  John  Griffiths  of 
Cincinnati,  Ohio,  of  Dec.  6,  1842,  for  5,000  Model  1841  rifles 
at  $13.00  each,  on  which  Griffiths  had  been  unable  to  make 
deliveries.  The  Remingtons  made  good  on  the  contract,  and  it  was 
followed  by  another  for  an  additional  7,500.  In  the  meantime, 
in  1846-47,  the  Remingtons  took  over  an  uncompleted  N.  P. 
Ames  contract  for  side-hammer,  percussion  navy  carbines  made 
on  the  Jenks  patent  breech-loading  system.  These  arms  were 
made  at  the  Remington's  Herkimer  plant,  and  differ  from  the 
N.  P.  Ames  arms  in  having  tape-primer  locks.   Sept.   9,   1854, 

American  Gun  Makers  177 

Remingtons  obtained  a  contract  for  20,000  Maynard  tape-primer 
locks  for  the  modification  of  muskets  for  the  army,  largely 
Model  1821  arms,  the  work  being  done  at  the  Bridesburg  Armory. 
In  1856,  two  other  sons,  Samuel  and  Eliphalet  (3rd)  were  taken 
into  partnership,  the  name  changing  to  E.  Remington  &  Sons. 

About  1859,  Remingtons  brought  out  their  first  martial 
percussion  revolvers  made  on  Beal's  patent  of  Sept.  14,  1858. 
This  was  followed  by  the  Remington  Model  1861,  and  in  turn 
by  the  famous  New  Model. 

During  the  Civil  War,  the  Remingtons  furnished  the  govern- 
ment with  10,000  modified  Model  1841,  saber-bayonet  rifles  on 
contract  of  Aug.  11,  1862,  at  $17.00  each,  and  an  additional  lot 
of  2,500  at  the  same  price,  was  contracted  for  Dec.  13,  1863. 
On  Dec.  14,  1863,  Remingtons  contracted  to  furnish  40,000  Spring- 
field rifle  muskets  Model  1863,  at  $18.00,  the  deliveries  on  which 
began  May  31,  1864,  and  were  completed  March  24,  1866. 

An  earlier  rifle  contract  for  10,000  arms  of  July  30,  1861, 
has  been  mentioned,  in  connection  with  Remington  Civil  War 
contracts;  it  is  believed  however,  that  if  such  was  the  case, 
that  it  was  cancelled  or  made  a  part  of  a  later  contract,  as  no 
deliveries  have  been  recorded. 

Remingtons  also  furnished  2,814  Beals  revolvers  and  125,314 
Remington  percussion  revolvers. 

In  1865,  the  Company  was  incorporated  and  secured  the 
services  of  Joseph  Rider,  the  famous  arms  inventor,  and  en- 
joyed a  period  of  prosperity  until  1886,  when  it  failed  and  was 
reorganized  as  the  Remington  Arms  Company.  The  control  of 
the  business  passed  from  the  Remington  family  to  Hartley  & 
Graham  of  New  York.  The  Company  was  merged  in  1902  with 
the  Union  Metallic  Cartridge  Company  and  became  known  as 
Remington-UMC.  Later  the  name  was  changed  again  to  Rem- 
ington Arms  Company,  Inc.  Between  the  Civil  and  World  Wars 
the  Company  produced  a  wide  variety  of  military  arms  for  our 
own  and  many  other  governments  as  well  as  sporting  arms  of 
all  types.  Its  efforts  in  the  service  of  the  United  States  reached 
a  climax  with  the  production  of  545,541  rifles,  Model  1917, 
(Enfield)  between  Aug.  1,  1917,  and  Nov.  9,  1918. 

REMINGTON  ARMS  CO.  OF  DELAWARE— Eddystone,  Pa.  World 
War  arms  manufacturers,  later  a  part  of  the  Midvale  Steel  & 
Ordnance  Company.  Produced  1,181,908  Model  1917  rifles  (Enfield) 
for  the  U.  S.  government  from  Aug.  1,  1917,  to  Nov.  9,  1918. 

REMINGTON,  Samuel— Ilion,  N.  Y.  Second  son  of  Eliphalet  Reming- 
ton II,  born  April  12,  1819.  In  the  1850's  he  set  up  a  manufactur- 
ing plant  within  his  father's  factory  buildings,  making  Merrill 
Spigot  rifles,  barrels  and  brooms.  Admitted  to  partnership  in 
1856,  and  became  president  of  E.  Remington  Sons  Co.,  after 
his  father's  death  in  1861.  Died  Dec.  1,  1882.  A  back-action  per- 
cussion lock  on  a  heavy  whale  gun,  marked  "S.  REMINGTON- 
ILION,  N.  Y." 

REMLEY,  John  H.— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

REMMERER,  David— Unlocated. 

RENDYLES,  Bernard— Steubenville,  Ohio,  1852-54.  Gun  barrel  maker. 

RENKER,  Rudolph— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

RENKIN — Iron  mounted,  over-under,  rifle-shotgun  with  right  and 

178  American  Gun  Makers 

RENWICK,  Edward  S*— New  York,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  "Double  Header" 
2-shot  cartridge  pistols. 

RESOR,  J. — Unlocated.  An  early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

RESSER,   Peter— Lancaster   Borough,   Lancaster   Co.,  Pa.,   1779-1802 

REUTHE,  F.— Unlocated.  Trap  pistol  patented  May  12,  1857. 

REVOL,  J.  B. — New  Orleans,  La.,  gunsmith  listed  in  the  City  Di- 
rectory from  1842  through  1885.  Located  at  346  Royal  in  1853. 
Stock  bought  out  by  P.  Bouron  when  business  was  discontinued. 

REXER— Canton,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio.  Early. 

REYNALL,  Richard— -56  Water  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1802. 

REYNOLDS— Lancaster,   Pa.,   about   1800.   Flintlock  Kentucky   rifle. 

REYNOLDS,  F.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1866.  8  ga.  Percussion  shotgun. 

REYNOLDS,  Francis— Troy,  N.  Y.,  in  1835.  Kentucky  rifles. 

REYNOLDS,  J.  A.— Unlocated.  Gun  barrel  maker. 

REYNOLDS,  PLANT  &  HOTCHKISS— New  Haven,  Conn.  See  Plant's 
Mfg.  Co. 

REYNOLDS,  Thomas— Troy,  N.  Y.,  in  1835.  Kentucky  rifles. 

R.  F. — Unidentified.  Bedford  County,  Pa.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

R.  F.  S. — Unidentified.  Plain  percussion  Kentucky  rifle,  brass  mounted 
without  patchbox. 

R.  H. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

R.  H.  P. — Unidentified.  Percussion  rifle. 

RHEINHARL,  P.  A.— Misreading  for  Reinhard,  P.  A. 

RHINEHART,  J.  C— Ohio,  1840-60. 

RHINEHART,  Rudolph— Bear  wallow  Hollow,  Va.,  1785.  Flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle. 

RHODES,  William — Providence,  R.  I.  Musket  maker  associated  with 
William  Tyler  in  a  U.  S.  contract  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for 
2,000  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per 
stand.  Of  these  950  were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

RICE,  Ralsa  C— Ohio.  Born  1838;  died  1911. 

RICE,  Samuel  F. — See  Wallis  &  Rice. 

RICH,  Henry — Canton,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period;  riflesmith. 

RICHARD — N.  Y.  Three  barrel  percussion  gun — one  barrel  rifled. 

RICHARDS,  C.  B.— Unlocated,  1874. 

RICHARDSON,  C.  Y.  &  BRO.— Charleston,  S.  C,  1867. 

RICHARDSON,  Joel— Boston,  Mass.,  1816-25. 

RICHARDSON,  O.  A. — Lowell,  Mass.  Heavy,  percussion  telescopic 
Civil  War  sharpshooter's  rifles. 

RICHARDSON  &  OVERMAN— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Civil  War  makers 
of  Gallager  breech-loading  percussion  carbines  of  which  17,728 
were  bought  between  1861-64.  An  additional  5,000  Gallager  car- 
tridge carbines  were  purchased  between  May  4,  and  June  3,  1865. 

RICHARDSON,  Wm.  A. — Worcester,  Mass.,  arms  manufacturer.  Born 
1833.  Worked  for  Ball  &  Williams  and  for  Frank  Wesson,  With 
Gilbert  H.  Harrington  organized  the  firm  of  Harrington  & 
Richardson  in  1874.  See  the  latter  firm. 

RICHMOND   ARMORY— Richmond,   Va.   See  Virginia  Manufactory. 

RICHMOND,  S.— Unlocated.  Maker  of  over-under,  "mule  ear"  lock 
percussion  rifle. 

American  Gun  Makers  179 

RICHWINE,  C.— Reading,  Pa.,  gun  barrel  maker,  late  flintlock,  early 
percussion  periods.  Richwine  rifles  are  known  stocked  in  curly- 
maple,  with  locks  by  Joseph  Golcher. 

RICKARD  ARMS  CO. — Cheap  double  barrel,  hammer  breech-loading 

RICKS,  Thomas— Boston,  Mass.,  1677 

RICKETS,  John— Mansfield,  Ohio,  1859-74.  Half-stock  perc.  target 

RICKETS,  T.— Mansfield,  Ohio. 

RIDDEL— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1770.  Kentucky  rifles. 

RIDDLE — North  Carolina  maker  of  a  percussion  lock  pistol  generally 
patterned  after  U.  S.  1842  Model. 

RIDDLE — Low  and  medium  quality  commercial  percussion  locks, 
variously  decorated  and  marked  "Riddle"  in  ribbon  scroll  or 
oblong  cartouche. 

RIDDLE,  W.  G.  &  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Kentucky  type,  full  stock, 
flintlock  smoothbores. 

RIDEOUT,  J. — Unlocated.  Reported  full  stock,  sporting-military  flint- 
lock rifle. 

RIDER,  NATHANIEL  &  CO.— Southbridge,  Mass.,  1857.  Saw-handle, 
under-hammer  percussion  pistols. 

RIFE,  Charles— Cadiz,  Harrison  Co.,  Ohio,  1800-12. 

RIFE,  Charles— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1855-56. 

RIFE,  Harry  C— R.  F.  D.  No.  2,  Leesburg,  Ohio.  Born  Feb.  14,  1907, 
in  Ross  Co.,  O.;  learned  gunsmithing  under  Win  Woods  of 
Peebles,  Ohio.  Makes  rifles  from  old  parts;  specializes  in  barrel 

RIGDON,  ANSLEY  &  CO.— Augusta,  Georgia.  Revolver  manufac- 
turers to  the  Confederacy.  Arms  patterned  after  the  Colt  Navy 
1851.  Charles  H.  Rigdon,  mechanic  and  machinist,  was  a  mem- 
ber of  firm  of  Rigdon  &  Harmsted,  scale  manufactures  of  St. 
Louis,  Mo.,  about  1854.  In  1860,  Rigdon  was  in  Memphis,  Tenn., 
operating  a  scale  shop.  Early  in  1862,  in  partnership  with  Thomas 
Leech,  he  organized  the  Memphis  Novelty  Works,  at  Main  & 
McCall  Streets,  for  the  manufacture  and  repair  of  swords. 
May  9,  1862,  on  approach  of  Union  forces,  Leech  and  Rigdon 
moved  to  Columbus,  Miss.,  where  some  revolvers  were  made, 
thence  on  orders  to  move  the  plant  to  safer  area,  they  went  to 
Greensboro,  Ga.,  about  15  Dec.  1862.  March  6,  1863,  the  firm 
received  a  Confederate  contract  for  revolvers,  manufacture  of 
which  began  in  the  purchased  plant  of  the  Greensboro  Steam 
Factory,  also  known  as  Greensboro  Mills.  In  December  1863 
the  partnership  was  dissolved  and  Rigdon  moved  to  Augusta, 
Ga.,  probably  taking  the  machinery  and  contract  with  him.  In 
January  1864  he  organized  the  firm  of  Rigdon,  Ansley  &  Com- 
pany, his  partners  being  Jesse  A.  Ansley,  C.  R.  Keen  and  A.  J. 
Smythe.  The  company  plant  was  on  Mallory  Street,  where  their 
iron  frame,  12  cylinder  stop  Confederate  Colts  were  made  until 
Ansley  was  drafted  and  the  mechanics  conscripted  into  a  de- 
fence battalion  which  participated  in  the  fight  at  Griswoldville 
in  Nov.  1864.  The  plant  operations  ceased  about  Jan.  1865,  at 
which  time  Ansley  offered  his  one-fourth  interest  for  sale  in  a 
newspaper  ad.  See  also  Leech  &  Rigdon. 

RIGGINS,   THOMAS— Knoxville,   Tenn.,    1862-63.    "Armorer   to   the 

180  American  Gun  Makers 

Confederacy."  Riggins  was  born  in  McMinn  County,  Tenn.,  in 
1821  and  was  apprenticed  at  the  age  of  ten  to  a  gunsmith 
relative.  By  1845  his  sporting  rifles  gained  a  reputation  in  old- 
time  shooting  matches  and  were  said  to  "get  the  beef." 

At  the  outbreak  of  Civil  War  he  contracted  to  make  rifles 
for  arming  the  "East  Tennessee  Squirrel  Shooters,"  a  State 
volunteer  cavalry  unit.  Volunteering  in  '61  for  Col.  Vaughn's 
Third  Tennessee  Regiment,  he  was  detached  to  Knoxville  to 
supervise  the  instruction  and  labor  of  sixty  mechanics  in  con- 
version of  percussion  and  flintlock  sporting  arms  into  short, 
percussion,  large-bore  cavalry  carbines,  until  the  shop  was 
destroyed  by  Union  forces.  See  A.  L.  Maxwell,  Jr.  &  Co. 

RIGHTER,  J.— Cadiz,  Harrison  Co.,  Ohio,  1800-1812. 

RIGHTER,  J.  G.— -Cadiz,  Ohio.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles,  possibly 
a  few  flintlocks.  Related  to  J.  Righter? 

RIGGS,  B.— Bellows  Falls,  Vt,  1850. 

RIGGS,  Joseph,  Jr. — Derby,  Conn.  Repaired  arms  for  the  Committee 

iof   Safety.   Account  submitted   for   repairing   guns   taken   from 
"inimical  persons";  June  1776. 
RILEY,  Edward— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1816-18. 

RILEY,  William  L.— Watertown,  Washington  Co.,  Ohio,  1850-54. 
RILING,  John — Juanista  Valley,  Pa.  Percussion  period. 
RILING,    John — Unlocated.    Maple   full   stock,    brass   trim,    octagon 

barrel,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 
RINER,  Michael— Lancaster,  Pa. 
RINGLE— Pennsylvania. 

RINGLE,   A. — Unlocated,   possibly   Pennsylvania.   Kentucky   rifles. 
RINGLE,    M. — Bellefonte,   Center   Co.,   Pa.   Late   percussion   period. 

Curly  maple,   silver  inlaid,  full  stock  rifle  with  stock  marked 

"M.  RINGLE"  and  "BELLEFONTE,"  in  two  lines.  Another  curly 

maple  full  stock  rifle  with  oval  patchbox,   twice  marked  "M. 

RINGLE"   on  top  flat;  back  action  lock  marked  "WHITMORE 

RIPLEY    (RAIBLE)— Warren,    Ohio,    about    1850;    24-lb.   percussion 

match  rifle. 
RIPLEY  BROS.— Windsor,  Vt.,  1835. 
RIPLEY,  E.  K.— 1401  Alaska  St.,  Seattle,  Wash.  Born  in  1846;  retired 

RIPLEY,  J.  W. — Major  Ordnance  Superintendent  Springfield  Armory 

from  April  16,  1841  to  August  16,  1854. 

RISHER,  D'N'L — Daniel  Risher,  unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

RISLEY,  Hiram— Saquoit,  N.  Y.  Born  1804;  died  in  the  Seventies. 

RISLEY,  M.  Shirley— North  Brookfield,  N.  Y.  Still  active.  Worked  with 
N.  H.  Roberts  in  the  development  of  the  .257  Roberts  cartridge. 

RITTENHOUSE,  Benjamin— Worcester  Township,  Montgomery  Co., 
Pa.  Active  before  and  after  1776-78.  Musket  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety  for  200  stands  at  4  pounds,  5  shillings  each.  With 
Peter  De  Haven  established  the  State  Gun-lock  Factory  at 
Philadelphia  in  March,  1776.  Later  the  factory  was  expanded 
to  include  manufacture  of  arms.  See  Pennsylvania  State  Gun 

The   proposal   that   Rittenhouse    take   charge   of   the   "Pro- 

American  Gun  Makers  181 

vincial  Gun-lock  Factory"  was  made  to  him  by  the  Committee 
of  Safety  on  Feb.  9,  1776.  On  the  16th,  Rittenhouse  accepted 
the  post  at  a  salary  of  £250  per  annum,  and  was  directed  to 
come  to  Philadelphia  on  Feb.  26,  1776. 

RITTER,  Jacob— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1775-83. 

RITZEL— Canton,  Starke  Co.,  Ohio,  1816-1840.  (Father  of  P.  M. 

RITZEL,  P.  M.— Starke  County,  Ohio,  active  before  and  after  1840- 
53.  Rifle  maker  prior  to  1850,  after  which  specialized  in  manu- 
facture of  gun-barrels. 

ROBB,  John — Superintendent  Springfield  Armory  from  November 
1,  1833  to  April  15,  1841. 

ROBBINS,  C— Tioga,  Pa.  Flintlock  maker. 

ROBBINS— Scott  Co.,  Tenn.  Kentucky  rifles. 

ROBBINS,   C. — Pennsylvania?   Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

ROBBINS,  KENDALL  &  LAWRENCE— Windsor,  Vt.,  1844  to  about 
1847.  Contractors  of  Feb.  18,  1845,  for  10,000  Model  1841  per- 
cussion rifles  at  $11.90  each,  duration  five  years,  delivery  to  be 
made  at  Springfield,  Mass.  This  contract  was  completed  eighteen 
months  ahead  of  time.  Shortly  after  completion  of  this  contract, 
Robbins  &  Lawrence  bought  out  Kendall's  interest  in  the  firm 
and  continued  the  business  under  the  name  of  Robbins  & 
Lawrence.  See  below.  Also  see  Kendall,  N.  &  Co. 

ROBBINS  &  LAWRENCE— Windsor,  Vt.,  about  1847-55.  The  firm 
began  with  the  association  of  Richard  S.  Lawrence  with  N. 
Kendall  at  Windsor,  Vt.,  in  1843.  In  1844  they  were  joined  by 
S.  E.  Robbins,  and  secured  a  government  contract  for  10,000 
Model  1841  rifles.  (See  Robbins,  Kendall  &  Lawrence,  above.) 
About  1847,  Robbins  and  Lawrence  bought  out  Kendall's  inter- 
est, the  firm  continuing  as  Robbins  &  Lawrence.  January  5,  1848, 
they  contracted  for  15,000  Model  1841  percussion  rifles  at  $12.87  % 
each,  delivery  at  Springfield,  Mass.  It  is  reported  that  though 
some  of  the  output  of  arms  made  for  the  government  were 
rejected,  the  firm  prospered  because  of  the  demand  for  arms 
created  by  the  California  gold  rush.  About  1850  the  firm  under- 
took the  manufacture  of  5,000  Jennings  rifles  incorporating  the 
Horace  Smith  improvements  of  Patent  No.  8,317,  of  Aug.  26, 
1851.  At  about  this  time  they  were  also  making  5-shot  per- 
cussion pepperbox  pistols,  and  undertook  the  construction  of 
railroad  cars,  but  failure  to  obtain  expected  contract  resulted  in 
a  heavy  loss. 

In  1851,  the  firm  exhibited  their  arms  in  London,  which 
resulted  in  a  contract  for  Enfield  rifles.  Encouraged,  they  con- 
tracted to  make  5,000  Sharps  rifles  at  Windsor,  and  15,000 
Sharps  rifles  and  carbines  at  a  plant  they  were  to  erect  at 
Hartford,  Conn.  The  Sharps  Co.  Hartford  plant  was  completed 
in  1853  under  supervision  of  Mr.  Lawrence,  and  the  firm  under- 
took a  contract  of  25,000  Enfield  rifles  with  a  promise  of  300,000 
more.  However,  this  did  not  materialize,  and  Robbins  & 
Lawrence,  heavily  involved  in  preparations  for  the  order,  failed. 
The  auctioned  plant  was  acquired  by  E.  G.  Lamson,  A.  F. 
Goodnow  and  B.  B.  Yale,  under  the  name  of  Lamson,  Goodnow 
&  Yale  of  Windsor,  Vt.,  which  in  turn  was  succeeded  by  E.  G. 
Lamson  &  Co.,  then  Windsor  Mfg.  Co.  In  1869  Mr.  R.  L.  Jones 
joined  the  Company;  in  1879  Jones  &  Lamson  was  organized  to 

182  American  Gun  Makers 

take  over  the  machine  business,  which  had  been  one  of  the 
side  lines  of  the  Windsor  Company.  Jones  &  Lamson  are  still 
active  in  Springfield,  Vt.,  where  they  had  moved  from  Windsor 
in  1889. 

When  the  Robbins  &  Lawrence  firm  failed,  Mr.  Lawrence 
took  charge  of  the  operations  at  the  Sharps  plant  at  Hartford, 
which  remained  under  the  Sharps  Rifle  Co.  stockholders'  control. 

ROBBINS,  W.  E. — Manesburg,  Pa.  Maker  of  percussion  rifles. 

ROBBINS,  W.  G.— Windsor,  Vt.  Percussion  rifles. 

ROBERTS  BREECH-LOADING  ARMS  CO.— 39  Broadway,  N.  Y., 
1865-74.  Controlled  by  Gen.  Benjamin  S.  Roberts,  inventor  of 
the  Roberts  army  rifles  and  carbines,  and  of  the  Roberts  system 
of  alteration  to  breech-loaders,  patented  Feb.  27,  1866.  The 
Roberts  arms  were  manufactured  by  the  Providence  Tool  Co. 
The  Roberts  conversion  system  was  adopted  by  the  State  of 
New  York  in  1867. 

ROBERTS,  W.— Dansville,  N.  Y.,  1850.  Four  shot,  "pepperbox"  type, 
percussion  rifle. 

ROBERTSON,  Wm. — Well  known  Philadelphia  gunsmith,  maker  of 
duelling  pistols.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  102  Carpenter  in  1829.  In 
the  1841-44-45  McElroy's  Philadelphia  Directors,  Wm.  Robinson, 
gunsmith  is  listed  at  90  S.  2nd.  He  is  believed  to  be  identical 
with  Robertson,  for  William  Robertson,  gunsmith  is  shown  re- 
siding at  90  S  2nd  in  1846-47-48-49.  His  subsequent  addresses 
(under  Robertson)  are  shown  at  SW  2nd  and  Walnut  in 
1851-52-53;  SE  2nd  and  Dock  in  1854-55;  47  Walnut  below  2nd  in 
1856-57  and  at  131  Walnut  in  1859,  last  entry. 

ROBINSON— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1830-1855.  Kentucky  rifles. 

ROBINSON,  E.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Edward  Robinson,  Civil  War  con- 
tractor for  Springfield  muskets,  Model  1861:  — 

June  10,   1863—20,000  at  $20.00;  12,000  delivered. 
Dec.  29,  1863—5,000  at  $18.00;  4,000  delivered. 
Feb.  23,  1864—15,000  at  $18.00;  8,000  delivered. 
Oct.  4,  1864—7,000  at  $18.00;  6,000  delivered. 

ROBINSON,  S.  C.  ARMS  COMPANY— Richmond,  Va.,  1862-63. 
Located  on  canal  near  Petersburg  railroad  bridge.  Makers  of 
Confederate  Sharps  carbines.  Revolvers  on  the  Whitney  pattern 
were  also  to  be  made,  but  proposals  were  withdrawn  in  1861. 
Operated  by  Samuel  C.  Robinson,  owner  of  the  Belvidere 
Planing  Mills  of  Richmond,  who  furnished  the  capital  and 
Lester,  the  foreman  in  charge  of  works.  Taken  over  by  the  Con- 
federate Government  in  1863  and  removed  to  Tallassie,  Ala., 
in  1864. 

ROBINSON,  S.  C. — Richmond,  Va.,  Confederate  arms  manufacturer, 
operator  of  S.  C.  Robinson  Arms  Company.  Had  a  contract  for 
manufacturing  shells  for  U.  S.  in  1860. 

ROBINSON,  Wm.— Philadelphia,  1841-1845.  See  Robertson,  Wm. 

ROBSON,  James  O.— Ill  Main  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1854-7. 

ROCK  ISLAND  ARSENAL— Rock  Island,  111.,  1843  to  date.  Facilities 
for  manufacture  and  repair  of  U.  S.  rifles,  Model  1903.  The 
arsenal  produced  47,251  Model  1903  rifles  during  the  World  War. 

ROCKETER,  J.  H.— Also  Rector,  Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  1845-55. 

RODGERS,  John— See  Rogers,  John. 

ROEMER,  O.  E — Unidentified.  Percussion  rifles. 

American  Gun  Makers  183 

ROESCHEN,  C.  A.— Unlocated.  Half  stock  percussion  rifle  with 
patent  breech. 

ROESSLER,  C.— Charleston,  S.  C.,  1867. 

ROESSER,  Matteas — Also  Roeser,  Matthew,  Mathias  or  Mathew. 
Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1740-51.  Kentucky  rifles. 
William  Henry  I,  served  his  apprenticeship  under  Roesser. 

ROESSER,  Peter— (or  Roeser),  Lancaster,  Pa.,  1741-1755  and  probably 
after  1780.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

ROGER,  J.— Highland,  111. 

ROGERS    &   BROS.— Philadelphia,   Pa.,    about   1820.   Pistol   makers. 

ROGERS,  H. — Unidentified.  Lock  marking  on  a  flintlock  Kentucky 

ROGERS,  H.  D. — Unlocated.  Over-under  percussion  rifle-shotgun. 

ROGERS  &  HEART— Utica,  N.  Y.  Percussion  pistol. 

ROGERS,  John — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  ironmonger  listed  (with  Charles 
Rogers)  in  the  City  Directories  at  7  N.  2nd  Street,  in  1809,  and 
at  52  High  Street,  from  1810  to  1824.  Then  Rogers  Brothers  & 
Co.,  are  listed  at  52  High  Street,  until  1846. 

John  Rogers  (sometimes  also  spelled  Rodgers)  bought  the 
Valley  Forge  in  1814.  On  March  21,  1821,  in  association  with 
Brooke  Evans  of  120  High  St.,  Philadelphia,  Rogers  took  over 
the  refunct  contract  of  Alexander  McRae  of  Richmond,  Va., 
of  July  28,  1817,  for  10,000  muskets  at  $12.75  per  stand.  Brooke 
Evans  remodelled  the  old  forge  and  iron  works  into  a  gun 
factory,  and  by  Dec.  31,  1823,  John  Rogers  and  Brooke  Evans 
are  recorded  to  have  delivered  5,730  muskets  on  the  contract. 

On  Jan.  1,  1825,  John  Rogers  (alone)  contracted  for  5,000 
Model  1816  muskets  at  $12.25  per  stand,  to  be  delivered  at  the 
rate  of  1,000  per  annum.  This  contract  was  probably  shared 
with  Wm.  L.  Evans,  a  practical  gun-maker  who  managed  the 
Evansburg  arms  works. 

The  Valley  Forge  descended  to  a  nephew,  Charles  H.  Rogers, 
then  to  female  descendants,  until  bought  by  Pennsylvania  for 
a  park. 

ROGERS,  R.— California.  Brass  mounted,  pill-lock  rifle. 

ROGERS  &  SPENCER— Willowdale,  N.  Y.,  about  seven  miles  south 
of  Utica.  Civil  War  makers  of  Pettengill  percussion  hammerless 
revolvers  under  the  Raymond  &  Robitaille  patent  of  Nov.  15, 
1856,  of  which  2,001  were  bought  from  Rogers  &  Spencer  by 
the  War  Department  between  Oct.  20,  1862,  and  Jan.  17,  1863. 
Later  the  firm  manufactured  the  Rogers  &  Spencer  percussion 
revolver  made  under  the  H.  S.  Rogers  patent  of  Nov.  4,  1862, 
No.  36,861.  There  were  500  of  these  well  made  arms  bought 
from  Jan.  30,  1865,  to  Sept.  26,  1865,  too  late  for  use  in  the  Civil 
War.  The  Rogers  &  Spencer  revolvers  were  really  a  develop- 
ment of  the  Freeman  revolver.  The  firm  acquired  the  Freeman 
patents  and  improved  and  refined  the  arm,  producing  a  sturdy, 
handsome  and  well  balanced  weapon. 

ROGERS,  Wm.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  30  Brown,  in 

ROGERS,  Wm. — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Listed  as  gun  powder  manufac- 
turer at  3  Minor,  in  1829. 

ROHRER,  Leopold— New  Castle,  Pa.,  1873-1939.  Born  in  St.  Peter, 
Baden,  Germany,  Nov.  13,  1851;  came  to  America  in  1871.  With 

184  American  Gun  Makers 

Great  Western  Gun  Works,  Smithfield  St.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  then 
in  Chicago.  Established  gun  shop  in  New  Castle  in  1873;  active 
until  1939. 

ROLL,  F.  X. — Liberty,  Mo.,  French  gunsmith.  Established  early  in 
frontier  days  about  1822.  Made  and  repaired  arms  for  about 
fifty  years. 

ROME    REVOLVER   &    NOVELTY    CO.— Nickel-plated    revolvers. 

ROOD,  M.  L.— Denver,  Col.,  before  and  after  1860-81.  Listed  at  202 
15th  Street,  1873-81. 

ROOP,  J.— Bellefonte,  Pa.,  about  1850-1860.  Percussion  rifles. 

ROOP,  John— Allentown,  Pa.,  1768-1775,  before  and  after.  Extensive 
maker  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  Masonic  emblem  characteristic. 
Flintlock  rifle  dated  1768,  silver  Masonic  emblem  in  cheekpiece. 
Another,  silver  inlaid,  with  emblem  on  patchbox. 

ROPER  REPEATING  RIFLE  CO.— Amherst,  Mass.,  about  1867-1876., 
makers  of  multi-shot  repeating  rifles  and  shotguns  under  the 
H.  S.  Roper  patent  of  April  10,  1866,  No.  53881. 

The  corporation  consisted  of  H.  S.  Roper  of  Roxbury,  Mass., 
the  inventor,  Christopher  M.  Spencer  of  Spencer  repeating  arms 
fame,  H.  D.  Fearing,  Leonard  M.  Hills  and  his  son  Henry  F. 
Hills  and  had  been  organized  with  capital  stock  of  $100,000. 

From  1869  to  1876  the  Roper  arms  were  made  for  the  com- 
pany, renamed  Roper  Sporting  Arms  Co.,  of  Hartford,  Conn., 
by  the  Billings  &  Spencer  Co.  of  Hartford. 

ROPER  SPORTING  ARMS  CO.— Hartford,  Conn.,  1869-1876.  Suc- 
cessors to  Roper  Repeating  Rifle  Co.  of  Amherst,  Mass.  Pro- 
moters of  combination  revolving  rifle-shotgun,  using  interchange- 
able barrels,  made  for  the  Company  by  Billings  &  Spencer,  Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

ROPP,  Adam— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

ROSS,  A.  C— Zanesville,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio,  1810-20.  Rifle  and 
pistol  maker.  Son  of  Elija  Ross. 

ROSS,  Boone — Terre  Haute,  Ind.  Heavy,  percussion,  match  rifles. 

ROSS,  Elija— Zanesville,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio.,  1804-1864.  Born  in 
Brownsville,  Penna.,  1786.  Fine  gun  and  swordsmith. 

ROTH,  Charles— Wilkes  Barre,  Pa.,  about  1840. 

ROTH,  Henry — Wilkes  Barre,  Pa.  Percussion  period. 

ROTHROCK,  Edward— Middle  Creek,  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  Late  per- 
cussion period.  Active  until  death  Jan.  1,  1934. 

ROUP— Mifflinburg,  Pa.  Kenucky  rifles. 

ROW,  Nathaniel — Penna.  Had  served  apprenticeship  under  John 
Armstrong.  Handsome,  relief  carved  rifle. 

ROWE,  A.  H.— Hartford,  Conn.,  1864.  Maker  of  a  rifle  under  A.  H. 
Rowe  patent  of  April  5,  1864,  No.  42,227.  Proved  to  be  an  in- 
fringement on  R.  S.  Lawrence  patent  of  Jan.  6,  1852,  No.  8,637. 

ROWE,  E.  P.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

ROWELL,  Harry— Columbus,  Wis.,  1870's.  Inventor  of  a  breech- 
loading  action  somewhat  of  the  Remington-Hepburn  type.  Few 
heavy  barrel  known  of  rather  crude  workmanship,  probably 
specimen  pieces  to  demonstrate  the  action. 

ROWELL,  H.  H.— Sonora,  Calif.,  before  and  after  1876.  Riflesmith 
and  match  shooter. 

American  Gun  Makers  185 

ROYDEN,  Jesse — Fentress  Co.,  Term.  Kentucky  rifles. 

ROYET,  Louis — Reading,  Pa.,  1867  and  later.  Came  from  France  in 
1858.  Percussion  and  breech-loading  arms. 

ROZZEL,  Thomas — Granville  Hollow,  Washington  Co.,  Pa.  Percus- 
sion period.  Fancy,  silver-mounted  rifles. 

RLDD  &  SPENCER— Canon  City,  Col.,  1877-80. 

RUDOLPH,  A.  E.— Canon  City,  Colo.,  1870-80.  Maker  of  muzzle- 
loading  and  breech-loading  rifles.  Had  worked  in  Confederate 
Armory  during  the  Civil  War.  Came  to  Canon  City  in  1870. 

RUDOLPH  &  CO.— Successors  to  H.  E.  Dimick,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  1874. 

RUDOLPH,  Victor— St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  1867-79  and  later.  Associated 
with  Rudolph  &  Co. 

RUDOLPH,  W.— Jackson  near  Davis,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1859-60. 
At  216  Pacific,  1861-65. 

RUDOLPH,  W.  S.— Canon  City,  Colo.,  1875.  Heavy,  curly  maple  half- 
stocked  plains  rifle  with  back  action  lock  stamped  with  de- 
fective die  of  G.  Goulcher.  Barrel  stamped  with  name,  location, 
date  and  "No.  7."  Evidently  related  to  A.  E.  Rudolph,  Canon  City, 
Colo.,  1875-80. 

RUETSCHNER,  A.— Pueblo,  Col.,  1880. 

RUFNER,  Bennivel — Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Gun  barrel 

RUGGLES,    A. — Stafford,    Conn.    Under-hammer    percussion    pistols. 
RUGH,  G. — Unlocated.  Percussion  rifle. 
RUPERTUS  PAT'D  PISTOL  MFG.  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,   1860-88. 

Makers  of   single-shot   percussion   and   cartridge   pistols,    4-shot 

rim  fire   cartridge   pistols,   8-shot.    22    cal.   pepperboxes    and    of 

J.  Rupertus  revolvers  and  sporting  rifles. 
RUPP,  Herman — Pennsylvania  rifle  maker,  1784. 
RUPP,  John— Pennsylvania,  about  1740.  Kentucky  rifles. 
RUPP,    John— Ruppville,    Pa.,   near   Allentown,    about    1780.    Pistol 


RUPPERT,  William— Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1776. 

RUSH,    John — Byberry    Township,    Pa.,    gunsmith,    blacksmith    and 

farmer,    1745,    before   and   after?   A   John   Rush   had   settled   at 

Byberry  (twelve  miles  up  Delaware  River  from  Philadelphia)  in 

1683.  In  the  fourth  generation  of  Rushes  was  Dr.  Benjamin  Rush, 

signer  of  Declaration  of  Independence. 
RUSILY,  Jacob— Lancaster,  Pa.,  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  Died  1822. 

Maker  of  a  very  handsome,   carved  and  inlaid  Kentucky   rifle 

circa  1830,  with  "S.  SPAGLER"  lock. 
RUSLIN,  Jacob— Unlocated.  Flintlock  rifles.  (Same  as  Rusily?) 
RUSSOM    &    CO. — Unlocated.    Flintlock    and    percussion    Kentucky 

RUTH,  John — Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.  Made  finished  rifle 

R.  &  W.  C.  B.  CO.— See  R.  &  W.  C.  Biddle. 
RYAN,  T.  E. — Norwich,  Conn.  "Retriever"  pocket  revolvers. 
RYAN,  THOS  J.  PISTOL  MFG.  CO.— Franklin  St.,  N.  Y.,  1874  and 

after.  Maker  of  "Napoleon"  revolvers. 
RYNES,   Michael — Pequa   Creek,   Lancaster   Co.,   Pa.   Revolutionary 


186  American  Gun  Makers 

SACKET,  J.— See  Sackett,  Jacob. 

SACKETT,  D.  S.— Westfield,  Mass.  Underhammer,  brass-frame  per- 
cussion pistol. 

SACKETT,  Jacob— (Also  Sacket,  J.)  Saegertown,  Crawford  Co.,  Pa. 
Heavy  over-under  swivel  rifle-shotgun;  single  and  over-under 
percussion  rifles. 

SACRISTE,  L.  C— Gunsmith,  1  Victory,  New  Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

SAGE,  Luther— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1817-1838.  In- 
spected arms  in  plants  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Simeon  North,  Lemuel 
Pomeroy,  Nathan  Starr,  Asa  Waters  and  Eli  Whitney. 

SAGET,  Julian — New  Orleans,  La.,  gunmaker  listed  in  the  City  Direc- 
tory 1841  to  1886;  to  1865,  at  80  St.  Philip  and  from  1866,  at 
198  Chartres.  Arthur  E.  Saget  listed  as  gunsmith  at  the  Chartres 
address  from  1881  to  1896.  Stocks  bought  out  by  P.  Bouron  when 
business  was  discountinued. 

SALOLA— "The  Squirrel."  Qualla  Town,  Haywood  Co.,  N.  C,  in  1843- 
1848.  Blacksmith  and  gunmaker  of  the  Cherokee  Nation.  Rifles 
and  pistols  made  lock  stock,  and  barrel.  An  underhammer,  rifled 
percussion  bootleg  pistol,  barrel  inscribed  in  Cherokee  alphabet. 

SALTER  or  SOLTER,  Wm.  J.— Short  Creek,  Jefferson  Co.,  Ala.  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

SALTERSWAITH,  Barclay — New  Lisbon,  (now  Lisbon)  Columbiana 
County,  Ohio.  Active  in  the  early  part  of  the  19th  Century. 

SALTONSTALL,  Gordon— Paid  in  August  1775,  by  Connecticut,  for 
receiving,  storing  and  repairing  arms  after  the  "1762  war." 

SAMPLES,  B. — Urbana,  Champaign  Co.,  Ohio,  active  before  and  after 
1848-54.  Fullstock  Kentucky  rifle  dated  1852.  Also  lock  on  a  Ken- 
tucky rifle  by  J.  D.  Loomis  Co. 

SANDERS,  William— Gunsmith  .44  Cedar,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

SANDERSON,  B. — Vermont.  Maker  of  heavy  barrel,  under  hammer, 
birdseye  maple  stock  target  rifle. 

SANDERSON,  M.  F.— Proctorsville,  Vt.,  1857.  Underhammer  percus- 
sion rifle,  and  "harmonica"  rifle. 

SARGENT  &  SMITH— Newburyport,  Mass. 

S ARSON  &  ROBERTS— J.  B.  Sarson  and  William  S.  Roberts,  11  Piatt 
St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Civil  War  Contractors  of  Dec.  26,  1861,  for 
25,000  Model  1861  Springfield  rifle  muskets  at  $20.00  each.  Of 
these  5,140  were  delivered  on  contract. 

SATTERTHWAIT,  B.  A.— Unlocated.  Silver  inlaid  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

SAUP,  Andrew— Bedford  Borough,  Bedford  Co.,  1841. 

SAVAGE  ARMS  CO.— See  Savage  Repeating  Arms  Co.,  of  Utica  N.  Y. 

SAVAGE  ARMS  CORPORATION— See  Savage  Repeating  Arms  Co., 
of  Utica,  N.  Y. 

SAVAGE,  E.— Edward  Savage,  Midddletown,  Conn.,  maker  in  1856- 
59  of  the  H.  S.  North  patent,  figure-8  trigger  revolver,  patented 
June  17,  1856,  No.  15,164.  See  North  &  Savage. 

SAVAGE,  James— 37  George  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1810. 

Founded  in  1895  as  the  Savage  Repeating  Arms  Co.,  by  Arthur 

American  Gun  Makers  187 

W.  Savage,  who  was  born  in  Kingston,  Jamaica,  came  to  United 
States  as  a  boy  and  attended  school  in  Baltimore,  later  com- 
pleting his  education  in  England.  After  an  adventurous  life  in 
Australia,  East  Indies,  Egypt  and  back  to  his  native  West  Indies, 
he  returned  to  the  United  States  to  take  up  residence  in  Utica, 
N.  Y.,  where  for  a  time  he  was  the  manager  of  the  Utica  Belt 
Line  Railroad. 

Though  the  Savage  Repeating  Arms  Company  was  organ- 
ized in  1895,  to  manufacture  arms  of  Mr.  Savage's  design,  the 
first  firearms  introduced  by  the  Company  were  made  by  the 
Marlin  Firearms  Co.,  of  New  Haven,  Conn.,  as  the  Savage  manu- 
facturing plant  was  not  established  until  1898,  three  years  or  so 
after  the  organization  of  the  Company. 

In  1899,  the  firm  was  renamed  Savage  Arms  Co.,  and  in 
1917,  became  the  present  Savage  Arms  Corporation  controlled 
by  J.  Stevens  Arms  Co.,  manufacturing  a  wide  variety  of  sport- 
ing arms  and  the  A.  H.  Fox  shotguns. 

Arthur  W.  Savage  was  found  dead  in  San  Diego,  Cal.,  Sept. 
22,  1938,  from  a  bullet  wound;  a  pistol  was  by  his  side. 

Organized  in  1860,  by  Henry  S.  North  and  Edward  Savage 
(previously  North  &  Savage)  for  the  manufacture  of  their  navy 
revolver  (North  patent  of  1856)  as  improved  by  North  and 
Savage  patents  of  Jan.  8,  1859,  No.  22,666,  and  of  May  15,  1860, 
No.  28,331.  The  government  purchased  11,284  Savage  navy  re- 
volvers during  the  Civil  War.  See  also  North  &  Savage.  The 
Company  is  believed  to  have  made  some  Starr  revolvers  in 
their  plant. 

The  Company  also  contracted  during  the  Civil  War  for 
Model  1861  rifle  muskets;  on  Sept.  9,  1862,  for  25,000  at  $18.00 
each;  13,520  delivered,  and  Feb.  25,  1864,  for  12,000  at  the  same 
price;  contract  completed.  These  contracts  were  signed  by  James 
A.  Wneelock,  Secretary  of  the  firm.  Edward  Savage  was  one  of 
the  sureties. 

SAWYER,  Phinelias — An  English  type  sporting  flintlock  musket, 
with  this  name  on  lock.  May  be  a  Committe  of  Safety  musket. 

SAXONIA  GUN  WORKS— Eugene,  Oregon.  Limited  production  of 
16  gauge  hammer  less  shotguns. 

SAYLOR,  Jacob— Bedford  Borough,  Bedford  County,  Pa.,  about  1776. 
Reputed  to  have  made  muskets  for  Committee  of  Safety  and 
worked  on  public  arms  1779-83.  To  date  not  found  mentioned 
in  contemporary  records. 

S.  B. — Unidentified.  Barrel  marking  of  an  circa  1820,  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifles  of  north-central  Penna.  provenance.  On  one  spesimen 
the  patchbox  lid  is  engraved  "BERLIN"  in  script. 

S  B  in  oval — Unidentified  barrelmaker.  Stamped  under  breech  of 
A.  Gumpf  halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

S.  C. — Initials  to  denote  ownership  by  State  of  Connecticut. 

SCHAEFER,  William  R.— Boston,  Mass.,  1853  to  1916  and  after.  As- 
sociated with  Warner  in  1860-70. 

SCHAEFFER— Unidentified.  Flintlock  rifles. 

SCHAFFER,  J.  A. — Vicksburg,  Miss.  Large  bore  muzzle  loading  per- 
cussion rifle  marked  "J.  A.  SCHAFFER  VICKSBURG  MISS." 

SCHAEFER  &  WARNER— Boston,  Mass.  1860-70. 

SCHAIRER— Back  action  lock  marked  "SCHAIRER  I.  G."  on  a  curly 

188  American  Gun  Makers 

maple,  half  stock,  single  shot,  percussion  rifled  pistol,  and  double 
set  triggers,  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SCHALK,  Andrew — Pottsville,  Pa.,  Percussion  period.  Had  been  as- 
sociated with  T.  P.  Cherington. 

SCHALK,  Chris— Williamsport,  Pa.,  about  1825-75. 

SCHALCK,  George — (also  Schalk)  Born  in  Wils  Baden,  Germany, 
1821;  emigrated  to  Pottsville,  Pa.,  in  1854.  Famous  maker  and 
shooter  of  Schuetzen  rifles;  inventor  of  Schalck  rifling  system  for 
unpatched,  grooved  and  lubricated  bullet.  Retired  about  1891, 
died  Nov.  2,  1893. 

SCHANER,  Henry— Oley  Valley,  Pa.;  early  19th  century  riflesmith. 

SCHARP,  S.— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SCHEANER,  William— Also  Shener.  Reading,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  1779-85. 

SCHEETZ,  F.— Virginia.  Kentucky  rifles.  Related  to  M.  Sheets,  Vir- 

SCHELL,  John — Pennsylvania.  Late  flintlock  and  early  percussion 

SCHENKL,  J.  P.— Boston,  Mass.,  1850-54.  A  carbine  made  by  J.  P. 
Schenkl  was  tested  by  the  West  Point  Board  in  1857. 

SCHILLING,  Frederick— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

SCHILLING,  Peter— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

SCHLEGELMILCH,  Herman — Born  in  Suhl,  Germany.  Came  to  the 
United  States  in  1853.  Worked  at  the  gunmaking  trade  in  New 
York  City,  Bethlehem,  Pa.,  and  Chicago,  before  settling  in  Beaver 
Dam,  Wis.,  in  1855.  In  1860  moved  to  Cedar  Rapids,  Iowa,  and 
then  to  Eau  Claire,  Wis.,  in  the  same  year,  where  he  remained 
until  his  death  in  1903.  Made  percussion  hunting  and  target  rifles 
including  over-under  double  barrel  rifles  and  rifle-shotgun  com- 
binations— a  popular  type  of  gun  in  Wisconsin  in  the  percussion 

SCHLEY,  Jacob — Fredericktown,  Md.,  Revolutionary  War  rifle  maker. 
Contracted  April  19,  1776,  with  the  Maryland  Council  of  Defense 
for  heavy,  brass-mounted,  black  walnut  stocked  rifles  carrying 
a  four  ounce  ball.  A  specimen  was  shown  to  Washington  and  was 
highly  praised  by  him. 

SCHLOTTERBECK,  C.— 103  Commercial,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1859- 
60.  (With  A.  J.  Plate?). 

SCHMELZER,  J.  H.— Leavenworth,  Kan. 

SCHMIDT,  Hernrich— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

SCHMIDT,  William— New  York,  N.  Y.  Accepted  a  contract  July  15, 
1857,  for  ten  Schroeder  patent  carbines  at  $30.00  each. 

SCHNADER,  Franklin  K. — Gun  barrel  maker  on  Wyomissing  Creek, 
between  Mohn's  Store  and  Gouglersville,  near  Reading,  Berks 
Co.,  Pa.  Made  2,500-3,000  barrels  a  year.  Made  1,700  rifle  musket 
barrels  during  the  Civil  War.  Made  barrels  for  J.  H.  Johnston  of 
Pittsburgh,  and  Henry  Leman  of  Lancaster.  Bought  John  Keim 
(formerly  Worley),  shops  from  Nicholas  Yokum  &  Son;  improved 
buildings  and  built  a  dam.  Father  of  Nathaniel  Schnader. 

SCHNADER,  Nathaniel— Son  of  Franklin  K.  above.  Managed  Schna- 
der works  on  Wyomissing  Creek  until  1890  or  later. 

SCHNAUT,  T.  G.— Monmouth,  N.  J.  Died  1838. 

SCHNEELOCH,  Otto— Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  1868-75.  Percussion  rifle. 

SCHNEIDER— 622  Market  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  1887.  Made  rifles 
called  "Native  Son  Guns." 

American  Gun  Makers  189 

SCHNEIDER— Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifles,  circa  1860. 

SCHNEIDER,  A.— Unlocated.  Plains  rifles,  late  flintlock  period. 

SCHNEIDER,  F.  A.— Canton,  Ohio,  1853-57.  Maker  of  gun  barrels. 

SCHNEIDER,  F.  A.— Columbia,  S.  C.  Advertised  in  the  "Daily 
Phoenix"  on  Dec.  5,  1868  ".  .  .  making  to  order  all  kinds  of  Pistols, 
Guns,  Locks,  etc  .  .  ." 

SCHNEIDER,  John— Unlocated.  "MAR.  19,  1776"  engraved  on  patch 
of  very  early  Penna.  type  Kentucky  rifle  with  lock  engraved  in 
script  "J.S." 

SCHNEIDER,  M.— Dayton,  Ohio,  1859-65.  Listed  as  M.  Schneider  & 
Son  from  1866-71. 

SCHNEIDER  &  CO. — Memphis,  Tenn.,  makers  of  percussion  der- 

SCHNEIDER  &  GL  AS  SICK— 20  Jefferson  St.,  Memphis,  Tenn.  Wil- 
liam S.  Schnieder  and  Frederick  G.  Glassick,  arms  makers  for 
the  Confederacy.  Manufacturers  of  percussion  derringers. 

SCHOB,  J.— Pennsylvania,  1780-1815. 

SCHOEB,  I.— (of  J.  Unidentified.  Die  marked  on  barrel  of  Penna. 
rifle.  May  be  barrel  maker  only.  (Same  as  J.  Schob?) 

SCHOENER,  Henry—Reading,  Pa.,  1850-63  and  after. 

SCHOENMEN,  Frederick— 517  Kearny  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  1887. 

SCHONTZ,  P.  H.— Canal  Fulton,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio,  1855-65. 

SCHORER,  Andrew— Bethlehem  Township,  Pa.,  Revolutionary  War 

SCHOYEN,  George — Denver,  Colo.,  gunsmith,  native  of  Norway. 
Came  to  U.  S.  shortly  after  the  Civil  War  and  found  employment 
with  Carlos  Gove,  Denver  gun  maker,  in  1873.  In  1885  Shoyen 
established  his  own  shop  with  D.  W.  Butt  as  partner.  This  dis- 
solved in  1887,  he  took  in  F.  A.  Burgen,  the  partnership  lasting 
until  1897.  In  1904  Axel  W.  Peterson  became  his  partner  with 
shop  at  1417  Lawrence  St.  Later  directories  give  shop  locations 
at  Blake,  Fifteenth,  Arapahoe  and  Lawrence  Streets.  Shoyen 
died  in  1916,  the  business  being  carried  on  by  A.  W.  Peterson. 

SCHRAPEL,  Louis— Georgetown,  Colo.,  1877-80. 

SCHRAYER,  George— Also  Schryer.  Franklin  &  Greene  Sts.,  Balti- 
more, Md.,  1810. 

SCHREIDT,  John— Reading,  Pa.,  1858-68.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SCHRECKENGOST,  Wm.  and  L.  G.— See  Shreckengost,  William  and 

son,  L.  G. 

SCHREYER,  George— Also  Schroyer.  Had  worked  in  Abbotstown,  Pa. 
Circa  1800  carved  stock,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  of  fine  work- 
manship. Reported  not  to  have  used  curly  grain  in  his  carved 
maple  stock  rifles. 

SCHRIVENER,  James  A.— Auburn,  N.  Y. 

SCHRIVER,  G.  B.— The  Camden,  S.  C.  "Journal,"  May  31,  1861 
"G.  B.  Schriver,  gunsmith,  has  built  a  breechloading  rifle  upon 
the  same  principle  as  the  Maynard  but  is  an  improvement 

SCHRIVER,  J — Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SCHROCK,  Jacob  D.— Five  miles  east  of  Goshen,  Ind.  Born  Dec.  5, 
1823,  died  Jan.  13,  1918  at  the  age  of  94.  With  his  wife,  migrated 

190  American  Gun  Makers 

from  Holmes  Co.,  Ohio,  to  Indiana  in  1847.  Active  about  1852- 
1890.  Maker  of  fine  superposed  rifle-shotguns  with  Remington 
barrels  and  purchased  locks. 

SCHROEDER,  H.— With  L.  Salewski  and  William  Schmidt  of  Bloom- 
ington,  Ind.,  associates,  patentee  and  maker  of  a  single-shot  car- 
bine, patented  Dec.  23,  1856,  No.  15,288.  Purchase  of  ten  Schroeder 
carbines  reported  by  an  ordnance  report  of  Nov.  1,  1858. 

SCHROYER,  George — Probably  same  as  George  Schryer,  Reading,  Pa. 
Huge,  early  Kentucky  style  match  rifle  with  half-octagon  barrel. 

SCHROYER,  Mathias — Taney  Town,  Md.,  musket  maker,  contractor 
under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern  (Model 
1795),  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  There  were  150  recorded  de- 
livered by  June  10,  1801. 

SCHRYER,  George— Also  Schrayer,  Franklin  and  Greene  Sts.,  Balti- 
more, Md.,  1810. 

SCHRYER,  George— Reading,  Pa.,  1758-1768.  See  Schroyer,  George. 

SCHUBARTH,  C.  D.— Casper  D.  Schubarth,  Providence,  R.  I.,  Civil 
War  Contractor  of  Oct.  11,  1861,  for  20,000  Springfield  rifle  mus- 
kets, Model  1861,  at  $20.00  each.  Of  these  9,500  were  delivered. 
The  contract  was  extended  by  another  30,000  on  Nov.  26,  1861, 
but  no  deliveries  were  made  on  the  second  lot. 

SCHULER,  H.  J. — Curly  maple  stock,  swivel  breech,  percussion, 
over-under  Kentucky  type  rifle.  See  Shuler. 

SCHULL,  M.— Lancaster  Co.  Pa.,  1800-1838.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

SCHULTZ— Unidentified.  Flintlock  rifles. 

SCHUMANN,  Louis— Memphis,  Tenn.,  1860. 

SCHUSLER,  Nicholas— Morgantown,  W.  Va.  No  details. 

SCHWEITZER,  A.— Unlocated,  possibly  Pa.  Early  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifles.  Rifled  flintlock  Kentucky  pistol,  carved  curly  maple  full- 
stock  with  coin  silver  mountings;  lock  and  barrel  stamped. 
A.  Schweitzer. 

SCOTT— Washington  Co.,  Pa.,  period  of  1800.  Fine  flintlock  Kentucky 

SCOTT,  E. — Albany,  N.  Y.,  maker  of  a  fine  percussion  target  rifle 
with  back  action  lock,  double-set  triggers,  German  silver  patch- 
box  and  octagon  barrel  by  Remington. 

SCOTT,  GRANT— Zanesville,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio,  1804-1820. 

SCOTT,  J.  N.— Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SCOTT,  W.  J.  and  R.  H.— Albany,  N.  Y.,  1848-50.  Percussion  rifles. 

SCOVE,  Nicholas — Maker  of  gun  skelps  for  musket  barrels.  In  em- 
ploy of  Col.  Peter  Grubb,  who  operated  a  gun  skelp  forge  for 
the  Lancaster,  Pa.,  Committee  of  Safety  in  1776. 

SCOVILLE,  Hezekiah — Haddam,  Conn.,  musket  barrel  manufacturer 
of  early  1800's.  Supplied  Eli  Whitney  and  Nathan  Starr. 

SCOUT,  Jacobus  (or  James)— 1736-1829.  Warminster  Twp.,  Bucks  Co., 
Pa.  Learned  silversmithing  from  John  Fitch,  presumably  worked 
on  the  first  commercial  steamboat.  In  1776  an  armorer  with  the 
Continental  Army  near  Trenton.  A  slim  converted  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle  with  silver  eagle  inlay  under  forearm,  large 
script  initials  "J.  S."  on  patchbox. 

S.  D. — Unidentified.  Good  Kentucky  rifles. 

SEABURY,  J.  &  CO.— Southbridge,  Mass.,  1861. 

American  Gun  Makers  191 

SEAVER— Vergennes,  Vt. 

SECHREST — Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SEDGLEY,  R.  F.,  Inc. — Philadelphia,  Pa.  Modern.  Makers  of  sporting 
and  military  arms. 

SEELEY,  Austin— Reedsburg,  Wis.,  1849  until  after  the  Civil  War. 
Seeley  was  born  in  Medina  County,  Ohio,  in  1820,  and  moved  to 
Wisconsin  in  1845.  Made  percussion  hunting  and  target  rifles. 

SEELEY,  D.  N. — Western  N.  Y.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SEELEY,  T.  B. — (Also  Sieley?)  Dunkirk,  N.  Y.  Over-under  percus- 
sion rifle-shotgun. 

SEES,  J. — Unlocated.  Flintlock,  Kentucky  type  pistol  with  lock 
marked   "Foulke   Philadelphia." 

SEEWALD,  Valentine— Tiffin,  Seneca  Co.,  Ohio,  1830. 

SEIBERT,  Charles  and  Christian — See  Siebert. 

SEIDNER,  J. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SEIGLING,  W.  C— Sandusky,  Ohio,  1866-69.  Rifles  and  shotguns. 

SEIPEL,  Conrad — Also  Siple  or  Sipel.  Philadelphia  region,  about 
1750.  See  Siple  C. 

SEIPEL,  J. — Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SELDEN,  A.— Whitehall,  N.  Y.  Side-by-side  percussion  rifle-shotgun. 

SEITS,   Colonel   George — Lancaster,   Fairfield   Co.,   Ohio,    1820's. 

SELL,  Frederick — Unlocated.  Early,  carved  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

SELLS,  Jacob — Believed  to  have  worked  in  Linglestown,  Pa.  Made 
relief  carved  stock,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

SELLS,  Benjamin — Georgetown,  Ohio,  1835-1865.  "Curly  maple  or 
Sugartree  gunstocks." 

SELLS,  James — Ohio. 

SELLS,  M. — Unlocated.  Curly  maple  fullstock  percussion  Kentucky 
rifle.  "W.  W.  TWEED"  on  stock,  "M.  SELLS"  in  script  on  barrel. 

SELLS,  M.  B. — Georgetown,  Brown  Co.,  Ohio,  1839. 

SELLS,  N.  F.— Laurelville,  Hocking  Co.,  Ohio,  1877-82. 

SELMA  ARSENAL — Selma,  Ala.  Confederate  armory.  According  to 
Benjamin  Franklin  Barnes,  a  resident,  the  arsenal  manufactured 
rifles,  muskets,  pistols,  swords  and  bayonets,  with  Captain  N.  D. 
Cross,  C.  A.,  in  charge  of  operations.  The  plant  which  consisted 
of  twenty-four  buildings,  was  destroyed  by  General  Wilson's 
cavalry.  It  is  said  that  brass-frame  revolvers  were  made  at  Selma 
towards  the  end  of  the  Civil  War,  and  it  is  possible  that  these 
were  made  by  Charles  H.  Rigdon,  who  had  come  to  Selma  from 
Augusta,  Ga. 

SELVIDGE,  John— Harris  Creek,  Bradley  Co.,  Tenn.,  1800-1845  and 
after;  learned  trade  from  a  smith  named  Wright  who  had  learned 
under  the  Yeomens  at  Charlotte,  N.  C.  Selvidge  went  to  Tenn- 
essee in  1800,  was  active  at  age  91.  Meredith  Wolfe  became  his 
apprentice  in  1845,  later  married  his  daughter  Elizabeth. 

SEMMENCE,  Ed.— Erie,  Pa.,  working  in  1900.  Riflesmith. 

SEMPLE,  A.  B.  &  BROTHERS— Louisville,  Ky.  Late  flint  Kentucky 
rifle  locks  marked  "A.  B.  SEMPLE  &  BROTHERS  LOUIS- 

SENSENY,  J.— Chambersburg,  Pa.,  1850's.  Taught  the  trade  to  James 
H.  Johnston,  later  of  the  Great  Western  Gun  Works,  Pittsburgh. 

192  American  Gun  Makers 

SERLES,  D.— Post-Civil  War  riflesmith;  learned  under  J.  H.  Johns- 
ton of  Pittsburgh. 

SETTLE,  Felix— Barren  Co.,  Ky.  Son  of  Wm.  Settle,  born  1792.  Ex- 
tensive maker  of  flintlock  and  percussion  Kentucky  rifles — one 
numbered   1020.  Father  of  Simon  Settle. 

SETTLE,  John — Pennsylvania.  Early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

SETTLE,  Simon— Greensburg,  Green  Co.,  Ky.,  19th  century.  Son  of 
Felix  Settle.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SETTLE,  William— Barren  Co.,  Ky.  Born  in  Virginia,  1770,  of  Scot- 
tish ancestry;  died  1808.  Father  of  Felix  Settle.  Fine  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifles. 

SETTLE,  Wm.— Russelville,  Logan  Co.,  Ky.,  1863.  Probably  related 
to  the  Settle  family:  William  Settle  (1770-1808),  and  son  Felix, 
(born  1792),  of  Barren  Co.,  Ky.,  and  grandson  Simon  of  Greens- 
burg, Green  Co.,  Ky. 

SETTLE,  W.  F.— Unlocated.  Walnut  halfstoked  percussion  rifle  with 
Riddle  lock.  Name  and  number  XXVI  stamped  on  barrel. 

SEVERIN,  T.— 524  Kearny,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1861-64. 

SEVER,  Joseph  and  Shubabel — Armorers  to  the  Colony  of  Massa- 
chusetts as  of  June  12,  1775.  Gunsmiths  to  Committee  of  Safety, 
Framingham,  1775-76. 

SEWARD,  Benjamin— Boston,  Mass.,  1796-1803. 

SEYMOUR — Unlocated.  Over-under,  swivel-breech,  percussion  double 
rifle  with  one  barrel  bored  smooth.  Back  action  lock.  Burl  wal- 
nut stock  with  cheekpiece. 

S.  G.  B.— (Samuel  Border  of  Bedford  Co.,  later  Somerset  Co.,  Pa.?) 
Maker  of  a  full  curly  maple  stock  percussion  rifle. 

SCHAEFER,  Joseph — Unlocated.  Maker  of  early  percussion  Kentucky 
rifles  of  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.,  style  and  fine  workmanship.  Graceful 
Roman  nose,  inlaid  stocks  with  brass  furniture. 

SHAFER,  Joseph  (also  Shaefer)— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles  c.  1760- 
1800.  Possibly  same  as  Schaeffer. 

SHAKANOOSA  ARMS  MFG.  CO.— Confederate  shoulder  arms  mak- 
ers. See  Dixon,  Nelson  &  Co. 

SHANE,  B.  F.— Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

SHANNON,  W.  &  H.— William  and  Hugh  Shannon,  gunsmiths  and 
cutlers  are  listed  in  the  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  City  Directories  as 
follow:  Hugh  Shannon,  (alone)  at  47  Sassafras  in  1805-07.  Wil- 
liam and  Hugh  at  24  Passyunk,  near  5th  in  1809-11,  and  at  21 
Passyunk  in  1813-16.  William  is  listed  alone  at  224  Shippen  in 
1817-20,  while  in  1819-20  Hugh  is  shown  at  57  Mead. 

W.  &  H.  Shannon  contracted  Nov.  9,  1808,  with  the  govern- 
ment for  4,000  Model  1808  muskets,  to  be  delivered  over  a  period 
of  five  years,  of  which,  1,001  are  recorded  delivered  by  Oct.  7, 

William  Shannon,  son  of  John  Shannon  of  Norristown,  was 
a  Deputy  Commissary  of  Hides  in  1779,  of  which  department 
William  Henry  I  had  been  appointed  Chief  Commissary.  The 
Shannon  clan  became  related  to  the  Henrys  by  marriage  of 
Joseph  Henry  in  February,  1799,  to  Mary  Shannon,  daughter 
of  James  (brother  of  William)  and  Elizabeth  (Lane)  Shannon. 
William  Shannon  was  born  in  1745,  died  Aug.  6,  1823,  at  the 
age  of  78,  and  is  buried  at  the  St.  James  Perkiomen  Churchyard 
at  Evansburg.  The  relation  of  Hugh  Shannon  to  William  is  un- 

American  Gun  Makers  193 

certain,  most  likely  son,  as  William's  brothers  were  named  Robert 
and  James. 
SHARP,  John — Shelby  County,  Ohio.  Pioneer  gunsmith  well  known 

in  the  county  for  fine  workmanship. 
SHARP,  Noah  A. — Unlocated.  Curly  maple,  silver-inlaid,  full-stock, 

percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 
SHARPS,  C.  &  CO.— West  side  of  30th  Street,  south  of  Bridge 
Street,  Fairmount,  (West)  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  about  1857-63. 
The  firm  was  established  by  Christian  Sharps,  who  was  born  in 
New  Jersey  in  1811.  After  a  common  school  education  he  was 
apprenticed  in  the  machinist's  trade  and  is  believed  to  have 
worked  out  his  invention  of  a  breech-loading  arm  in  the  Daniel 
Nippes  Armory  on  Mill  Creek,  about  six  miles  from  Philadel- 
phia. The  fact  that  one  of  his  earliest  arms  is  marked  A.  S. 
Nippes,  supports  this  belief.  Considering  that  the  name  Sharps, 
in  rifles,  is  almost  synonymous  with  Colt  in  revolvers,  but 
little  is  known  of  the  inventor's  life. 

It  is  known  that  prior  to  1852,  Sharps  arms  were  made  in 
small  numbers  by  several  firms,  such  as  Massachusetts  Arms 
Co.,  Robbins  &  Lawrence  at  Windsor,  Vt. 

In  1857,  it  is  recorded  that  C.  Sharps  &  Co.  consisted  of 
Christian  Sharps  in  association  with  Nathan  H.  Bolles  and 
Ira  B.  Eddy.  They  erected  "a  very  extensive  establishment 
(140  ft.  x  40  ft.,  brick)  in  which  were  housed  machinery  of 
most  beautiful  and  accurate  description  ...  a  high  pressure 
engine  of  75  horsepower  which  forms  the  motive  power  of  the 
establishment."  The  firm  made  Sharps  breech-loading,  self- 
priming  pistols  and  Sharps  rifles. 

In  1863,  the  Company  combined  with  Wm.  C.  Hankins, 
rifle  manufacturer,  to  form  Sharps  &  Hankins  rifle  and  pistol 
manufacturing  establishment.  After  the  Civil  War  the  firm 
moved  to  the  northeast  corner  of  24th  &  Springgarden  Streets. 
Sharps  and  Hankins  are  listed  as  residing  at  2216  Green  Street, 
in  1868-71. 

Christian  Sharps  died  at  Vernon,  Conn.,  March  13,  1874. 

SHARPS  &  HANKINS— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1863-72.  Rifle  manufac- 
turers. See  Sharps,  C.  &  Co.  above. 

SHARPS    PATENT   ARMS    M'FED— Fair   Mount,   Philadelphia,    Pa. 

See  Sharps,  C.  &  Co.  above. 

SHARPS  RIFLE  MANUFG  CO.— Hartford,  Conn.,  1851-74.  Estab- 
lished about  1851,  at  Hartford,  Conn.  In  1853,  R.  S.  Lawrence 
of  Robbins  &  Lawrence,  Windsor,  Vt.,  arrived  at  Hartford  to 
erect  and  manage  an  arms  manufacturing  plant  for  Sharps 
stockholders,  which  plant  was  to  be  operated  by  Robbins  & 
Lawrence  for  the  manufacture  of  arms  based  on  the  Sharps 
patents.  Christian  Sharps  received  a  royalty  of  $1.00  for  each 
arm  made.  There  is  no  evidence  that  Mr.  Christian  Sharps  was 
directly  connected  with  the  operations  of  the  firm,  though  his 
brother-in-law,  Robert  Chadwick,  is  reported  to  have  taken 
charge  of  the  Sharps  cartridge  factory  in  1851.  After  the  failure 
of  Robbins  &  Lawrence,  the  Sharps  Company  resumed  control, 
with  R.  S.  Lawrence  in  operation  of  the  plant. 

The  government  purchased  3,040  Sharps  carbines  in  July, 
1858,  at  $30.00  each.  The  Company  supplied  80,512  Sharps 
carbines  and  9,141  rifles  during  the  Civil  War  to  June  30,  1866, 

194  American  Gun  Makers 

and  over  31,000  percussion  carbines  and  2,400  rifles  were  altered 
to  the  Sharps  system  in  1868-69. 

In  1871,  the  firm  sold  their  plant  to  Weed  Sewing  Machine 
Co.,  except  for  a  small  portion  reserved  for  the  manufacture  of 
Sharps  Arms.  Aug.  31,  1874,  the  Company  was  reorganized  as 
the  Sharps  Rifle  Company.  See  below. 

SHARPS  RIFLE  CO.— -Bridgeport,  Conn.,  1876-81.  Formed  by  the 
sale  and  reorganization  of  the  Sharps  Rifle  Manufacturing  Co., 
of  Hartford,  on  Aug.  31,  1874.  With  the  expiration  of  the  lease 
at  the  Weed  Sewing  Machine  Co.,  on  Feb.  1,  1876,  the  Sharps 
Rifle  Company  moved  to  Bridgeport,  Conn.,  where  a  new  plant 
was  erected  for  them  by  a  group  of  Bridgeport  citizens.  The 
firm  made  Sharps  sporting  and  Creedmoor  models,  and  Sharps 
Borchard  martial  arms.  The  firm  discontinued  production  in 
October,  1881. 

SHATTUCK,  C.  S.  ARMS  CO.— Also  C.  S.  Shattuck,  Hatfield,  Mass., 
about  1880-90.  Makers  of  Unique  palm  pistol  and  Shattuck  cart- 
ridge revolvers  and  shotguns. 

Prior  to  April  1,  1880,  the  firm  was  Hyde  &  Shattuck. 

SHAUB,  Adam— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

SHAW — Massachusetts.  Musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety 

SHAW,  Albert  S.— Morrow  County,  Ohio,  1840. 

SHAW,  John — Annapolis,  Md.  State  Armorer  to  Maryland,  1780. 

SHAW,  Joshua — Lincolnshire,  England;  Bordentown,  N.  J.,  later 
Philadelphia,  Pa.  Artist  and  inventor;  invented  steel  disc  per- 
cussion cap  about  1813.  Emigrated  to  America  about  1814;  was 
refused  patent  as  an  alien.  Improved  and  manufactured  first 
copper  caps.  Awarded  government  honorarium  of  $25,000  for  his 
invention  in  1846. 

SHAW  &  LEDOYT — Stafford,  Conn.  Makers  of  under-hammer  per- 
cussion pistols. 

SHAW,  S.  &  J. — Unlocated.  Southern  style  percussion  Kentucky  rifle 
without  buttplate  or  forend  cap. 

SHAWK  &  McLANAHAN— Carondelet  (St.  Louis  suburb),  Missouri, 
1858.  Makers  of  .36  cal.  Navy  percussion  revolvers,  6  shot,  brass 
frame.  Abel  Shawk  of  Pennsylvania,  mechanic  and  inventor  of 
steam  fire  engines,  with  J.  K.  McLanahan  of  Cincinnati,  estab- 
lished a  factory  in  Carondelet  for  the  manufacture  of  locks  and 
fire  engines.  On  Shawk's  invention  of  a  rifling  machine  the  firm 
turned  to  manufacture  of  brass  frame,  .36  cal.  six  shot  revolvers, 
rifled  with  seven  right  twist  grooves. 

SHEAFF,  Henry— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 
SHEE,  John— Musket  maker  to  State  of  Virginia,  1800. 
SHEESLEY,  George— Hartley  Township,  Union  Co.,  Pa. 
SHEETS,  A.— Dayton,  Ohio.  Percussion  rifles. 

SHEETS,  Adam — Shepherdstown,  Va.,  gunsmith  active  after  the 
Revolutionary  War.  The  Sheets  family  came  to  Shepherdstown 
from  York,  Pa.,  about  1762.  Adam  had  enlisted  in  Capt.  Stephen- 
son's Rifle  Company;  transferred  to  Capt.  Shepherd's  Company. 
Was  taken  prisoner,  exchanged;  drafted  out  of  Capt.  Shepherd's 
into  another  rifle  company  Jan.  1,  1777,  and  transferred  in  Decem- 
ber, 1778,  into  Co.  No.  4,  Capt.  Charles  Porterfield  Commanding, 

American  Gun  Makers  195 

of  Morgan's  Riflemen.  After  the  Revolution  established  his  gun 
shop  in  the  house  built  by  his  father,  in  which  house  the  descend- 
ents  of  the  family  still  lived  about  1900. 

SHEETS,  Philip  &  Henry— Shepherdstown,  Berkley  Co.,  Va.  Rifle 
makers  1775-76.  Furnished  rifles  to  the  Continental  forces.  Pay- 
ment of  £29-9-6,  78  6/10  dollars  noted  to  Henry  Sheets  for  rifles 
furnished  to  Capt.  Stevenson's  Company,  (Feb.  23,  1776). 

Sheets  Brothers  advertised  in  Dunlop's  Pennsylvania  Packet 
or  General  Advertiser,  Dec.  25,  1775:  "Philip  and  Henry  Sheets, 
Gunsmiths.  In  Shepherds  Town,  Berkley  Co.,  Virginia.  Intend 
carrying  on  their  business  extensively;  and  as  they  are  in  want 
of  hands  that  understand  the  said  business,  they  will  give  great 
wages  either  by  the  week,  month,  year,  or  otherwise  as  they 
may  desire  it,  to  any  such  that  would  choose  to  be  employed,  by 
applying  speedily  at  their  place  of  residence  as  above  mentioned." 

SHEETS,  M. — Virginia.  Brass  frame,  sheath  trigger,  6  shot  percussion 

SHEETZ— Hartsville,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio. 

SHEETZ,  D. — Southern  maker  of  fine  Kentucky  rifles. 

SHEETZ,  I.  or  J.  (or  Scheetz) — Pennsylvania.  Percussion  halfstock 
rifle,  finely  silver  mounted  throughout,  with  cap  and  patch  boxes. 

SHEFFIELD,  Jeremiah — Rhode  Island  musket  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety,  1775-76. 

SHELL  &  EARLY— Pennsylvania.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

SHELL,  John — Shellsville,  Pa.  Born  Dec.  20,  1790,  son  of  Martin 
Shell,  Jr.;  died  Mar.  27,  1875.  Founded  Shellsville,  Dauphin  Co., 
Pa.;  commissioned  a  major,  2d  Bn.  98th  Regt.  of  Pa.  Militia,  in 
1814.  Made  many  flintlock  and  percussion  rifles  marked  John 
Shell  or  J.  Shell;  one  numbered  421. 

SHELL,  John — Greasy  Creek,  Leslie  Co.,  Ky.  Son  of  Samuel  Shell, 
a  gunsmith,  John  Shell  claimed  to  have  been  born  in  Tennessee 
in  1788,  which  considered  that  he  died  in  1922,  would  have 
meant  that  he  attained  the  age  of  134  years. 

SHELL,  M.— Allentown,  Pa.,  about  1780-1820.  Fine  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifle,  curly  maple  fullstock  with  raised  carving,  silver  inlays 
and  brass  wire  scrollwork. 

SHELL,  Martin,  Sr. — Lebanon  County,  Penna.  Rifle  maker.  Born  1737. 
Died  1771. 

SHELL,  Martin,  Jr. — Pennsylvania  rifle  maker,  son  of  Martin  Shell, 
Sr.  Born  October  16,  1763.  Died  September  9,  18(?).  Father  of 
Jacob,  Martin,  John  and  Daniel  Shell,  rifle  makers  and  gun- 

SHELL,  N. — Pennsylvania.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

SHELL,  Samuel— Tennessee,  before  and  after  1787.  Father  of  John 

SHENER,  William— Also  Scheaner.  Reading,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  1779-85. 

SHENNEFELT,  N.— (Or  Shennefeldt)  Clarion,  Pa.  Percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle  with  oval  patchbox;  back  action  lock  by  Whitmore, 
Wolff,  Duff  Co. 

SHEPHERD,  John— Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gun  lock  filer  at  135  Green, 
in  1829. 

SHEPLER,  H.— Unlocated.  Plains  rifle,  flintlock  period. 

196  American  Gun  Makers 

SHERIDAN  PRODUCTS,  INC.— Racine,  Wis.  In  1947  began  making 
high  grade  pneumatic  rifles. 

SHERMAN,  A.  P. — Portsmouth,  Ohio.  Heavy  percussion  Kentucky 
rifles;  one  acid-etched  on  barrel,  "Fool  Killer,  I  Am  Looking  for 

SHERMAN,  B.  &  W.  H.— Woodstock,  Illinois,  1861-65.  Fine,  walnut 
stocked  muzzle  loading  percussion  rifle  with  German  silver 

SHERMAN,  Nathaniel— Boston,  Mass.,  1692. 

SHERRY,  John — Born  in  1797,  in  Lancaster  County,  Pa.  Served  his 
apprenticeship  and  learned  the  trade  of  rifle-making  in  the 
Leman  rifle  shop,  which  he  entered  at  the  age  of  17  and  remained 
for  12  years.  Established  himself  in  1830  in  Beaver  Township, 
Clarion  Co.,  Pa.,  as  a  maker  of  early  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 
Inventor  of  the  segmental  rifle  groove  and  one  of  the  first  to 
use  gain  twist  rifling.  John  Sherry  died  in  1889. 

SHERWOOD,  Samuel  Todd— Between  Smithburn  and  Blandville, 
W.  Va.  Born  July  7,  1828;  died  Dec.  14,  1900.  Extensive  rifle- 
maker;  hand- welded  barrels,  later  used  Remington  barrels  and 
Leman  locks.  Used  brass  flash-guard  under  hammers,  mark 
"S.  T.  S."  on  barrels. 

SHIELDS,  D. — Unlocated.  Percussion  rifles,  single  and  double. 

SHILLITO,  Samuel— McConnelsburg  Boro,  Fulton  Co.,  Pa.,  1826. 
(Prior  to  1850  Fulton  Co.,  was  a  part  of  Bedford  County).  Late 
flint  and  early  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SHILLITS,  J. — Vicinity  of  Chambersburg,  Pa.  Had  apprenticed  under 
J.  N.  Johnson,  Sr. 

SHIRK,  S. — Pennsylvania,  about  1800.  Silver  inlaid  flintlock  period 
Kentucky  rifle. 

SHIRLEY,  Jeremiah— Clover  dale,  Ohio,  1870.  Percussion  sporting  and 
target  rifles. 

SHISLER,  D.— Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle,  period  1820,  caliber  .45,  with 
ornate  brass  furniture  and  24  silver  inlays;  converted  by  re- 
breeching.  Marked  "D*  SHISLER,"  in  script,  on  barrel.  Lock 
marked  externally  "T.  KETLAND  &  CO.";  and  inside  "K  W  & 
A,"  (Ketland,  Walker  &  Adams,  listed  in  Birmingham,  England, 
Directory  in  1818). 

SHOENEN,  Daniel — Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.,  rifle  barrel 

SHOLF,  I.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

SHOLL,  John — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

SHORER,  John— Liverpool,  Pa.,  about  1850-60. 

SHORT,  BISCOE  &  CO.— Tyler,  Texas,  Confederate  Contractors  of 
Nov.  5,  1862,  for  5,000  Model  1841,  Mississippi  type  rifles.  The 
firm  consisted  of  J.  C.  Short,  a  practical  gunsmith,  Wm.  L.  N. 
Biscoe  and  George  Yarborough.  A  site  on  the  outskirts  of  Tyler, 
Texas,  was  purchased  and  a  factory  erected  which  was  destroyed 
at  the  end  of  the  war.  It  had  been  turned  over  to  the  Confederate 
States  in  1863,  and  was  in  charge  of  Lieut.  Col.  G.  H.  Hill,  and 
the  rifles  sometimes  marked  "HILL  RIFLE  TYLER  C.  S." 

SHREYER,  G.— Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  See  also  Schreyer,  George. 

SHRINER — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

American  Gun  Makers  197 

SHRIVER,  Jno — Hanover,  Pa.  Shop  still  stands.  Name  on  barrel  of 
handsome,  relief  carved  flintlock  rifle  also  marked  "ADAMS 

SHOUGH,  Jacob— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Muskets  1809.  Refused  to  accept 
blades  of  sabers  made  on  contract  of  June  8,  1810,  with  James 
Winner  of  Phila.,  for  500  horsemen's  swords.  Relieved  from  duty 
in  1811. 

SHOWALTER,  J. — Brookville,  Pa.  Over-under  percussion  rifle. 

SHRECKENGOST,  Wm.— (Or  Schreckengost).  Putney ville,  Pa.  Half 
stock,  percussion  rifle  with  very  small  butt  plate  and  pronounced 
crescent  drop  to  stock,  finely  engraved  brass  and  German  silver 
furniture,  openwork  patchbox  with  oval  lid,  artificially  striped 
stock;  with  lock  marked  "RIDDLE."  Father  of  L.  G.  Shrecken- 
gost.  Learned  the  trade  under  Alonzo  Bonnett.  Name  cut  in  rough 
script  on  barrel. 

SHRECKENGOST,  L.  G.— (Or  Schreckengost).  Putney  ville,  Pa.;  son 
of  Wm.  Shreckengost.  A  rifle  similar  to  his  father's,  but  with 
natural  grain  stock  and  plain  furniture;  J.  Golcher  lock.  Name 
cut  in  rough  script  on  barrel.  Both  made  distinctive  arms  of  fine 

SHUE  AIR  RIFLE  CO.— Milwaukee,  Wis.  In  1914  made  inexpensive, 
spring-operated  air  guns. 

SHULER,  John— Also  Schuler.  Liverpool,  Pa.,  about  1808-15.  Maker 
of  flintlock  pistols  and  Kentucky  rifles.  Contracted  with  Tench 
Coxe,  Purveyor  of  Public  Supplies  on  June  4,  1808,  for  150  pair 
of  pistols. 

SHULER,  John  R. — Also  Shuler,  John.  Liverpool,  Pa.,  about  1850- 
1860.  Maker  of  over-under,  swivel-breech,  muzzle-loading,  per- 
cussion double  rifle  with  double-set  triggers.  Also  brass  trim, 
striped  maple  half  stock,  over-under,  revolving  barrel,  percus- 
sion rifle-shotgun. 

SHULER,  S.— Liverpool,  Perry  Co.,  Pa.  About  1820.  Percussion, 
over-under,  rotating,  double  Kentucky  style  rifle,  top  flat  marked 
"S  SHULER  TWIST"  and  "LIVERPOOL,  PA,"  in  separate  lines. 
James  Golcher  lock. 

SHULER,  V. — Tuscarawas  or  Carroll  Co.,  Ohio.  Rifles  and  laminated 
double-barrel  shotguns. 

SHULTZ,  H.— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SIBERT,  G.— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SIDES,  Henry— Bedford  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1776. 

SIEBERT,  Charles  M.— Columbus,  Ohio,  active  1851-1915.  He  was 
born  at  Columbus,  Sept.  25,  1839,  and  entered  his  brother  Chris- 
tian's shop  as  an  apprentice  at  the  age  of  12.  Known  for  well 
made  duelling  pistols.  Died  at  Columbus  in  1915. 

SIEBERT,  Christian— Elder  brother  of  Charles  M.  Siebert  above. 
Born  Nov.  9,  1822,  at  Frankfort,  Germany,  whence  his  family 
sailed  for  U.  S.,  in  October,  1832,  and  settled  in  Columbus,  Ohio. 
Christian  Siebert  set  up  his  rifle-making  establishment  at  253 
South  High  Street,  in  1851,  where  he  remained  until  1872,  when 
he  moved  to  217  South  High.  Died  Sept.  18,  1886. 

SIEBERT,  Henry  L.— 279  Main  St.,  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  before  and  after 
1852-58.  Was  associated  with  John  Griffiths  as  Griffiths  &  Siebert 
from  1852  to  1854. 

198  American  Gun  Makers 

SIEBERT,  J.— Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

SIEBERT'S  REPEATING  RIFLE— On  March  11,  1861,  Colonel  James 
H.  Burton,  C.  S.  Army  made  an  estimate  for  machinery,  tools, 
etc.  for  making  3,000  Sibert's  patent  repeating  rifles  per  annum, 
prepared  at  request  of  Col.  McCue  of  Staunton,  Va.,  and  amount- 
ing to  $41,405. 

SIEGFRIED,  D.  B.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SIEGFRIED,  S.— Half  stock,  late  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  back- 
action  lock  marked  with  initials  "G.R."  and  "S.  SIEGFRIED." 

SIEGLING,  W.  C— Columbus  Avenue,  Sandusky,  Ohio,  1866-69. 
Maker  of  rifles  and  double-barrel  shotguns. 

SIEVER,  Charles — St.  Louis,  Mo.  Lockmaker  for  Hawken  firm;  still 
living  in  1890's. 

SIFE,  C. — Early  Pennsylvania  maker  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  Pos- 
sibly a  misreading  for  C.  Sipel  or  Siple,  Philadelphia  region 
about  1750? 

SIGLER,  Amos— Gunsmith.  Irish  Lane,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

SILL,  A.  V. — Operated  a  gun  factory  on  Main  Street,  Buffalo,  N.  Y., 

SILVIS,  Jacob — Delmont,  Pa.,  gunsmith.  Born  in  1801  near  Bushy 
Run  Battlefield  (near  Jeanette,  Pa.).  In  addition  to  gunsmi thing, 
farmed  and  did  blacksmithing,  his  father's  trade.  Forged  his  own 
barrels  and  made  flint  locks  and  other  fittings.  Later,  in  the  per- 
cussion period,  bought  barrel  blanks  and  other  supplies  from 
James  H.  Johnston.  Made  guns  in  his  Delmont  house  before  his 
shop  was  built.  Signed  his  arms  "J.S."  Died  in  1891. 

SIMPSON,  J. — New  Britain,  Conn.  Percussion  under-hammer  pistols. 

SIMPSON,  R.  J. — New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  derringers. 

SIMS-DUDLEY— "Dynamite  Gun"— Pat.  July  23,  1889. 

SIPE,  C. — Unlocated.  Script  marking  on  maple  stripe,  fullstock,  flint- 
lock Kentucky  rifle.  Probably  C.  Sipel. 

SIPEL,  Conrad — Also  Siple  or  Seipel.  Philadelphia  region,  about  1750. 
See  Siple,  C. 

SIPLE,  C— Probably  Conrad  Siple,  also  Seipel  or  Sipel.  Philadelphia 
region  about  1750.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  lock  by  Drepert. 

SITES,  J. — Boonville,  Mo.  Full  length  maple  stock  percussion  rifle  of 
small  caliber.  Brass  or  bronze  furniture.  Marked  on  barrel  "J. 

SITES,  J.  P. — Settled  at  Arrow  Rock,  Mo.,  in  1844.  Percussion  Ken- 
tucky squirrel  rifle,  brass-mounted  plain  walnut  fullstock  with- 
out patchbox.  Name  stamped  on  barrel.  Probably  related  to  J. 
Sites  of  Boonville,  Mo. 

SITES,  W.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  marked  "W  *  SITES" 
on  barrel,  "Warranted"  on  lock.  Probably  related  to  J.  P.  Sites 
of  Arrow  rock  and  J.  Sites  of  Boonville,  Mo. 

SIZER,  A.  S. — Unidentified.  Maker  of  high  grade  percussion  rifles. 
A  revolving  cylinder  percussion  rifle  also  known  by  this  maker. 

S.  L. — Unidentified.  Marking  in  script  on  Penna.  made  Kentucky  rifle. 

SLACK  &  SON— Peter  Slack  and  son,  A.  J.,  61  East  Main  St.,  Spring- 
field, Ohio.  The  firm  was  established  by  Peter  Slack  in  1859, 
under  his  name,  and  was  changed  to  Slack  &  Son  in  1874,  when 
the  son  was  taken  into  partnership.  Active  until  1891  and  after. 

American  Gun  Makers  199 

SLARET— Chillicothe,  Ohio. 

SLAYMAN,  G.— Late  flintlock  period,  about  1800-1830,  Kentucky  rifle. 

SLAZMAN  &  SON,  Charles — Punxutawney,  Pa.  Percussion  Kentucky 

SLITERMAN,  Jeremiah — Musket  maker  and  armorer  to  Colony  of 

Georgia,  1766-68. 
SLOAN,  Robert — Connecticut.  Repaired  arms  for  the  Committee  of 

Safety.  Account  submitted  for  work  from  May  to  August,  1775. 
SLOAT'S    RIFLE    FACTORY— Richmond,    Va.,    1861.    Confederate 

shoulder  arms. 
SLOCOMB,    Harding— Worcester,   Mass.,    1820   and   later.    Flintlock 

rifles,  pistols  and  fowling  pieces. 
SLOCUMB,  Samuel  D.— New  Orleans,  La.  Kentucky  rifles. 
SLOCUMB,  Wm.  B.  &  Co.— New  Orleans,  La. 
SLONAKER,  G.— Probably  near  New  Paris,  Bedford  County,  Pa.  A 

heavy,  percussion  Kentucky  rifle.  Said  to  have  made  over-under 

SLOTTER  &   CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  derringers;   heavy, 

false  muzzle  percussion  match  rifle. 
SLOTTERBAK  &  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle. 
SLOTTERBECK,  Charles — San  Francisco,  Cal.  Late  percussion  and 

cartridge  arms. 
SLOTTERBECK,  H.— Los  Angeles,  Cal.  Cartridge  arms. 
SLOWCOMB,  H.— Homer,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after  1853. 
S.  M. — Marking  on  a  pair  of  flintlock  Kentucky  type  pistols  carried 

by  Col.  Nathan  Dennison  at  Battle  of  Wyoming,  Pa.,  July  3,  1778. 
SMALL,  John — New  Lisbon   (now  Lisbon),  Columbiana  Co.,  Ohio, 

gunmaker  established  in  1806.  Succeeded  by  his  son  David. 
SMALL,  David — New  Lisbon,  Ohio,  gunmaker.  Son  of  John  Small. 
SMALL,  Samuel — New  Lisbon,  Ohio.  Son  of  David  Small.  Member 

of  the  third  generation  of  Small  family  of  gunsmiths.  Reported 

still  active  in  the  trade  in  1879,  in  the  "History  of  Columbiana 

SMART,  Eugene— Dover,  N.  H.,  about  1865-90.  Breech-loading  rifle. 
SMITH— See  Sowers  &  Smith. 

SMITH— Chatham  Street,  New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 
SMITH,  Anthony— Bethlehem  Township,  Pa.,  before  1783. 
SMITH,   A.   B. — Pennsylvania.   Heavy   2-groove  flintlock   Kentucky 

rifle  with  cherry  fullstock. 
SMITH,  Adam — Cincinnati,  Ohio,  in  early  days  of  settlement.  Hand- 
some,   unsigned   flintlock    Kentucky    rifles.    Relief-carved    rifle, 

period  1760,  deep-rifled  for  buckskin  patches. 
SMITH,  Argulus  (or  Anglus?)— Buffalo,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 
SMITH,  B.  M.— Of  William  Edgar  &  B.  M.  Smith,  Mineral  Point,  Wis. 

Marking  on  a  percussion  "duckfoot"  revolver  firing  three  shots 

at  a  time. 
SMITH,  Charles  W.— Cherry  Creek,  N.  Y.   Originally  from  Silver 

Creek,  N.  Y.,  moved  to  Cherry  Creek  in  1832.  Maker  of  percus- 
sion rifles. 
SMITH,  Dexter— Springfield,  Mass.,  about  1872.  Breech-loading  shot- 

200  American  Gun  Maker^ 

SMITH,  E.— Cape,  Jefferson  Co.,  Ala.  Died  in  1900.  Percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

SMITH,  George— New  York,  N.  Y.  Early  air  rifle. 

SMITH,  Geo.  &  Co.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1864.  3-shot  trap  pistol. 

SMITH,  Gilbert— Unlocated.  About  1830-35. 

SMITH,  Horace— Springfield,  Mass.  See  Smith  &  Wesson. 

SMITH  &  HYSLOP— New  York,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  flintlock  holster 

SMITH,  Ira  W.— Onaquaga,  N.  Y.  Born  1825;  died  1897. 

SMITH,  Jeremiah— Lime  Rock,  R.  I.,  1770. 

SMITH,  J.  F.— Huntingdon,  Pa.,  late  flintlock  period. 

SMITH,  John — Rutland,  Vt,  musket  maker  1798-1801.  In  association 
with  Darius  Chipman,  Royal  Crafts  and  Thomas  Hooker,  con- 
tracted under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern, 
(Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand.  Of  these  575  were 
delivered  before  June  10,  1801. 

SMITH,  John— Hessville,  Black  Swamp,  Ohio,  1868-69. 

SMITH,  John — Exeter,  N.  H.  Percussion  period. 

SMITH,  John  2d— Millroy  and  Reedsville,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

SMITH,  John — Sacramento,  Calif.,  1860-1875.  Fine  percussion  rifles 
with  Remington  barrels. 

SMITH,  Johnston — Pennsylvania  musket  and  rifle  maker.  In  asso- 
ciation with  John  Young  of  Northampton  County,  Pa.,  contracted 
in  February,  1776,  to  furnish  arms  to  the  State  of  Virginia. 

SMITH,  J.  &  P.— Saltillo,  Pa. 

SMITH,  L. — Unlocated.  Patent  breech  percussion  shotgun. 

SMITH,  L.  C— Syracuse  and  Fulton,  N.  Y.  Modern. 

SMITH,  Levi— Church  Street,  Clyde,  Ohio,  1866-69. 

SMITH,  Lewis— Tiffin,  Ohio,  1858-59. 

SMITH,  M.— Pennsylvania.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

SMITH,  M. — Unlocated.  Under-hammer  percussion  pistol,  curly  maple 

SMITH,  Major  &   Son— Westville,  New  Haven,  Conn.,   1866-68. 

SMITH,  Martin— Greenfield,  Mass.  Listed  as  gun  maker  in  1827,  1829, 
and  1836,  when  his  shop  was  sold.  Was  commissioned  paymaster 
2nd  Regiment,  2nd  Brigade,  4th  Division  of  Massachusetts  Militia 
in  1823.  Discharged  in  1830.  Maker  of  a  full  cherry  stock,  Ken- 
tucky type,  flintlock  rifle  of  fine  workmanship.  The  octagon 
barrel  is  marked  on  left  side  near  breech  "M.  SMITH  GREEN- 
FIELD, MASS."  in  two  lines.  The  English,  gooseneck  hammer 
lock  is  marked  "R.  NORRIS." 

SMITH,  Obadiah— Brunswick  County,  Va.,  1810. 

SMITH,  Otis  A.— Rock  Falls,  Conn.,  about  1873-84.  Maker  of  Smith 
revolvers  under  patent  of  April  15,  1873,  No.  137,968. 

SMITH,  Patrick— 189  Main  St.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1835-70.  Percussion 
cadet  rifles.  Revolving  pill-lock  rifle. 

SMITH  &  PECARE— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1851. 

SMITH,  P. — Unlocated.   Script  marking  of  a  handsome,  well-made, 

swivel-breech,  superposed  barrels,  flintlock  rifle,  circa  1830. 
SMITH,  Pete— Huntingdon,  Pa.,  about  1880.  Fine  craftsman. 

American  Gun  Makers  201 

SMITH,  P.  F.— Saltillo,  Pa. 

SMITH,  S. — Maker  of  a  curly  maple,  full  stock,  percussion  Kentucky 
rifle  with  long,  engraved  patchbox,  silver  inlays  and  set  trigger. 

SMITH  &  SAVAGE— Middletown,  Conn.,  about  1876.  Makers  of 
cartridge  revolvers  in  the  old  S.  North  factory  building. 

SMITH,  Seth— Council  Bluffs,  Iowa,  1803-1865,  and  possibly  later. 
Born  in  New  Hampshire  in  1803.  Family  moved  to  Lorain,  Ohio, 
in  his  childhood.  Came  to  Council  Bluffs,  in  1852,  and  in  1853 
"took  up"  land  and  built  the  first  house  in  Grant  Township, 
Monona  Co.,  Iowa.  Was  local  blacksmith  and  gunsmith,  using 
his  natural  mechanical  bent.  Did  much  work  for  the  Indians 
who  hunted  in  the  Sioux  Valley.  Had  been  appointed  govern- 
ment blacksmith  on  the  Omaha  Indian  Reservation  1858-62. 
Made  percussion  rifles  and  shotguns.  Rifle  reported  marked 
"SETH  SMITH  SMITHLAND"  on  barrel. 

SMITH,  Stoeffel— Pennsylvania,  about  1790-1800.  Marked  his  name 
on  barrels  in  silver  inlay. 

SMITH,  Thomas — North  Carolina  arms  maker.  Authorized  March  4, 
1777,  by  the  State  to  repair  arms  of  the  Continental  troops  raised 
in  the  state. 

SMITH,  Thomas— 118  Broad  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1801. 

SMITH,  W.  H. — New  York.  Marking  on  a  percussion  pistol.  Possibly 
dealer  only. 

SMITH,  William — Elizabethtown,  Ky.  Percussion  rifles. 

SMITH,  W.  W.— Saltillo,  Pa. 

SMITH  &  WESSON— The  arms  manufacturing  firm  of  Smith  & 
Wesson  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  had  its  origin  in  the  partnership 
of  Horace  Smith  with  Daniel  B.  Wesson,  the  younger  brother 
of  Edwin  Wesson,  co -inventor  of  the  Wesson  &  Leavitt  revolver. 
Courtland  Palmer,  who  had  the  rights  to  the  Jennings  mechan- 
ism, was  also  an  associate  in  the  firm.  The  association  of  Smith 
and  Wesson  had  begun  while  both  were  in  the  employ  of  Allen, 
Brown  &  Luther,  rifle  makers  of  Worcester,  Mass.,  in  1852. 

Smith  &  Wesson  began  with  the  manufacture  of  a  magazine 
firearm  based  on  the  Horace  Smith  patent  of  Aug.  23,  1851, 
No.  8,317,  with  improvements  which  they  bought  from  B.  Tyler 
Henry,  and  incorporated  in  a  repeating  pistol,  patented  under 
the  Smith  &  Wesson  name  on  Feb.  14,  1854,  No.  10,535.  In  order 
to  attract  working  capital  to  the  firm,  the  Volcanic  Repeating 
Arms  Company  was  incorporated  in  July,  1855,  to  which  Smith 
&  Wesson  turned  over  their  patent  of  1851,  as  well  as  new 
patent  of  Aug.  8,  1854,  No.  11,496,  for  an  improved  cartridge. 

Shortly  after  the  incorporation,  Horace  Smith  withdrew  from 
the  firm  and  went  to  Springfield,  Mass.,  where  he  engaged  in 
gunsmith  trade  with  his  brother-in-law,  Collins.  Wesson  re- 
mained with  the  Volcanic. 

Among  the  larger  stockholders  of  the  Volcanic  Company 
was  Oliver  F.  Winchester,  a  shirt  manufacturer  of  New  Haven, 
Conn.  Doubtless  under  his  influence,  the  Volcanic  Repeating 
Arms  Company  moved  from  Norwich  to  New  Haven  in  February, 
1856.  On  the  11th  of  the  same  month  Daniel  B.  Wesson  resigned 
from  the  firm  to  devote  his  time  to  the  development  of  a  car- 
tridge revolver. 

His  experiments  were  successful.  On  Nov.  17,  1856,  Wesson 
bought   from   Rollin   White   the   exclusive   right   to   the   White 

202  American  Gun  Makers 

patent  of  a  "cylinder  bored  end  to  end."  After  looking  about 
unsuccessfully  for  a  building  in  which  to  manufacture  the  arm 
in  New  Haven,  about  May  1,  1857,  Wesson  rejoined  his  former 
partner,  Horace  Smith  in  Springfield,  where  they  leased  a  build- 
ing on  Market  Street,  and  started  the  production  of  parts.  By 
October  of  1857,  they  were  ready  to  put  their  arms  on  the 
market,  upon  the  expiration  of  the  Colt  patents  in  the  fall  of 

The  first  Smith  &  Wesson  revolver  was  a  small,  caliber 
.22  arm,  using  a  metallic  shell  cartridge.  With  the  development 
of  better  methods  of  production  and  annealing  of  copper  shells, 
resulting  in  greater  tensile  strengths,  and  solving  problems 
arising  from  lack  of  outside  support  in  the  early  revolver 
cartridges,  Smith  &  Wesson  brought  out  larger  calibers,  result- 
ing later,  through  improvements  in  the  actions  as  well,  in 
such  famous  arms  as  the  American,  Schofield,  and  lastly  the 
famous  side-swing  model  of  1917,  153,311  of  which  were  pur- 
chased by  the  U.  S.  government  between  April  6,  1917,  and 
December,  1918,  for  the  use  of  the  American  armed  forces  dur- 
ing the  World  War. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  in  the  early  days  of  the  cart- 
ridge revolvers,  through  their  control  of  the  Rollin  White  patent 
for  a  "cylinder  bored  end  to  end,"  Smith  &  Wesson  had  a  virtual 
monopoly  of  the  manufacture  of  cartridge  revolving  arms,  and 
until  1869,  when  the  Rolling  White  patent  expired,  the  firm  suc- 
cessfully prevented  competitive  manufacture  of  cartridge  re- 
volvers which  infringed  on  their  patents,  by  promise  of  infringe- 
ment suits  and  actual  court  action,  which  in  a  number  of  in- 
stances resulted  in  the  confiscation  of  the  competitors'  stock  of 
manufactured  arms. 

SMUTS— Piqua,  Miami  Co.,  Ohio. 

SMYTH,  Thomas— Chester  Town,  Md.  Notified  the  Council  of  Safety 
on  July  2,  1776,  that  he  had  50  guns  ready  to  be  proved. 

SNEIDER— Of  Clark  &  Sneider,  214  Pratt  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.  1876- 
84.  Inventor  and  maker  of  Sneider  rotating  bolt  shotguns.  Had 
worked  in  Europe.  As  early  as  1846  had  choke-bored  large  bore 
wildfowl  guns  "the  guns  being  so  choked  that  a  cut  wad  could 
not  be  used." 

SNEIDER — Lancaster,  Pa.,   before   1775. 

SNEIDER,  Anthony— Lancaster,  Pa. 

SNEIDER,  Chas.— Boonville,  Ind.,  1875. 

SNEIDER,  Charles  A — Baltimore,  Md.  About  1862.  14-shot  brass 
frame  .22  revolver  with  two  7-shot  cylinders  on  same  shaft. 

SNEIDER,  T.— Unlocated. 

SNELL,  Chauncey— Auburn,  N.  Y.,  about  1830-60.  Son  of  Elijah  Snell. 

SNELL,  Elijah— Auburn,  N.  Y.  Active  about  1820,  until  his  death 
in  1834. 

SNEVELY,  Jacob  (also  Sneveley,  Snevley)— Harrisburg,  Pa.,  in  1817. 
A  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle,  .53  calibre,  8-groove. 

SNTVELY,  William— Flint's  Mills,  Washington  Co.,  Ohio.  1854-65. 

SNOW  &  COE— New  Haven,  Conn.  Makers  of  "Kalamazoo"  air  pistols 
under  Hawley  patent  of  1869. 

S.  N.  &  W.  T.  C— See  Norris,  S.  &  W.  T.  Clement. 

American  Gun  Makers  203 

SNYDER,  Adam,  George,  Henry,  John — Providence  Township,  Lan- 
caster Co.,  Pa.,  representing  several  generations  of  gunsmiths. 

SNYDER,  Ira — Woodward,  Union  Co.,  Pa.,  percussion  period. 

SNYDER,  Ira  E. — Unlocated.  Percussion  over-under  Kentucky  rifle. 
May  be  same  as  Ira  Snyder,  above. 

SNYDER,  I.  or  J. — Unlocated.  Superbly  ornamented  percussion  Ken- 
tucky rifle  with  German  silver  inlays  of  Lion  &  Union  Jack 
facing  Eagle  &  Stars  and  Stripes;  name  in  script  on  lock  and 

SNYDER,  Jacon— Liberty  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  1860.  Possibly  the 
same  as  I.  or  J.  Snyder  above.  I.  and  J.  were  used  interchange- 

SNYDER,  Tobias— Liberty  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1857. 

SOLEIL,  Francis — New  Amsterdam,  1656. 

SOMERS,  H.— -Barnett,  Vt.  Heavy  barrel,  double-set  trigger,  Ger- 
man silver  trim,  percussion  match  rifle. 

SOPER,  Loren — Theresa,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

SOPER  &  LYONS — Sioux  City,  Iowa.  Half  stock,  .44  caliber,  per- 
cussion, plains  rifle. 

SOPER,  P. — Unlocated.  Percussion  rifles. 

SOREY,  E.  N. — Danville,  Va.,  1862.  Engaged  in  arms  repair  for  the 

SOUBIE,  Armand — New  Orleans,  La.,  gunsmith  and  arms  importer 
listed  in  Michel's  New  Orleans  Annual  and  Commercial  Register 
at  24  Toulouse  Street,  in  the  1834  issue  published  in  December 
1833.  Listed  in  the  City  Directory  from  1835  to  1861.  Located  at 
160  Chartres  in  1853.  Returned  to  France  during  the  Civil  War. 

SOUTHERLAND,  C— Geneva,  N.  Y.  Percussion  holster  pistol  with 
"Golcher"  lock. 

SOUTHGATE,  R. — Madison,  Tenn.  Modern  authentic  reproductions, 
restorations,  and  repair. 

SOWERS— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  (lock  only?). 
A  percussion  lock  marked  "SOWERS"  on  a  Wm.  Bodenheimer 
rifle  is  reported. 

SOWERS  &  SMITH— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  lock  marked 
"SOWERS  &  SMITH,"  on  a  full  maple  stock  rifle  by  Diesinger, 

S.  P. — State  of  New  Jersey  marking  for  "State  Property." 

SPANG  &  WALLACE— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Makers  of  full  maple  stock, 
ornate  brass  trim,  flintlock  and  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SPANGLE,  P. — Unlocated.  Halfstock,  double-set  trigger,  percussion 
hunting  rifle. 

SPANGLER,  G.— "LIVERPOOL."  Marking  on  barrel  of  fine,  circa 
1830,  Kentucky  rifle  of  northern  Penna.  style. 

SPANGLER,  George— Monroe,  Wis.,  1846-1914.  Percussion  shotguns, 
target  rifles,  and  single  and  double  barrel  hunting  rifles  includ- 
ing the  over-under  type.  Dealer  only  after  about  1870.  Son  of 
Samuel  Spangler. 

SPANGLER,  Samuel — Located  in  Somerset  County,  Pennsylvania, 
before  1846.  Made  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  in  Pennsylvania.  In 
1844  left  the  state  with  wife  and  son,  George,  and  moved  to 

204  American  Gun  Makers 

Wisconsin,  settling  in  Monroe  in  1846.  Probably  died  before  1856. 

Flintlock    rifle    with    brass    sideplate    engraved    "STOYSTOWN 

1830."  Stoystown  is  in  Somerset  County,  Pa. 
SPARKS,  Thomas— Shot  manufacturer.  476  South  Front,  Phila.,  Pa., 

SPARLING,  Lewis  D. — Pennsylvania  and  New  York.  Learned  under 

the   Lemans    at   Lancaster,    Pa.;    migrated   to   Fallsburg,   N.   Y., 

where  he  made  flintlock  rifles  until  the  Civil  War.  Son  Leslie 

M.  Sparling  was  working  in  Montour  Co.,  Pa.,  in  1930. 
SPAULDING,  Abel— North  Buckfield,  Me.   Percussion  rifles. 
SPAULDING— Hartland,  Vt.  Percussion  period.  Same  as  Abel  Spaul- 

SPEAR,  L. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles  and  rifled  pocket 

SPECHT,  A.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 
SPECHT,  Eley— (Also  Elias  Spect)  Beavertown,  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  Late 

percussion  period;  over-under  rifle-shotguns. 
SPECHT,  M. — Unlocated.  Percussion,  swivel-breech  percussion  rifles. 
SPECT,  Adam   (or   Specht) — Bevertown,  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  Kentucky 

SPECT,  Moah — Bellville,  Pa.  Probably  same  as  M.  Specht,  maker  of 

swivel-breech,  over-under  percussion  rifles. 
SPEED,  Robert— Boston,  Mass.,  1820-40. 
SPELTER,    John — Joliet,    111.,    in    1889.    Born    1853;    gunsmith    and 

Schuetzen  match  shooter. 
SPENCE,  P.  I. — Marietta,  Ohio.  Recent  percussion  rifles. 
SPENCER,  A.  F.— Winsted,  Conn.  Percussion  target  rifle. 
SPENCER   ARMS    CO.— Windsor,   Conn.,    about   1885-93.   Makers   of 

repeating  shotguns  of  all  grades  under  Spencer  patent  of  Feb. 

26,    1885.    The   shotgun   mechanism   was   the   joint   invention   of 

Christopher  M.  Spencer,  of  Spencer  repeating  carbine  fame,  and 

of  Sylvester  M.  Roper.  In  1902,  the  Company  was  controlled  by 

Francis  Bannerman  and  his  associates. 
SPENCER,  DwighWWest  Hartford,  Conn.,  1868.  Percussion  telescope 

target  rifle. 
SPENCER,  Dwight  W.— Hartford,  Conn.,  about  1860. 

SPENCER,  J. — Unlocated.  Half  stock,  brass  mounted,  percussion 
rifle  with  lock  by  Joseph  Griffith,  Louisville,  Ky. 

SPENCER  REPEATING-RIFLE  CO.— Chickering  Building,  Tremont 
St.,  Boston,  Mass.,  about  1861-69.  Makers  of  7-shot,  tube  maga- 
zine, cartridge  carbines  and  rifles  based  on  the  Christopher  M. 
Spencer  patent  of  March  6,  1860,  No.  27,393.  During  the  Civil 
War  and  up  to  Jan.  1,  1866,  12,471  Spencer  rifles  and  64,685 
carbines  were  procured  by  the  Ordnance  Department.  In  addition 
30,496  Spencer  carbines  were  obtained  from  the  Burnside  Rifle 
Co.  Spencer  arms  were  also  purchased  with  private  funds  to 
equip  state  troops. 

The  Company  went  out  of  business  Sept.  12,  1869,  when  the 
plant  was  sold  at  auction  and  was  absorbed  by  the  Winchester 
Repeating  Arms  Co. 

SPERL,  H. — Or  Speerl,  Susquehanna  Depot,  Pa.  Percussion  Sport- 
ing rifles. 

American  Gun  Makers  205 

SPICKER,  G.  &  F. — Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Double  percussion  shotgun. 

SPIES,  A.  W.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1820-1851.  Died  1860.  Maker  of  six- 
shot,  percussion,  pepperbox  pistols,  and  octagonal  barrel,  keyed 
half  stock  target  rifle  with  double  set  triggers  and  engraved  lock 
marked  "A.  W.  SPIES  WARENTED." 

SPIES,  KISSAN  &  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1873-76. 

SPILLER  &  BURR— Edward  N.  Spiller  and  David  J.  Burr,  Atlanta, 
Ga.,  June  12,  1862  to  February  1864,  when  the  firm  moved  to 
Macon,  Ga.  Makers  of  .36  caliber,  Confederate  revolvers  on  the 
Whitney  Navy  Model,  but  with  brass  frame.  These  were  usually 
marked  on  the  barrel,  "SPILLER  &  BURR,"  bore  a  serial  num- 
ber and  sometimes  "CS"  on  the  right  side  of  the  frame.  Due  to 
lagging  deliveries  after  initial  production  of  some  six  hundred 
revolvers,  the  firm  was  bought  out  by  the  Confederate  Govern- 
ment February  7th,  1864,  and  the  firms  name  omitted  on  arms 
made  under  government  ownership,  only  the  continued  serial 
number  and  "CS"  being  retained  on  the  next  six  or  seven  hun- 
dred made  prior  to  the  end  of  the  Civil  War. 

SPITZER — Father  and  son,  musket  makers  to  Virginia  Committee 
of  Safety  1775-76.  Location  unknown  during  the  War  of  Revolu- 
tion, but  subsequently,  the  son  moved  to  Newmarket,  Va.,  where 
he  was  active  until  1825. 

SPITZER,  W.— Reported  maker  of  heavy,  Kentucky  type,  flintlock 
match  rifle. 

SPORLEDER,  Louis— Walsenburgh,  Col.,  1867-75. 

SPRAGUE— Louden,  Ohio,  before  and  after  1846.  P.  A.  Reinhard 
had  been  apprenticed  to  Sprague. 

SPRAGUE  &  LATHROP— Stevens  Point,  Wis.  Percussion  period. 
Double  Barrel  side-by-side,  high  grade  hunting  rifle. 

SPRAGUE  &  MARSTON— New  York,  N.  Y.  Makers  of  6-shot  per- 
cussion pepperbox  and  single-shot  pistols  of  the  same  construc- 
tion as  the  Marston  &  Knox. 

SPRATLEY,  W.  C— Norfolk,  Vt.  Flintlock  fowling  piece. 

SPRINGFIELD  ARMORY— Springfield,  Mass.,  1795  to  date.  U.  S. 
Government  manufactory  of  arms  which  developed  gradually 
out  of  an  arsenal  and  powder  magazine  established  on  Washing- 
ton's approval  in  1777.  Begun  at  first  as  a  depot  for  the  manu- 
facture of  musket  cartridges  and  gun  carriages,  the  depot  soon 
broadened  its  activities  to  the  repair  of  small  arms  and  the 
preparation  and  supply  of  munitions  of  war  and  ordnance  of 
of  all  kinds  to  the  Continental  armies.  When  in  1792,  Congress 
authorized  the  establishment  of  two  national  arsenals,  and  on 
April  12,  1794,  directed  the  construction  of  two  Federal  armories, 
President  Washington  combined  the  storage  and  manufacturing 
authorizations,  and  selected  for  the  combined  purposes,  Spring- 
field in  the  North,  and  Harpers  Ferry  in  the  South.  The  manu- 
facture of  arms  at  the  Springfield  Armory  began  in  1795,  in 
which  year  245  muskets  were  laboriously  produced,  mostly  by 
hand.  Production  facilities  were  rapidlv  increased,  until  by  1825, 
the  armory  reached  an  annual  output  of  15,000  muskets.  In 
addition  to  muskets  and  pattern  arms,  as  well  as  250  rifles  re- 
corded in  1819,  the  armory  produced  1,000  horse  pistols  in  1818, 
and  4,021  pistol-carbines  in  1856-57. 

Subsequently,    under   the   able   management    of   the   U.    S. 

206  American  Gun  Makers 

Ordnance  Department,  the  Springfield  Armory  maintained  a 
splendid  record  of  service  in  all  national  emergencies.  It  reached 
its  peak  production  of  small  arms  in  October,  1918,  with  a  daily- 
output  of  well  over  one  thousand  Model  1903  (Springfield)  rifles. 

SPRINGFIELD  ARMS  CO.— Springfield,  Mass.,  1850-69.  Operated  by 
James  Warner  as  an  arms  manufactory,  and  later  under  his  own 
name.  Made  Jacquith  percussion  revolvers  under  patent  of  July 
12,  1838,  No.  832,  and  James  Warner  patent  percussion  revolvers 
under  patents  of  Jan.  7,  1851,  No.  7,894  and  July  15,  1851,  No. 
8,229.  Cartridge  revolvers  made  by  the  firm  about  1863,  in- 
fringed on  the  Smith  &  Wesson  controlled  patents,  and  1,513 
were  turned  over  to  S.  &  W.  in  1863.  See  Warner,  James. 

SPRINGFIELD  MANUFACTURING  CO.— Ludlow,  Mass.  Sub-con- 
tractor to  Springfield  Armory  for  musket  barrels  in  early  1800's. 

SQUIRE  &  ROGERS— Unidentified.  Makers  of  flintlock  Kentucky 

S.  R.  F. — Unidentified.  Waynesboro,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifle. 

S.  S.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

STACY  &  ANGEL— Knoxville,  Tenn.  Advertised  in  1871  as  "manu- 
facturers of  rifles,"  and  "rifles  made  to  order." 

STAEGE,  William — Omro,  Wis.  Modern.  Mostly  maker  of  rifle  barrels 
for  target  rifles,  but  has  made  several  .22  caliber  bolt  action 
rifles  of  his  own  design. 

STAFFORD — Unlocated,  possibly  British.  Front-action  percussion 
lock  on  Kentucky  smooth  rifle  by  Waggoner,  Schenectady,  N.  Y. 

STAFFORD,  T.  J.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1860-61.  Maker  of  small  gold- 
plated,  pearl  handled  "Lady's  Pistols."  Stafford  was  a  printer  at 
88  State  Street,  in  1854.  After  a  brief  fling  at  arms-making,  he 
went  back  to  printing  business  in  1865-66.  He  is  listed  as  a 
cartridge  maker  in  1877. 

STAHL,  C— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1810-20.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

STAHL,  C.  T. — Pennsylvania.  Curly  maple,  half  stock,  brass  mounted, 
flintlock,  8-groove  rifle  with  30  inlays  and  German  silver  patch- 
box.  Same  as  Stahl,  C? 

STALTER,  William — Logan,   Ohio.  Percussion  sporting  rifles. 

STAMM,  P.  H. — Maker  of  a  brass  trim,  half  stock,  percussion,  Ken- 
tucky type  rifle  with  double  set  triggers. 

STANBER— Houstontown,  Pa.,  1850. 

STANDARD  ARM  CO.— Wilmington,  Del.  Modern  Makers  of  gas 
operated  automatic  rifles  and  slide-action  repeating  rifles. 

STANDARD   TOOL   CO.— Unlocated.  Makers  of  a  .22  cal.  revolver. 

STANNARD,  F.  P.  GUN  CO.— Milwaukee,  Wis.,  gunmakers  located 
at  414  E.  Water,  in  1891  and  at  13  Grand  Ave.,  in  1893. 

STAPLETON,  James— Todd,  Huntingdon  Co.,  Pa.  Late  percussion 
period  over-under  rifles  and  fancy  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 
Fine  craftsman. 

STAPLETON,  Joseph— Orbisonia,  Huntingdon  Co.,  Pa.  Skilled  maker 
of  Kentucky  rifles.  (Related  to  or  same  as  Stapleton,  James?) 

STARR— Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1750-1760.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle 
with  carved  high-comb  fullstock  and  slender  wrist. 

STARR— Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1800. 

STARR  ARMS  CO.— Store  and  office  267  Broadway,  New  York  and 

American  Gun  Makers  207 

plants  at  Yonkers,  Binghamton  and  Morrisania,  N.  Y.,  about 
1858-67.  Makers  of  revolvers  under  the  Eben  T.  Starr  patent 
of  Jan.  15,  1856,  No.  14,118.  There  were  5,000  Starr  revolving 
pistols  contracted  for  by  the  government  Nov.  24,  1858,  and  a 
total  of  47,952  Starr  revolvers  of  all  types  purchased  during  the 
Civil  War.  The  firm  also  made  single-shot  and  4-shot  Derringer 

The  firm  also  made  Starr  breech-loading  percussion  car- 
bines patented  Sept.  14,  1858,  No.  21,523,  of  which  20,601  were 
delivered  during  the  Civil  War.  An  additional  5,001  Starr  rim- 
fire  cartridge  carbines  were  purchased  in  1865. 

The  Starr  plant  located  in  Binghamton,  was  later  sold  to 
"Jones  of  Binghamton — He  Pays  the  Freight,"  who  made  scales 
for  many  years.  He  was  Gen.  Edward  F.  Jones,  who  commanded 
the  Massachusetts  regiment  that  was  fired  on  while  marching 
through  Baltimore,  early  in  the  Civil  War.  The  Binghamton 
street  leading  to  the  former  location  of  the  plant,  is  still  called 
Starr  Avenue.  The  site  is  now  occupied  by  the  Daniel  S.  Dick- 
inson School. 

The  president  of  the  Starr  Arms  Co.,  was  H.  H.  Wolcott, 
inventor  of  the  Wolcott  carbine,  patented  Nov.  27,  1866,  No. 
60,106.  Probabilities  are  that  the  Wolcott  carbine  (specimen 
in  the  National  Museum)  was  made  in  the  Starr  shops. 

STARR,  N.  &  SON — Middletown,  Conn.,  active  as  riflemakers  from 
about  1823  to  1845.  The  firm  was  originated  as  sword  makers 
about  1798,  by  Nathan  Starr  (Sr.)  who  received  a  large  govern- 
ment saber  and  sword  contract.  His  son,  Nathan,  Jr.,  entered 
the  firm  about  1798,  the  name  being  later  changed  to  N.  Starr 
&  Son.  The  Starrs  contracted  on  Dec.  9,  1823,  for  4,000  Model 
1817  rifles  at  $14.50  each,  to  be  delivered  at  the  rate  of  800  per 
annum  from  July  1,  1823.  Contract  of  Oct.  28,  1830,  details 
unknown.  March  17,  1840,  the  firm  obtained  an  additional  con- 
tract for  6,000  flintlock  rifles  at  $14.50  each,  duration  five  years, 
at  12,000  per  year.  Nathan  Starr,  Jr.,  died  at  Middletown,  on 
Aug.  31,  1852. 

STATE  RIFLE  WORKS— Greenville,  S.  C,  1863-64.  Operated  by 
George  W.  Morse.  Makers  of  breech-loading  carbines  and  muskets 
with  "inside"  locks.  See  also  Morse,  George  W. 

STATES,  S.— Pennsylvania.  Kentucky  rifles. 

STATLER,  William— Main  Street,  Logan,  Ohio,  1868-74. 

ST.  CLAIR,  S.  H. — Pennsylvania.  Early  maker  of  a  very  fine  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle.  About  1800  or  earlier.  Lock  by  Southerland 
(Revolutionary  period  British  lock  maker),  but  may  be  a  replace- 

STEADMAN,  F.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifles. 

STEADMAN,  J. — Lock  marking  of  an  over-under,  combination,  per- 
cussion rifle-shotgun. 

STEDMOND  &  SON— Lancaster,  Pa.  No  details. 

STEEL,  Archibald— Military  Storekeeper.  U.  S.  Arsenal,  Phila.,  Pa. 

STEEL,  John — The  family  of  John  Steel  and  two  sons,  gunsmiths  all, 
active  from  about  1771-87.  All  had  been  appointed  Armorers  to 
the  Colony  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  July  7,  1775. 

STEELE  &  LATHROP— Albany,  N.  Y.,  about  1860.  Makers  of  per- 
cussion pistols. 

208  American  Gun  Makers 

STEELE,  WARREN  &  CO.— Albany,  N.  Y.  A  percussion  Kentucky 
rifle  lock.  See  Warren  &  Steele. 

STEIN,  Mathias — (Or  Mathew)  Milwaukee,  Wis.  Came  to  Milwaukee 
from.  Detroit  in  1837.  Located  at  25  Market  Square  until  1865, 
after  that  at  460  Market  Square.  Percussion  hunting  and  target 

STEINMAN— "LANCASTER."  Marking  on  a  flint  lockplate  of  a 
Penna.  rifle  signed  "A.  GUMPH"  on  barrel. 

STEINMAN,  Frederick— 31  Green  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  at  31 
Green  in  1825-33,  and  on  Elizabeth  Street  in  1835-36.  (Son  of 
John  Steinman?) 

STEINMAN,  John— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  gunsmith  listed  at  442  North 
3rd  Street  in  1810-11,  then  at  17  Green  Street  in  1818-19,  51 
Green  in  1820-22,  59  Green  in  1825,  31  Green  in  1828  and  22 
Green  1829-36.  Moved  to  Germantown  Road  about  Fifth  in  1842 
and  is  last  shown  at  Clymer  above  Mud  Lane  in  1845. 

Steinman  is  believed  to  have  been  a  member  of  the  firm 
Winner,  Nippes  &  Co.,  musket  contractors  for  Model  1808  arms, 
whose  lock-plates  were  marked  "W.  N.  &  S." 

STENGEL — Lancaster,  Pa.,  1719.  Reputed  to  have  been  the  first 
German  immigrant  (Pennsylvania  Deutch)  to  make  the  Ken- 
tucky rifle  by  modification  of  the  German  hunting  rifle. 

STENGER,  T.  S.— Waterloo,  Iowa,  1866-68. 

STENZER — Lancaster,  Pa.,  Revolutionary  War  period. 

STEPHENS,  Ebenezer — Oshkosh,   Wis.,   percussion  period. 

STEREWITH— Maryland,  1775-76.  Musket  maker  to  Committee  of 

STERLING,  H.  G.— Unlocated. 

STEUCK,  P.  E.— Leadville,  Col.,  1879-81 

STEVENS,  A.  C. — Hudson,  N.  Y.  False  muzzle,  percussion  match  rifle 
with  lock  by  H.  T.  Cooper,  N.  Y.  Also  a  plains  rifle,  1856,  with 
C.  Baker  lock. 

STEVENS,  H.— Watertown,  N.  Y.  Heavy,  false  muzzle,  match  rifle 
and  superposed,  percussion  rifle-shotguns. 

STEVENS,  J.  &  CO. — Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.  The  business  was  estab- 
lished by  Joshua  Stevens,  who  was  born  in  Chester,  Hampton 
Co.,  Mass.,  Sept.  10,  1814.  In  1837,  after  serving  a  four-year 
apprenticeship  in  a  machine  shop  in  Chester,  he  secured  em- 
ployment with  C.  B.  Allen,  arms  manufacturer  at  Springfield. 
Later  he  worked  with  other  firearms  firms,  until  1864,  when 
with  the  invention  of  a  small  pocket  pistol,  Stevens  in  associa- 
tion with  James  E.  Taylor  and  William  B.,  established  J.  Stevens 
&  Co. 

In  1888  the  firm  was  incorporated  as  the  J.  Stevens  Arms 
&  Tool  Co.,  and  after  the  World  War  became  the  J.  Stevens 
Arms  Co.,  controlled  by  the  Savage  Arms  Corporation. 

STEVENS,  J.  ARMS   &   TOOL   CO.— Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.   See   J. 

Stevens  &  Co.,  above. 
STEVENTS,  J.  ARMS  CO.— Chicopee  Falls,  Mass.  Modern.  Makers 

of  the  Stevens  line  of  rifles,  pistols  and  shotguns.  See  J.  Stevens 

&  Co.,  above. 

STEVENS,  JOHN  &  CO.— Musket  makers  to  the  Commonwealth  of 
Pennsylvania.   There   is  recorded   160  pounds  paid   on   account, 

American  Gun  Makers  209 

on  April  9,   1777,   and  27  muskets   delivered  to   the  state  that 

STEVENS,  Thos.  H.— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms  (ship's  cut- 
lasses) in  1816  at  the  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

STEWART— Bucyrus,  Ohio.  Rifles  and  revolvers. 

STEWART — Lewistown,  Pa.  Kentucky  rifles. 

STEWART,  John— 6  Light  St.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  1810. 

STICKLER— Dayton,  Ohio,  1837.  Worked  with  J.  Wilt.  Made  rifle 
and  shotgun  barrels. 

STILDENBAUER,  Asa— Winesburg,  Holmes  Co.,  Ohio.  Half-stock 
percussion  rifle  marked  "A.  S."  on  barrel. 

STILGENBAUER,  A.— Unlocated.  Reported  maker  of  a  fancy,  silver- 
inlaid  halfstock  percussion  squirrel  rifle  with  squirrel  engraved 
on  patchbox  lid.  Probably  misreading  for  Stildenbauer. 

STILLMAN,  AMOS  &  CO.— Farmington,  Conn.  Amos  and  Ethan 
Stillman,  contractors  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  500  muskets 
at  $13.40  per  stand,  of  which  525  (excess  of  25)  were  delivered 
by  June  10,  1801. 

Amos  Stillman  &  Co.,  are  recorded  to  have  been  paid  in 
full  a  total  of  $7,035,  as  follows:  in  1799— $978.20;  in  1800— 
$1,701.80  and  in  1801  the  balance  of  $4,355.00,  completing  the 
payment  for  525  stands  of  arms.  See  Ethan  Stillman. 

STILLMAN,  Ethan — Burlington,  Conn.,  musket  maker.  In  associa- 
tion with  his  brother  Amos  of  Farmington,  contracted  for  500 
muskets  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798.  Completed  deliveries  with 
25  stands  excess  by  June  10,  1801. 

On  Sept.  14,  1808,  Ethan  Stillman  (alone)  contracted  for 
2,200  muskets  to  be  delivered  over  a  period  of  five  years.  Of 
these  825  were  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

Ethan  Stillman  was  born  at  Westerly,  R.  I.,  in  1768.  After 
working  as  a  youth  in  the  New  York  Iron  Works  at  Stoning- 
ton,  he  worked  for  a  while  as  a  shoemaker.  In  1798  he  moved 
to  Farmington  where  with  his  brother  he  obtained  and  com- 
pleted the  contract  of  1798,  on  which  he  cleared  a  profit  of 
$1,000.  In  1803  he  moved  to  Burlington,  where  he  established 
a  gunsmith  shop.  It  was  here  that  he  undertook  the  1808  con- 
tract which  he  apparently  fulfilled  after  considerable  difficulties 
with  the  government.  Upon  completion  of  the  contract  he  moved 
to  Brookfield,  N.  Y. 

STING— Tiffin,  Seneca  Co.,  Ohio. 

STINGER,  Thomas — Lycoming  County  and  Jersey  Shore,  Pa.,  about 

STITZELL,  Adam— Employed  as  musket  barrel  maker  by  Joseph 
Henry  in  1810. 

STOCKING,  Alexander— Operator  of  Stocking  &  Co.  Had  been  em- 
ployee of  Allen,  Brown  &  Luther. 

STOCKING  &  CO.— Worcester,  Mass.,  1849-52.  Operated  by  Alex- 
ander Stocking.  Makers  of  percussion  single-shot  and  6-shot 
pepperbox  pistols. 

STOEHR,  I.— Maker  of  full  stock,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

STOEY,  Gustavus— Lancaster,  Pa.  Appointed  and  commissioned  In- 
spector of  Arms  by  the  Governor  of  Pennsylvania,  Jan.  7,  1806, 
vice  Peter  Getz,  resigned.  Stoey  was  authorized  on  July  10,  1810, 

210  American  Gun  Makers 

to  receive  from  the  widow  of  Peter  Getz  all  public  arms  and 
parts  left  in  her  possession  by  the  former  inspector. 

STOKES,  Enoch — Lancaster,  Pa.  Two  gunsmiths  of  same  name  listed 
at  different  addresses  in  the  1857  Directory. 

STONE,  David — Walpole,  N.  H.,  musket  maker.  In  association  with 
Gurdon  Huntington,  John  Livingston  and  Josiah  Bellow,  con- 
tractor for  1,000  Charleville  pattern,  (Model  1795)  muskets  at 
$13.40  per  stand,  contracted  for  under  the  Act  of  July  5,  1798. 
Of  these  608  were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

STONER,  John—Webster,  Westmoreland  Co.,  Pa. 

STORY,  Asa— Windsor,  Va.,  1835. 

STOSSMEISTER,  Charles— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1857-63. 

STOUDENOUR,  Jacob— Colerain  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  about 
1825.  Died  in  1871. 

STRAUB,  John— Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  1847-1923.  Specialized  in  heavy 
target  rifles.  Good  workmanship. 

STREETS,  Charles— Portsmouth,  Scioto  Co.,  Ohio,  1829. 

STRIECER,  E.  J.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

STRODE,  John — Culpepper  County,  Va.  Manager  of  the  Rappa- 
hannock Forge,  or  Hunter  Iron  Works  and  gun  factory  at 
Falmouth  during  its  operation  1776-81.  After  the  Revolutionary 
War,  Strode  apparently  retained  arms  manufacturing  connec- 
tions, as  he  (unsuccessfully)  submitted  bids  for  the  manufacture 
of  muskets  for  the  State  of  Virginia  on  March  18,  1796,  and 
Sept.  7,  1797.  Was  inspector  of  arms  made  by  Home  &  Wheeler 
in  1801-02. 

STROHHECKER,  H.  F.— Charleston,  S.  C.  Reported  marking  on  12 
inch  percussion  pistol  with  belt  hook. 

STROHECKER  &  EWBANK— Late  flint  lock  with  reinforced  hammer 
and  roller  frizzen-spring  bearing,  factory  decorated.  Poorly  fitted 
to  a  southern  Kentucky  rifle. 

S.  T.  S.— Mark  of  Samuel  Todd  Sherwood. 

STROHL,  J.— Fremont,  Ohio,  1868-70. 

STRONG  FIREARMS  CO.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1881-83.  Breechload- 
ing  shot-guns  with  interchangeable  rifle  barrels. 

STRONG,  H.  A. — Unlocated.  Percussion  rifles. 

STROSSMEISTER,  Charles— Cincinnati,  Ohio,  1857-1863. 

STROUP,  O.  M.— Wellington,  Ohio,  1880-83. 

STUART,  Charles — 43  Washington  St.,  Binghamton,  N.  Y.  Ex-em- 
ployee of  Bartlett  Bros.  Made  high  grade  rifles  in  his  own 
establishment  1850-83.  Also  underhammer  percussion  pistols. 

STUBBLEFIELD,  James; — Superintendent  Harpers  Ferry  Armory, 

STUDTE,  F.— 638  Commercial,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1861-62;  648 
Commercial,   1863-65. 

STULL,  S. — Ohio.  Well-made  halfstock  percussion  rifle  stamped  with 
name  on  barrel  and  "S.  STULL,  OHIO"  on  lock. 

STURDIVANT,  Lewis  G.— Talladega,  Ala.,  rifle  contractor  to  the 
Confederacy.  The  plant  was  on  the  south  side  of  Battle  Street 
west,  three  doors  below  S.W.  Crossing  of  Court  St.,  in  a  two 
story  building  still  standing,  numbered  116-118.  The  contract  was 
of  March  6,  1862  for  2,000  Enfield  or  Mississippi  type  rifles.  About 
280  rifles  were  delivered,  some  not  up  to  standard. 

Sturdivant  had  been  a  jeweller  and  rented  the  building  from 

American  Gun  Makers  211 

Mr.  S.  D.  Watson  for  the  manufacture  of  arms.  It  was  then  a 
two  story  shop,  the  lower  floor  used  as  a  blacksmith  and  ma- 
chinery shop,  the  upper  story  was  the  woodworking  shop  where 
the  stocks  were  made  and  guns  finished. 

STURGIS,  Julius— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

STUTSMAN,  J.  G.— Dayton,  Ohio.  Stamping  on  factory-made  late 
percussion  lock  on  a  Kentucky  rifle. 

SUE,  W. — Pennsylvania.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SUMNER  ARMORY— Gallatin,  Tenn.,  1861  and  later.  Makers  of 
Model  1841,  Mississippi,  type  rifles. 

SUNDERLAND— Boulton,  Bethlehem  District,  Pa. 

SUNDERLAND  &  BLAIR— Boulton,  Bethlehem  district,  Pa.  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

SUTER,  C.  &  CO. — Rifle  contractors  to  the  Confederacy.  Selma, 
Alabama.  Furnished  50  Mississippi  rifles  (M.1841)  to  the  State 
of  Alabama  between  Oct.  1,  1863  and  Nov.  1,  1864.  Partner  was 
P.  Lessier. 

SUTER,  John  J. — Bucks  Co.,  Pa.,  gunsmith  of  (Edinburgh)  Scottish 
ancestry.  Born  1823  at  Ruffsdale,  Pa.  Had  been  apprenticed  to 
John  Johnson.  Made  plain,  long,  percussion  hunting  rifles  of 
large  caliber,  .40  to  .50.  No  engraving,  no  butt  plates  but  un- 
usually slender  and  light  for  their  caliber  and  length.  Used 
peculiar  enamel-like  blueing.  Made  his  own  locks;  barrels  pur- 
chased from  Brown  &  Hirth,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Rifles  marked 
"J.J.S."  on  barrel  between  cone  and  rear  sight.  Died  1902. 

SUTER,  Worthe,  G. — Ruffsdale,  Pa.,  gun  maker,  current  period.  Born 
near  Ruffsdale,  Pa.,  Oct.  6,  1896.  As  a  very  small  boy  worked  as 
a  gunsmith's  helper  with  his  grandfather,  John  J.  Suter,  until 
the  latter's  death,  then  with  C.  M.  Knupp  at  Bakersville,  Somer- 
set Co.,  Pa.  All  phases  of  gun  making:  hunting  rifles,  flint  or 
percussion,  ornamental,  with  name  and  address  stamped  on 
barrel.  Makes  own  locks,  curly  maple  or  walnut  stocks,  barrels, 
brass  and  silver  work,  set  triggers  and  ornaments. 

SUTHERLAND,  Samuel— Richmond,  Va.  His  address  is  given  at 
174  Main  Street,  in  1852,  at  132  Main  Street,  in  1855,  and  at 
1406  E.  Main  and  609  E.  Broad  in  1869.  During  the  Civil  War 
Sutherland  operated  a  large  plant  chiefly  devoted  to  alteration 
of  flintlocks  and  reclamation  of  arms  damaged  in  the  Con- 
federate service. 

SUTTON— Early  marking  of  the  A.  Waters  arms  made  at  Sutton, 
Mass.,  in  which  the  Waters  Armory  followed  the  practice  of 
the  national  armories  in  using  the  name  of  the  town  of  manu- 
facture rather  than  the  name  of  the  firm  in  marking  early 

SUTTON,  John— Gunsmith.  55  Duke,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

S.  V.  J.  D.— Unidentified.  Marking  on  late  flintlock  period,  highly 
decorated  Kentucky  rifles. 

SWAIN,  John— West  Virginia.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

SWAN,  James — Musket  contractor  to  the  State  of  Virginia  in  1800. 

SWARTZ,  Abraham— Sugar  Creek,  Tuscarawas  Co.,  Ohio,  1850-1870. 

Also  tuned  organs. 
SWARTCOOP— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1786-1796. 
SWARTZ,  Peter— York  County,  Pa.  Did  work  for  the  State  1784-86. 

212  American  Gun  Makers 

SWEET,  D.  &  CO.— Unidentified.  Percussion  period. 

SWEET,  E.  S. — Kalamazoo,  Mich.,  percussion  period.  Lock  of  single- 
hammer,  3-barrel  percussion  rifle  by  J.  A.  Lien. 

SWEET,  W.  A. — Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  late  percussion  period.  Heavy  target 
pistol  with  shoulder  stock. 

SWEGER,  Wm.— Unidentified.  Flintock  Kentucky  rifle. 

SWEITZER,  A. — Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles.  Probably  same  as  A. 
Schweitzer,  q.  v. 

SWEITZER,  J.— Greenville,  Ohio.  Reputed  maker  of  half  stock  per- 
cussion rifle. 

SWEET,  JENKS  &  SONS— Rhode  Island  musket  makers.  Contractors 
of  Nov.  13,  1810,  for  3,000  Model  1808  muskets,  duration  five  years. 
Only  250  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

It  is  believed  that  this  firm  is  identical  with  Jewett,  Jenks  & 
Sons  of  Rhode  Island,  who  were  reported  in  1818  by  Col.  Decius 
Wadsworth  of  the  Ordnance  Office,  to  have  been  given  a  con- 
tract for  3,000  muskets  of  which  250  stands  at  $13.48  per  stand 
were  delivered  to  the  State  of  Rhode  Island. 

SWEET,  W.  A.— See  William  Malcolm. 

SWEGER,  William— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

SWIETZER,  DANIEL  &  CO.— Lancaster,  Pa.  Announced  in  1808 
the  establishment  of  their  "gun-lock  factory,  west  of  the  court 
house,  on  the  road  to  Millerstown."  Model  1808  type  flintlock 
pistols  are  known  marked  "SWEITZER  &  CO."  believed  to  have 
been  made  by  the  same  firm. 

SWIGER,  W.— Period  of  1800;  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles.  Possibly  same 
as  Wm.  Sweger. 

SWOPE,  A. — Pennsylvania.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles,  one  with 
patchbox  on  both  sides  of  stock. 

SYMMES,  J.  C. — Watertown,  Mass.  Maker  of  Symmes  breech-loading 
carbines,  patented  Nov.  16,  1858,  No.  22,094.  The  purchase  of 
200  or  less,  Symmes  carbines  at  $40.00  each  was  authorized  as 
early  as  July  18,  1855.  Ordnance  Department  correspondence 
of  March  4,  1857,  shows  that  200  were  ordered  April  2,  1856,  and 
20  were  delivered  at  the  cost  of  $804.50. 

SYRACUSE  ARMS  CO.— Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Hammerless  shotguns. 

TALCOTT,  George — Lieut.  Colonel  Ordnance.  Acting  Superintendent 
Springfield  Armory  from  August  26,  1833  to  October  31,  1833. 
Brig.  General  1850. 

TALL  AS  SEE  ARMORY— Tallassee,  Ala.  Confederate  carbine  armory 
ordered  transferred  from  Richmond,  Va.,  about  June  2,  1864, 
Transfer  completed  by  June  16,  1864.  The  operators  of  the  armory 
had  been  in  the  ranks  during  Dahlgren's  Raid,  May  1,  1864. 

The  site  and  buildings  to  house  the  plant  were  acquired 
from  Barnet,  Micou  &  Co.,  owners  of  a  cotton  mill  on  the 
location,  by  Col.  James  H.  Burton,  C.  A.,  of  the  Macon  Armory, 
who  left  Macon  May  26,  1864,  and  completed  the  negotiations 
May  30th.  The  armory  repaired  arms  and  made  a  carbine  com- 
bining Enfield  and  Springfield  features. 

TALLEY — Massachusetts   gunsmith   active   from   1768   to    1776,   and 

American  Gun  Makers  213 

later.  Appointed  Master  Armorer  to  the  Colony  of  Massa- 
chusetts Bay  June  13,  1775.  Served  as  ensign  in  Col.  Danielson's 
Regiment,  where  he  drew  extra  nay  as  armorer. 

TANNER,  N.  B. — Bastrop,  Texas.  Made  at  least  264  rifles  of  the 
Model  1841  type  for  the  Confederacy. 

TARPLEY,  GARRETT  &  CO.— Jere  H.  Tarpley,  Greensboro,  N.  C., 
1864.  Makers  of  the  Tarpley  Confederate  breech-loading  carbine. 
(Adv.  in  Greensboro  Patriot,  Jan.  14,  1864.)  Tarpley  obtained 
a  Confederate  patent  on  his  arm,  Feb.  14,  1863.  No.  148. 

Jere  H.  Tarpley  was  associated  with  one  Yarborough  in 
the  operation  of  a  foundry  and  machine  shop  which  had  been 
established  before  the  Civil  War,  was  known  as  the  Greens- 
boro Foundry  in  1864,  and  the  Pioneer  Foundry  and  Machine 
Shop,  makers  of  domestic  and  farming  implements,  in  1866. 
Probabilities  are  that  the  Tarpley  carbine  was  made  in  these 
shops,  which  in   1869  became  the   Sergeant  Manufacturing  Co. 

TARRINGTON — Percussion  period.  Under  J.  H.  Durke  at  Lebanon, 
N.  H.,  later  at  Springfield,  Mass.,  and  elsewhere. 

T.  A.  T. — Marking  on  a  barrel  of  a  two-shot,  single  barrel,  percus- 
sion, Kentucky  type  rifle. 

TAYLOR,  Alexander— Fulton  Co.,  Penna.,  1826.  (Fulton  Co.,  was  a 
part  of  Bedford  County  prior  to  1850). 

TAYLOR,  Argulus— Ira,  N.  Y. 

TAYLOR,  A.  J.  &  CO.— 209  Clay  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.,  1856-58. 

TAYLOR,  C. — Unlocated.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle. 

TAYLOR,  F.  C— St.  Louis,  Mo.  "Taylor  Fur  Getter,"  .22  cal.  trap 
pistol  patented  June  9,  1914. 

TAYLOR,  George— Easton,  Pa.,  before  1783.  Barrel  maker,  lock  tester, 
etc.,  under  Richard  Backhouse  at  the  Durham  Iron  Works. 

TAYLOR,  Henry— First  gunsmith,  Jackson  Tp.  (Co.?),  Ohio,  1817. 

TAYLOR,  Jno. — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety. 
Was  one  of  the  petitioners  representing  the  gun-making  trade, 
complaining  to  the  Committee  of  Safety  in  November,  1776, 
against  the  high  and  rising  cost  of  materials  and  labor  entering 
into  arms  making,  and  quoting  advances  in  prices  within  one 
year,  since  1775. 

TAYLOR,  J.  N. — Unlocated  gunbarrel  maker.  Stamped  on  muzzle 
of  heavy  percussion  match  rifle. 

TAYLOR,  L.  B.  &  CO.— Chicopee,  Mass.  Makers  of  a  rim-fire  car- 
tridge, single-shot,  sliding  barrel,  pocket  pistol. 

TAYLOR,  N.  B— Vienna,  Trumbull  Co.,  Ohio,  1840. 

TEAFF,  Joseph— Steubenville,  Jefferson  Co.,  Ohio,  1820's. 

TEAFF,  James  and  Nimrod— Father  and  son.  Steubenville,  Ohio. 
James  was  active  from  the  end  of  the  Mexican  War,  in  which 
he  had  served,  until  about  1861.  Nimrod  had  become  associated 
with  his  father,  James,  about  1856,  and  was  active  until  1891 
or  later.  Nimrod  was  "a  great  hunter  of  bear  and  deer." 

T.  B.  &  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  derringers. 

T.  D.— What  looks  like  "T.  D."  in  old  German  script  on  a  long  flint- 
lock Kentucky  rifle,  is  "C.  D."  The  initials  of  Christian  Durr. 
The  barrel  is  marked  under  breech  "C.  H.  D." 

T.  D.  &  CO. — Unidentified.  Stamped  factory  percussion  lock  on  boy's 
Kentucky  rifle. 

214  American  Gun  Makers 

TEEGER,  J.  A. — Curly  maple,  full  stock,  octagon  barrel  Kentucky 
rifle  with  ornate  patch  box  and  silver  inlays. 

TEFF,  George — Rhode  Island  gunsmith  to  Committee  of  Safety, 

TELL,  Frederick — Adams  Co.,  Pa.,  Frederick  and  Hagerstown,  Md., 
about  1780-1820.  Ornate  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles  with  handmade 
brass  lockplates,  raised  carving,  brass  and  silver  inlays. 

TENNESSEE  ARMORY— Location  unknown.  Operated  in  1861  by 
George  W.  Morse  for  the  conversion  of  sporting  rifles  to  mili- 
tary caliber.  On  the  arrival  of  Federal  troops  in  the  vicinity 
of  Nashville,  the  machinery  was  first  shipped  to  Atlanta,  Ga., 
then  on  being  turned  over  by  the  governor  of  Tennessee  to 
the  Governor  of  South  Carolina,  was  shipped  to  the  State  Works 
at  Greenville,  S.  C,  where  Morse  carbines  were  made.  See  Morse, 
George  W. 

In  an  inventory  taken  while  at  Atlanta  was  listed  a  stamp 
"Tennessee  Armory." 

TERRELL,  Eph — Tennessee.  Heavy  percussion  match  rifles. 

TERRY,  B.  L. — Unlocated.  .22  cal.  vest  pocket  pistols. 

TERRY,  J.  C. — Unlocated.  Brass  frame  .22  vest  pocket  pistol. 

TETLEY— See  Bown  &  Tetley,  Enterprise  Gun  Works,  Pittsburgh,  Pa. 

THAMES  ARMS  CO.— Norwich,  Conn.  Double-action,  5-shot  re- 

THATCHER,  H.  C— See  J.  Peacock  &  H.  C.  Thatcher,  Chicago,  111. 

THAYER,  Eli— Notice  given  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  in  1856  of  Eli 
Thayer's  control  of  the  manufacturing  of  a  rifle  invented  by 
B.  F.  Joslyn.  No  record  of  manufacture.  Thayer  was  born  at 
Mendon,  Mass.,  June  11,  1819.  Taught  school  1845-52.  Was  in 
State  Legislature  1853-54,  and  was  engaged  in  a  plan  to  colonize 
Kansas  for  freedom,  1854-56.  Founded  Ceredo,  W.  Va.  Elected 
to  Congress  in  1856. 

THAYER,  O.  G. — Chardon,  Ohio.  Creedmoor  percussion  match  rifles. 

THAYER,  ROBERTSON  &  CARY— Norwich,  Conn.  Pocket  revolvers. 

THAYER,  Thaddeus — Norwood,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 

THENDON,  John— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

THOMAS,  Benjamin — Hingham,  Mass.,  about  1740-50. 

THOMAS,  H.— Kingman,  111.  Active  before  and  after  1841.  Had 
worked  in  Kentucky  before  settling  in  Illinois. 

THOMAS,  Milt— Kingman,  111.  Son  of  Thomas,  H.,  above. 

THOMAS,  Henry— Gunsmith  with  firm  Hyde  &  Goodrich,  15  Chartres, 
New  Orleans,  La. 

THOMAS,  Isaac — Harford  County,  Md.,  musket  maker  to  Committee 
of  Safety.  Agreed  March  4,  1776,  with  John  Cunningham,  "for 
making  a  parcel  of  musquets  which  they  oblige  themselves 
to  do,  agreeable  to  directions  which  they  have  and  are  to  re- 
ceive from  the  Committee,  as  may  be  directed  by  the  Council 
of  Safety,  at  the  price  of  Musquets  are  made  for  at  Baltimore, 
to  be  completed  with  steel  ramrod  and  bayonet  ..."  A  com- 
pany of  riflemen  was  raised  in  Harford  County  during  the  War 
of  Revolution. 

THOMAS,  J.  F.— Unlocated,  1858. 

THOMPSON,  George— Washington,  Pa.,  1870-80. 

American  Gun  Makers  215 

THOMPSON,  Harry— Fremont,  Ohio,  1878-83. 

THOMPSON,  John— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1800. 

THOMPSON,  John— 1  Market  St.,  Norwich,  Conn.,  1866. 

THOMPSON,  J.  R. — Jackson,  Mich.  Over-under  percussion  rifle. 

THOMPSON,  Samuel— Columbus  and  Lancaster,  Ohio,  1820-27. 

THREE  BARREL  GUN  CO.— Moundsville,  W.  Va.  Makers  of  shot- 
guns combined  with  rifle  barrel. 

THORNTON,  R.  L.— Seneca  St,  Seattle,  Wash.,  1910  and  before. 

THORNTON,  William  A.— Captain  Ordnance  Dept,  U.  S.  Army.  U.  S. 
Inspector  of  Contract  Arms  1842-61.  Graduated  U.  S.  Military 
Academy  1825.  Died  Brig.  General  1866. 

THRESHER,  A.— Stafford,  Conn.  Underhammer  pistols. 

T.  H.  S. — Initials  of  Thos.  H.  Steves,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract 
Arms  (ship's  cutlasses)  in  1816  at  the  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

THURBER,  Charles  T.— See  Allen  &  Thurber,  Allen  &  Wheelock. 

THURSTON,  R.  R.— Cuba,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period  to  about  1880. 

TIDD,  Marshall— Woburn,  Mass.,  1846-1890;  died  1890.  Light  percus- 
sion rifle  without  forearm;  round-barrel  pistol  with  nipple  on 
axis;  both  marked  "M.  TIDD." 

TILLMAN,  J.  N.— Petersburg,  Ind.,  1860. 

TIMMINS,  Edward — Maryland.  Contracted  with  Council  of  Safety  in 
1776,  to  furnish  steel  musket  ramrods  at  5  shillings  each. 

Arms  makers  during  the  Civil  War.  Use  barrels  supplied  by 
the  Trenton  Iron  Co. 

TIPLE,  C— Unlocated.  Late  flintlock  rifle. 

TISDALE,  Luther  W. — Scranton,  Pa.  On  Pennsylvania  Avenue,  be- 
fore 1850,  on  Washington  after  1850.  Died  about  1890.  Heavy 
percussion  match  rifle. 

TOBIAS,  S.  E.— Xenia,  Ohio.  Early  20th  century;  percussion  rifles 
and  pistols. 

TOBEY,  Elisha — Inspector  and  Foreman,  arms  stocking  shop,  Spring- 
field Armory,  1818.  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms  1818-1830. 
Inspected  arms  in  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Simeon  North, 
Nathan  Starr  and  Asa  Waters. 

TODD,  George — Austin,  Tex.,  and  later  Montgomery,  Ala.  Active 
about  1857-65.  Maker  of  muskets  and  Colt  type,  brass  frame 
revolvers  for  the  Confederacy. 

TOLEDO  ARMS  CO.— Toledo,  Ohio.  Sheath  trigger  pocket  revolvers 
and  semi-automatic  pocket  pistols. 

TOMES,  HENRY  &  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1847. 

TOMLINSON — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety, 

TOMLINSON,  Carter— Unlocated.  Marking  on  a  lock  of  a  Kentucky 
rifle  by  D.  Glassbrenner.  Early  percussion  period. 

TONKS,  Joseph— 49  Union  St.,  and  1  Marshall  St.,  Boston,  Mass., 

TOOKER,  J.  S.— Carthage,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

TOPPER,  H.— Napier  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1835.  Flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle. 

TOULSON,  Alexander— St.  Mary's  Md.  Active  in  1663.  The  earliest 

216  American  Gun  Makers 

Maryland  gunsmith  on  record  after  the  landing  of  the  Calverts 
in  1634. 

TOUZE,  John— Gunsmith.  101  So.  Second,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

TOWN,  Aspy — Unlocated.  Flintlock,  Kentucky,  squirrel  rifle. 

TOWN,  Benjamin — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  the  Committee 
of  Safety.  In  association  with  John  Willis,  contracted  on  Dec. 
6,  1775,  to  make  200  firelocks  at  £4-5s,  each. 

TOWSEY,   Thomas — Vergennes,   Vt.,   musket  maker.   In   association 
with   Samuel   Chipman   contracted  under   Act  of   July   5,    1798, 
for    1,000   Charleville  pattern,    (Model   1795)    muskets   at  $13.40 
per  stand.  Of  these  275  were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 
Thomas  Towsey  settled  at  Vergennes  in  1791. 

T.  P.— -Initials  of  Thomas  Palmer,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  1808-10. 

T.  P. — Unidentified.  Curly  maple,  full  stock,  percussion  Kentucky 

T.  R. — Unidentified.  An  early  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  hand- 
hammered  barrel  marked  in  script;  16  silver  inlays;  long  patch- 
box  with  side  plates  shaped  and  engraved  to  represent  snakes. 

TRANT,  George  B.— Thornville,  Ohio,  1877-80. 

TRAUDT,  John — Milwaukee,  Wis.  Apprentice  and  son-in-law  of  John 
Meunier;  shop  manager  for  64  years  until  retirement  in  1941. 
Died  Oct.  19,  1945. 

TREDEGAR  IRON  WORKS— Richmond,  Va.  Confederate  cannon 
foundry  and  machine  works.  Made  small  arms  making  machinery. 

TREIBEL,  Henry — Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

TRENTON  ARMS  CO.— Trenton,  N.  J.,  1863-65.  Makers  of  rifle 
muskets  during  the  Civil  War. 

TRENTON  IRON  CO.— Trenton,  N.  J.  Civil  War  makers  of  rifle- 
musket  barrels  for  the  government  and  for  arms  contractors. 

TRIPP,  S.  G. — Leidersdorff  near  Commercial,  San  Francisco,  Calif., 

TRIPPER,  A.  N.— Potsdam,  N.  Y.  Percussion  pistol. 

TROTH— Unlocated.  Early  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

TROUT,  John— Williamsport,  Pa.,  about  1855  and  after.  Maker  of 
percussion  sporting  rifles,  and  over-under,  walnut  half  stock, 
percussion  rifle-shotgun  with  lower  barrel  fired  by  an  under- 
hammer,  and  single  trigger  firing  either  hammer. 

TROUTMAN,  D.  B.— Londonderry  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1858. 
Plain,  fullstock  percussion  rifles  of  good  workmanship  with  long 
or  oval  patchboxes.  One  with  lock  by  Whitmore  &  Wolff,  Pitts- 

TROYER,  William— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1847. 

TRUBY,  Jacob — Kittaning,  Armstrong  Co.,  Pa.  Kittaning  was  the 
chief  Indian  town  west  of  the  Alleghenys  until  Sept.  1756,  when 
it  was  destroyed  by  Gen.  Armstrong. 

TRUE  &  DAVIS— Albany,  N.  Y.  8-ga.  percussion  goose  gun. 

TRUETT  BROS.  &  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Makers  of  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

TRUITT,  BROS,  &  Co.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  "Importers  and  wholesale 
dealers  in  foreign  and  domestic  hardware."  Flint  and  percus- 
sion rifle  locks.  'TRUITT  BROS.  &  CO."  stamped  on  .44  caliber 
percussion  rifle  barrel. 

TRUMP,  J.  W.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  duelling  pistol. 

American  Gun  Makers  217 

TRUITT  &  CO.— Located  at  528  Market  Street,  below  6th,  South  Side, 
Phila.,  Pa.,  in  1863.  Successors  to  Truitt  Bros.  &  Co.,  above. 

TRUMBULL  ARMORY— Stonington,  Conn.,  1861.  Lockplate  marking 
off  a  two-band  Civil  War  short  rifle. 

TRUMPLER,  J.  F. — Unlocated.  Percussion  derringer. 

TRY,  John — Beaver  Springs,  Pa.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles, 

TRYON,  George  W. — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  arms  maker,  founder  of  the 
firm  of  Tryon  of  that  city.  George  W.  Tryon,  of  French  Hugue- 
not descent,  was  born  in  1791.  In  his  early  youth  he  was  appren- 
ticed to  Frederick  W.  Goetz,  (or  Getz),  a  Philadelphia  gunsmith 
whose  partner  he  became  in  1811  at  the  age  of  20.  The  Tryon 
family  memoir  (1909),  states  that  shortly  after  entering  into 
the  partnership,  Tryon  bought  out  "Getz",  and  continued  the 
business  in  his  own  name  at  165  North  Second  St.,  until  1829, 
when  the  plant  was  enlarged  and  re-established  at  134  North 
Second  Street,  (Now  No.  220).  In  this  connection  the  following 
entries  in  the  Philadelphia  City  Directories  are  of  interest: 
Frederick  Goetz,  gunsmith  is  shown  at  Sassafras  Alley  in  1809-11, 
and  at  163  North  Second,  and  at  32  Sassafras  Alley  from  1813  to 
1817.  Geo.  W.  Tryon,  gun  maker  and  stocker,  is  listed  at  165 
North  Second  in  1816,  and  from  1817  to  1824  is  shown  at  the 
same  location  as  gun  manufacturer  and  dealer. 

In  February,  1814,  George  W.  Tryon,  in  association  with 
John  Joseph  Henry,  undertook  to  manufacture  for  the  navy 
"20  repeating  swivels  and  200  repeating  muskets"  invented  by 
Joseph  G.  Chambers,  and  described  as  arms  which  could  be  fired 
"in  such  a  manner  that  by  a  single  operation  of  the  trigger,  it 
will  discharge  several  loads  in  succession  (say  6  or  8),  with  a  space 
between  each  sufficient  to  take  another  aim."  In  this  connection 
Mr.  Chambers  was  appointed  "sailing  master"  and  his  two  sons 
"gunners,"  in  the  navy,  to  superintend  the  manufacture  of  these 
arms  and  to  have  authority  to  instruct  "a  certain  number  of 
persons  in  the  art  of  repeating  gunnery."  The  "repeating  arms" 
were  approved  by  Commodore  Wm.  Bainbridge,  and  Mr.  George 
Harrison,  the  Navy  Agent  at  Philadelphia,  was  directed  April 
18,  1814,  to  send  15  repeating  swivels,  50  muskets  and  50  pistols 
to  Com.  Chauncey  on  the  Great  Lakes,  in  order  to  test  their  use 
in  the  active  service.  Harrison,  the  Navy  Agent,  had  been  di- 
rected in  February,  1814,  by  the  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  Wm. 
Jones,  to  contact  reliable  parties  for  the  construction  of  50 
repeating  swivels  and  200  repeating  muskets,  and  apparently  in 
addition  to  the  20  contracted  for  by  Tryon  and  Henry,  others 
were  constructed  by  other  contractors,  for  at  the  request  of 
Com.  Rogers,  eight  of  the  repeating  swivels  were  placed  on  the 
"Guerriere,"  launched  at  Philadelphia  in  1814. 

On  Jan.  1,  1836,  Edward  K.  Tryon,  the  eldest  son  was  ad- 
mitted into  partnership,  the  firm  continuing  the  manufacture 
of  shotguns,  pistols  and  especially  Kentucky  rifles. 

On  Nov.  7,  1837,  Tryons  contracted  for  1,000  rifles  for 
Indians  at  $12.50  each,  which  was  followed  by  a  contract  for 
640  muskets  at  $12.18  each  on  July  8,  1846,  awarded  to  Tryon, 
Son  &  Co.  Edward  K.  Tryon  is  next  shown  to  have  received 
contracts  for  Northwestern  guns  and  arms  for  the  Indian  De- 
partment, on  Dec.  11,  1846,  Jan.  8,  1847,  and  May  15,  1847.  On 
April  22,  1848,  the  Tryons  obtained  a  contract  for  5,000  Model 
1841  percussion  rifles  at  $12.87%  each.  The  Tryon  memoir  men- 

218  American  Gun  Makers 

tions  a  contract  of  April  3,  1840,  for  1,500  army  rifles  Model  1841, 
for  the  Republic  of  Texas. 

The  founder  of  the  firm,   George  W.   Try  on,   retired   from 
active  participation  in  the  firms   affairs   in   1841,   and   died   in 
1878.  The  successive  names  of  the  firm  were  as  follows: 
1811— Tryon  &  Getz:  Geo.  W.  Tryon. 
1836— Geo.  W.  Tryon  &  Co.  (General  Business). 

Tryon,  Son  &  Co.  (Manufacturing  business). 
1841— Edw.  K.  Tryon  &  Co. 
1843— Edw.  K.  Tryon. 
1859— Edw.  K.  Tryon  &  Co. 
1863— Tryon  &  Brother. 

1866— Tryon  Bros.  &  Co.:  Edw.  K.  Tryon,  Jr.  &  Co. 
1905— Edw.  K.  Tryon  Co.,  Inc. 
TRYON,  MERRICK  &  CO.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  pistols. 
T.  S. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  a  percussion  Kentucky  Squirrel  rifle. 
T.  S. — Tobias  Snider,  Liberty  Township,  Bedford  County,  Pa.  Maker 
of  a  side-by-side,  double  barrel,  curly  maple  stock,  percussion 
Kentucky  type  rifle,  as  well  as  of  percussion,  Kentucky  single 
barrel  rifles. 
TUBES,    J.   B. — Waterloo,   N.    Y.    Over-under   percussion,   mule-ear 

hammer  shotguns  and  rifles. 
TUCKER,  SHERRARD  &  CO.— of  Lancaster,  Dallas  Co.,  Texas. 
Entered  into  contract  with  State  of  Texas  for  3,000  pistols  on 
April  11,  1862,  one-half  being  army  size,  and  the  other  half  navy 
size,  at  $40.00  per  pistol.  The  contract  was  cancelled  and  about 
400  made  and  sold  to  private  parties. 

The  firm  consisted  of  Labon  E.  Tucker,  J.  H.  Sherrard,  W.  L. 
Killen,  A.  W.  Tucker,  Pleasant  Taylor,  and  Jno.  M.  Crockett,  the 
latter  acting  as  agent. 

Though  commonly  known  as  "Tucker,  Sherrod  &  Co.,"  it  is 
believed  that  "Tucker,  Sherrard  &  Co."  is  more  nearly  correct. 
There  was  no  partner  by  the  name  of  Sherrod  in  the  firm.  Sher- 
rard pronounced  with  a  Texan  or  Southern  drawl  sounds  like 
Sherrod.  Probabilities  are  that  the  error  originated  there. 
TUCKER  &  TYLER — Makers  of  full  stock,  cherry  wood,  brass  patch- 
box,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 
TUNX,  William — Colonial  gunsmith  returned  to  England  by  Governor 
William  Tryon  in  December,   1775,  with  inducement  of  prepaid 
passage,  20  guineas  and  work  in  government  armory. 
TUPPER,  A.  N.— Potsdam,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles. 
TURK,  James — Morrow  and  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Percussion  rifles. 
TURNBULL— New  Orleans,  La.,   1885. 

TURNER,  C.  B.— Grand  Rapids,  Mich,  maker  of  a  light  weight,  three 
barrel,  combination  percussion  shotgun-rifle,  with  under  hammer 
rifle  barrel  underneath  the  side-by-side  shotgun  barrels,  with 
single  trigger  capable  of  firing  all  three  barrels  simultaneously. 

TURNER,  Henry— "Gunsmith,  15  Beaver  St.,  shop  3  Beaver  St., 
Albany,  N.  Y.,  1820-1823.  "Mary  Turner,  widow  of  Henry"  listed 
1825.  A  very  fine  English  style  flintlock  double  shotgun,  breeches 
stamped  "H.  TURNER  ALBANY,"  in  Mahogany  case. 

TURNER,  W. — Maker  of  a  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  ornate 
brass  patchbox  in  full  curly  maple  stock. 

TUSTIN,    J.— Soho,    Pittsburgh,    Pa.,    1833.    A   gunsmith's    threading 

American  Gun  Makers  219 

plate  marked  "J.  TUSTIN  SOHO"  (S  backwards),  1833.  An  iron 
pipe-tomahawk  similarly  marked  but  undated. 

TUTTS,  Charles— Unlocated,  1883.  8-ga.  ring  trigger  gun. 

TVERYAR,  M. — Unlocated,  Percussion  rifle. 

TYDICH,  Peter — Baltimore,  Md.,  Revolutionary  War  period. 

TYLER  ARSENAL — Tyler,  Texas.  Organized  in  May  1862  and  oper- 
ated by  George  Yarborough,  J.  C.  Short  and  W.  S.  Briscoe,  the 
latter  a  gunsmith.  Taken  over  by  Confederate  States  in  fall  of 
1863  for  manufacture  of  rifles  "after  the  model  of  the  Mississippi 
rifle."  However  arms  made  were  closer  to  Enfield  patern.  The 
armory  was  established  with  machinery  assembled  from  numer- 
ous localities,  such  as  Little  Rock,  Arkadelphia,  etc.  The  arms  are 
marked  "TEXAS  RIFLE  TYLER  C.  S." 

TYLER,  Daniel — Lieutenant  Ordnance  Dept,  U.  S.  Army.  Chief  In- 
spector of  arms  made  at  National  Armories  after  1831.  Had  in- 
spected musket  stocks  in  the  plant  of  Nathan  Starr. 

TYLER,  DAVIDSON  &  CO.— Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Makers  of  percussion 
rifle  locks. 

TYLER,  John — Pennsylvania  gunsmith  active  about  1770-1780.  Was 
located  on  Arch  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  on  April  16,  1777.  On 
Oct.  31,  1777,  John  Tyler  is  reported  as  having  purchased  a  place 
in  Northampton  (Allentown),  where  he  employed  16  hands  and 
expected  to  repair  300  stands  of  arms.  Payments  recorded  for 
repair  of  public  arms  in  1778-79. 

TYLER,  N.  B.— Vienna,  Trumbull  Co.,  Ohio,  1855-71.  Maker  of  rifles 
and  shotguns.  Operator  of  Tyler's  rifle  works. 

TYLER'S  RIFLE  WORKS— See  Tyler,  N.  B.  above. 

TYLER,  William — Providence,  R.  I.  Musket  maker,  associated  with 
William  Rhodes  in  a  contract  under  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  2,000 
Charleville  pattern,  (Model  1795)  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand. 
Of  these  950  were  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

TYSON,  J.  H.— North  Beaver  St.,  York,  Pa. 


UHLINGER,  W.  L.  &  Co.— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Sheath  trigger  .22  pocket 

ULRICH,  D. — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

ULLBRICH,  A.— Albany,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  double  barrel,  side-by-side 
muzzle  loading,  percussion  rifle. 

UMBARGER,  Obediah— Central  Pennsylvania;  Kentucky  rifles,  Prob- 
ably related  to  Humberger  family  of  Pennsylvania,  later  of  Ohio. 

UNDERWOOD,  Thomas— Lafayette,  Ind. 

UNION  ARMS  CO.— Hartford,  Conn.  1857-61  and  later.  At  2  Central 
Row,  Hartford,  1861.  Makers  of  percussion  pepperbox  and  single- 
shot  percussion  pistols,  and  5-  and  6-shot  percussion  revolvers. 

UNION  ARMS  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Contracted  Nov.  15,  1861,  for 
25,000  Springfield  rifle  muskets.  Three  delivered;  these  were 
marked  "U.  A.  CO."  and  '"New  York." 

UNION  FIREARMS  CO.— Toledo,  Ohio,  about  1904.  Makers  of  a 
semi-automatic,  recoil  operated  revolver.  About  1902  the  Com- 
pany had  negotiated  with  Francis  Bannerman  of  New  York  City, 
and  his  associates,  in  control  of  the  Spencer  Arms  Company  of 

220  American  Gun  Makers 

Windsor,  Conn.,  for  the  purchase  of  the  Spencer  plant  for  manu- 
facture of  repeating  shotguns.  However,  the  purchase  did  not 
materialize.  Following  from  Sporting  Goods  Dealer,   1903: — 

"In  our  October  number  we  noticed  the  report  that  the 
Union  Firearms  Co.,  Toledo,  Ohio  had  purchased  the  Spencer 
gun  plant,  which  would  be  removed  to  Toledo,  and  the  manu- 
facture of  the  Spencer  gun  reinaugurated  on  a  large  scale.  We 
are  advised  by  Francis  Bannerman,  579  Broadway,  New  York 
City,  that  the  reported  sale  has  not  been  made.  The  Spencer 
plant  is  still  in  his  hands,  and  is  advertised  for  sale  elsewhere 
in  this  issue  of  the  Sporting  Goods  Dealer.  The  merits  of  the 
Spencer  repeating  shot  gun  are  too  well  known  and  generally 
known  to  require  being  touched  upon  here.  It  was  the  joint 
invention  of  Christopher  M.  Spencer  (who  at  the  age  of  19  in- 
vented the  Spencer  repeating  rifle  and  carbine,  adopted  and 
used  by  the  U.  S.  Government  in  the  civil  war)  and  Sylvester  M. 
Roper,  also  closely  identified  with  improvements  in  American 
arms.  The  Spencer  gun  appeared  in  1884  and  stood  the  brunt 
of  the  battle  against  the  prevailing  prejudice  which  opposed 
single  barrel  repeating  guns  and  favored  the  double  barrel.  For 
something  like  nine  years  it  was  the  only  repeating  shot  gun 
-  in  the  field,  virtually  creating  a  demand  which  heretofore  had 
not  existed,  and  establishing  its  reputation  as  a  thoroughly  re- 
liable arm.  Some  20,000  Spencer  guns  were  made  and  nearly 
all  of  them  were  sold  and  are  now  in  use  in  all  parts  of  the 
world.  Lately  their  manufacture  was  discontinued  by  Mr. 
Bannerman  and  his  associates,  principally,  because  their  original 
business  of  handling  ordnance,  military  goods  and  war  relics  had 
grown  so  large  that  it  required  undivided  attention.  The  Spencer 
gun  is  still  in  demand  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  its  manufacture 
will  shortly  be  resumed." 

UNION  MFG.  CO.— Richmond,  Va.,  1861.  Operated  by  G.  P.  Sloat 
making  arms  for  the  Confederacy.  In  business  only  a  short  time. 

UNION  RIFLE  WORKS— Lancaster,  Pa.  Percussion  rifles. 

UNSELD,  John— Frederick  City,  Md.  Contracted  December  14,  1775, 
with  Council  of  Safety  to  furnish  80  muskets  with  complete 
equipment  according  to  Maryland  specifications,  to  be  delivered 
by  May  1,  1776.  The  Council  wrote  May  3,  1776  that  so  far  they 
had  received  only  29  very  roughly  made  muskets. 

UPDEGRAPH,  Jacob— Schuylkill  County,  Pa. 

URIE,  Solomon — Orange  Township,  Ashland  Co.,  Ohio,  1818. 

URIELL,  D.— Unlocated.  Kentucky  rifles. 

U.  S.  ARMS  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  about  1873-78.  Makers  of  .22  cal. 
knife  pistols  and  rim-fire  cartridge  revolvers. 

U.  S.  SMALL  ARMS  CO.— Chicago,  111.,  1917.  Knife-pistol. 

UTTER,  George — Newark,  N.  J.  Saw-handle  percussion  duelling  pis- 

VAGEN,  J.  H.  &  CO.— Indianapolis,  Ind.,  1869-71. 

VALE,  T.  A.— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

VALEE,  Prosper — Phila.,  Pa.  Listed  as  gunsmith  at  101  S.  Second  in 

VALLEY   FORGE— The   Valley   Forge  was   originally  built   on  the 

American  Gun  Makers  221 

south  bank  of  the  Schuylkill,  slightly  over  a  half  mile  up  from 
the  mouth  of  the  Valley  Creek,  in  Chester  County,  Pa.  It  is 
believed  to  have  been  established  by  one  Walker,  a  friend  of 
William  Penn,  as  a  forge  for  making  bar  iron  from  pig  metal 
obtained  from  the  Warwick  furnace,  a  few  miles  westward. 
In  1742,  the  forge  was  sold  by  Isaac  Walker  to  Stephen  Evans, 
Daniel  Walker  (or  Welker)  and  Joseph  Williams.  The  forge 
was  operated  by  the  Potts  family  of  Chester,  Pa.,  as  a  general 
manufactory  of  iron  products,  from  the  early  part  of  1757  until 
1771,  when  Col.  William  Dewees,  son  of  Sheriff  William  Dewees 
of  Philadelphia,  became  associated  with  the  Potts  family  through 
marriage  and  probably  acquired  an  interest  in  the  mill  in  1773. 

The  forge  was  destroyed  by  the  British  under  Gen.  Howe 
on  Sept.  21,  1777,  about  two  months  before  Washington  selected 
and  occupied  the  Valley  Forge  as  the  site  of  his  winter  encamp- 
ment. After  the  War  of  Revolution  the  forge  was  rebuilt  and 
was  operated  by  Isaac  and  David  Potts  (brothers),  in  conjunc- 
tion with  a  slitting  mill  on  the  Schuylkill.  In  1786,  the  forge 
and  the  mill  were  operated  by  Isaac  Potts  &  Co.,  the  "Co."  being 
Isaac's  son,  James. 

In  1814  the  works  were  sold  to  John  Rogers  of  Philadelphia, 
an  iron-monger,  and  his  cousin,  Joshua  Main  took  charge  of 
operation  of  the  works,  whose  output  consisted  of  domestic 
hardware,  and  farming  and  industrial  implements.  The  rolling 
mill  produced  sheet  iron,  boiler  plates  and  kindred  material. 
There  is  no  record  of  gun  manufacture  in  those  early  days, 
though  gun  skelps  were  made  for  the  "public  service"  by  Col. 
Dewees  in  1776. 

In  1821,  John  Rogers,  in  association  with  Brooke  Evans, 
took  over  a  defaulted  Alexander  McRae  contract  of  1817  for 
10,000  muskets,  and  converted  the  shops  into  an  arms  factory, 
the  armory  being  known  as  Valley  Forge.  Apparently  after  this 
contract  was  fulfilled,  the  partnership  was  dissolved,  for  on 
Jan.  1,  1825,  Rogers  alone  obtained  a  contract  which  was  prob- 
ably shared  with  William  L.  Evans  of  Evansburg,  a  practical 
gun  maker  who  managed  the  works. 

Apparently  about  1830,  the  Valley  Forge  Armory  was  leased 
by  William  L.  Evans,  who  made  the  Model  1826  pistols  marked 
"W.  L.  Evans  V.  Forge  1831  USN,"  and  Model  1821  muskets 
made  under  contract  of  May  3,  1821,  and  marked  "W.  L.  Evans 
V.  Forge."  Earlier  arms  made  prior  to  1825,  are  marked  "V. 
Forge"  and  "B.  Evans  Valley  Forge."  See  Evans,  W.  L.  and 
Rogers,  John. 

The  Valley  Forge  Gun  Factory  was  partially  destroyed  by 
a  freshet  in  1839,  and  was  completely  destroyed  in  1843.  The 
property  descended  to  a  nephew,  Charles  H.  Rogers,  then  to 
female  descendants,  until  bought  by  the  State  of  Pennsylvania 
for  a  park. 

VANDEMAN— Unlocated.  Late  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  halfstock 
and  fullstock  percussion  rifles,  marked  in  bold  script.  Rifles  came 
from  Ross  Co.,  Ohio. 

VANDERBURGER,  F.— Unlocated.  Percussion  rifles. 
VANDERGRIFT,  Isaac  and  Jeremiah— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  active  be- 
fore and  after  1809-14.  Ex-employees  of  John  Joseph  Henry. 

VANDERGRIFT,  John— Bucks  County,  Pa.,  1775.  Musket  maker  to 
Committee  of  Safety. 

222  American  Gun  Makers 

VANDERHEYDEN,  John— Auburn,  N.  Y.,  1850. 

VAN  DER  POEL— Albany,  N.  Y.,  1740. 

VANDERSLICE  T.— Pennsylvania. 

VAN  HORN,  D.  A.— Oneida,  N.  Y.,  about  1850-80.  Double,  percussion 

VAN  METER— Chillicothe,  Ohio. 

VAN  METER,  J.— Richmond  Dale,  Ohio.  Silver  wire  inlaid  halfstock 
percussion  rifle. 

VANTREES,  J.  &  J.  F.— Father  and  son.  Fort  Recovery,  Ohio,  about 
1826-1900.  The  early  arms  produced  by  Vantrees  were  percussion 
only.  No  flintlock  made. 

VAN  VALKENBURGH,  H.— Albany,  N.  Y.,  percussion  period. 

VAN  WART  &  SON  CO.— British,  Birmingham  and  London.  Lock 
marking  of  a  silver  stocked,  all-metal,  percussion  pistol  with 
barrel  marked  "HYDE  &  GOODRICH,  NEW  ORLEANS."  Also 
a  pair  of  fine  percussion  duelling  pistols  with  locks  marked  "VAN 
WART  SON  &  CO."  barrels  marked  "LONDON,"  but  Birmingham 
proofed,  entirely  by  the  same  maker.  Association  with  Hyde  & 
Goodrich  explained  by  the  fact  that  the  latter  were  importers  of 
British  Arms. 

VARNEY,  David  M.— Burlington,  Vt,  1850. 

VELLEE— 2nd  and  Walnut  Sts.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1826. 

VELVERT— Maker  of  Kentucky  rifles,  circa  1860.  (Connected  with 

VENIA  &  JOHNSTONE— Toledo,  Ohio,   1880-83. 

VICKERS,  Jonathan— Cleveland,  Ohio,  1821. 

VIERGUTZ,  O.  H.— Pueblo,  Colo.,  1874-80. 

VILLWOCK,  Charles— Toledo,  Ohio,  active  about  1873-82. 

VINCENT,  John— Cleveland,  Ohio,  1850. 

VINCENT,  John — Washington  County,  Ohio,  rifle  maker  active  from 
about  1844-82.  John  Vincent  was  born  Aug.  28,  1809,  and  after  an 
apprenticeship  as  cabinet  maker,  his  father's  trade,  he  became 
a  gunsmith  about  1844.  He  died  Sept.  17,  1882,  the  shop  being 
taken  over  by  his  son,  John  Caleb.  Made  percussion  and  cartridge 

VINCENT,  John  Caleb— Son  of  John  Vincent.  Succeeded  to  his 
father's  shop,  whose  plain  but  accurate  arms  were  improved  by 
the  son  as  to  finish.  John  Caleb  was  born  March  21,  1841,  was 
active  until  about  1900,  and  died  April  19,  1918. 

mond, Va.  Authorized  by  Act  of  1797,  Virginia  Legislature  to 
found  an  armory  for  the  manufacture  of  arms  to  equip  state 
militia.  The  armory  was  erected  in  1798,  at  the  foot  of  Fifth 
Street,  fronting  James  River. 

Production  began  in  1802,  2,151  stands  of  arms  being  re- 
corded as  made  by  Oct.  13,  1803,  and  continued  until  1820,  in- 
cluding two  models  of  flintlock  pistols:  the  first  a  large  model 
dated  1805  to  1811  inclusive,  and  the  second  resembling  the 
Harpers  Ferry  Model  1806,  with  the  addition  of  a  swivel  ram- 
rod, found  dated  1812  to  1815  inclusive.  In  1820  manufacture  was 
discontinued  and  the  plant  converted  into  a  school. 

In  1860,  the  armory  was  rehabilitated  with  machinery  ordered 
from   the   Tredegar   Iron   Works   of  Richmond,   and   later   aug- 

American  Gun  Makers  223 

mented  with  machinery  captured  at  Harpers  Ferry.  The  armory 
was  operated  under  supervision  of  Salmon  Adams,  master 
armorer  and  produced  "Richmond"  rifles  until  the  close  of  the 
Civil  War. 

VIRGINIA  POINT  OF  FORK  STATE  ARSENAL— Established  by  the 
state  as  a  manufacturing  armory  and  a  general  ordnance  depot 
at  Point  of  Fork,  Va. 

In  1783,  the  arsenal  was  enlarged  by  equipment  moved  from 
the  Public  Gun  Factory,  and  three  new  buildings  were  author- 
ized July  4,  1783,  "to  be  erected  on  the  ground  where  the  State 
Magazines  were  lately  built  and  destroyed  by  the  enemy." 

The  arsenal  did  considerable  work  in  repair  and  restocking 
of  arms,  making  locks,  forging  bayonets,  etc.,  and  plans  were 
made  for  the  utilization  of  its  facilities  for  reconditioning  arms 
until  a  reserve  stock  of  10,000  stands  was  accumulated. 

About  1803,  the  Point  of  Fork  Arsenal  was  discontinued  and 
the  equipment  and  material  moved  to  the  Richmond  Armory, 
or  "Virginia  Manufactory."  See  Point  of  Fork  Arsenal. 

VIRGINIA  PUBLIC  GUN  FACTORY— Fredericksburg,  Va.  The  estab- 
lishment of  the  factory  was  authorized  by  an  ordinance  of  the 
Convention  in  July,  1775,  Col.  Fielding  Lewis  and  Major  Charles 
Dick  being  appointed  Commissioners  'to  form,  establish  and  con- 
duct a  Manufactory  of  Small  Arms  at  Fredericksburg,"  to  equip 
Continental  Line  regiments  raised  in  Virginia. 

The  ground  was  acquired  shortly  after  the  passage  of  the 
Ordinance,  and  the  buildings  erected  early  in  1776.  The  plant 
also  had  a  magazine,  a  substantial  stone  biulding  begun  in  1776, 
and  completed  in  1781,  and  operated  under  lease  (from  the 
widow  of  Roger  Dixon)  a  mill  on  Hazel  Run,  for  the  grinding 
of  bayonets,  ramrods  and  gun-barrels. 

From  1781  the  business  of  the  factory  declined,  due  to 
partial  dismantling  and  removal  of  tools  under  threat  of  British 
raiders,  Tarleton's  Dragoons  actually  operating  within  a  few 
miles  of  Fredericksburg.  In  September,  1782  the  number  of 
workmen  employed  had  shrunk  to  four  hands  and  two  appren- 
tices, as  compared  with  nineteen  men  and  five  apprentices  in 
July  of  that  year.  By  February  of  1783,  the  plant  was  consider- 
ably in  debt  in  salaries  to  officers  and  workmen,  and  the  operat- 
ing force  had  shrunk  to  three  artisans. 

The  plant  was  discontinued  in  1783,  and  equipment,  tools 
and  materials  were  moved  to  Point  of  Fork  Arsenal. 

VOESTER,  F.  G.— Denver,  Col.,  1868-69. 

VOGLER,  Christopher— Salem,  N.  C,  before  1827.  Flintlock  Kentucky 

VOGLER,  Nathaniel — Son  of  Christopher  Vogler.  Learned  gunsmith- 
ing  at  Nazareth,  Pa.;  succeeded  his  father  at  Salem,  N.  C,  in  1827. 
Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  later  percussion  arms. 

VOGLER,  Phillip— Salisbury,  N.  C.  Born  in  Germany,  1725;  emi- 
grated to  North  Carolina  in  1777.  Highly  decorated  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifle. 

VOGLER,  G.— Salisbury,  N.  C.  Maker  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles 
of  very  fine  workmanship  and  decorative  skill,  circa  1825-30. 
Used  spread  eagle  design  on  patchbox  finials.  Lock  of  one  fine 
specimen  engraved  "J.  VOGLER,"  (Brother?)  Probably  sons  of 
Philip  Vogler,  above. 

VOGLER,  J. — See  G.  Vogler  of  Salisbury,  N.  C,  above. 

224  American  Gun  Makers 

VOGLER,  Timothy — Salem,  N.  C.  Kentucky  rifles. 

VOGLESANG,  A.  W.— Fostoria,  Ohio,  1868-69. 

VOIGT,  Henry — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety 
1775-76.  One  of  the  petitioners  representing  Philadelphia  gun 
makers,  complaining  to  the  Committee  of  Safety  in  November, 
1776,  against  the  high  cost  of  materials  and  labor  entering  into 
arms  making,  and  quoting  advances  in  prices  within  one  year, 
since  1775. 

VOLCANIC  REPEATING  ARMS  CO.— New  Haven,  Conn.  Originally 
organized  by  Horace  Smith  and  Daniel  B.  Wesson  at  Norwich, 
Conn.,  in  1854,  to  manufacture  a  repeating  arm  developed  by 
Tyler  B.  Henry,  ex-employee  of  Robbins  &  Lawrence  of  Windsor, 
Vt,  in  whose  plant  he  had  worked  on  the  production  of  the 
Jennings  magazine  rifle.  The  arm  was  patented  by  Smith  & 
Wesson,  on  Feb.  14,  1854,  No.  10,535,  Mr.  Henry  being  the  super- 
intendent in  charge  of  production. 

The  Volcanic  Repeating  Arms  Company  had  been  organized 
by  Smith  &  Wesson  in  July,  1855,  in  order  to  attract  additional 
capital  to  the  Company,  the  Smith  &  Wesson  patents  being  turned 
over  to  the  new  firm.  Shortly  after  Horace  Smith  withdrew 
from  the  firm,  and  in  February,  1856,  the  Company  moved  its 
plant  to  New  Haven,  doubtless  under  the  influence  of  Oliver  F. 
Winchester  of  New  Haven,  one  of  the  principal  stockholders. 
Mr.  Wesson  resigned  from  the  firm  Feb.  11,  1856. 

The  Volcanic  became  insolvent  in  March,  1857.  The  assets 
of  the  firm  were  acquired  by  Winchester,  who  re-organized  it 
into  the  New  Haven  Arms  Co.  Later  in  1866,  it  became  the 
Winchester  Repeating  Arms  Co.  See  New  Haven  Arms  Co. 

VOLENTENE,  J. — Washington,  Mo.  Plain,  accurate,  hand-made  per- 
cussion rifles. 

VOLPIUS,  H. — Manually  operated,  revolving  cylinder,  7-shot  per- 
cussion rifle. 

VOLVERT — Lancaster,  Pa.,  rifle  maker,  Revolutionary  War  period. 

VONDERGRIFT,  J.— -Unlocated.  Maple  half-stock,  octagon  barrel, 
percussion  plains  rifle. 

VONDERSMITH — Lancaster,  Pa.,  arms  maker,  Revolutionary  period. 

VORE,  Benny — New  Paris,  Pa.,  percussion  period. 

VOSSBURG,  Selah— Alabama,  N.  Y.,  1845.  Over-under,  double  mule- 
ear  hammers,  single-trigger  percussion  rifle. 


W. — Unidentified.  Marking  on  barrel  of  fine  relief  carved  Kentucky 

rifle  circa  1800-1810. 
W.  A. — Unidentified.    Middletown,    Conn.    Percussion    under-hammer 

WADE,  Abner — Saleto  Township,  Muskigum  Co.,  Ohio,  1811. 
WADSWORTH,  Decius— Captain  U.  S.  Ordnance.  U.  S.  Inspector  of 

Muskets  for  Eastern  States  1799-1801.  Inspected,  sabers  at  plant 

of  Nathan  Starr  in  1799.  Colonel  Ordnance  1814-1819. 
WAGENHORST— Unidentified.  Flintlock,  heavy  barrel,  match  rifles. 

Same  as  John  Wagenhorst? 
WAGENHORST,    Io.— John    Wagenhorst.    Maple    fullstock    flintlock 

Kentucky  rifle. 

American  Gun  Makers  225 

WAGGONER — Schenectady,  N.  Y.  Reported  maker  of  a  percussion 
Kentucky  rifle  with  lock  marked  "STAFFORD." 

WAGNER,  Alvin — Jackson,  Mo.  Percussion  period. 

WAKEMAN,  Harvey— Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1828-35. 

WALCH  FIREARMS  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  about  1859-62.  Makers 
of  Walch  10-  and  12-shot  revolvers,  with  cylinders  taking  two 
loads  to  a  chamber.  Patented  by  J.  Walch,  Feb.  8,  1859,  No.  22,905. 

WALDREN,  Alexander— Pisquataqua  River,  Mass.,  1672. 

WALDREN,  William— Boston,  Mass.,  1671. 

WALKER— Unidentified.  Maker  of  flintlocks. 

WALKER,  B.  H. — Over-under,  octagon  barrels,  set  triggers,  percus- 
sion Kentucky  rifle.  Also  on  stock  of  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  style  rifle 
marked  on  barrel  "G.  FAY." 

WALKER,  John— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with  an  1835 
ten-cent  coin  inlaid  in  cheek-piece.  Marked  on  barrel  "JOHN 

WALKER,  John,  JACKSON,  L. — Reported  percussion  lock  marking 
on  a  fancy,  curly  maple  full  stock,  Kentucky  rifle. 

WALKER,  Joseph— Knox  Co.,  Ohio,  1804-07.  Repaired  gun  locks  for 

WALKER,  P.  H.— 6  F.  H.  Sqr.,  Boston.  Marking  on  rib  of  double- 
barreled  percussion  shotgun  with  dolphin-head  hammers. 

WALKER,  S.  L.— (or  J.  L.)  Cedarville,  Ohio.  Percussion  rifles. 

WALKER,  William— Born  in  Tuckaleeche  Cove,  Great  Smoky  Mts., 
Tenn.,  1838;  died  1919.  Flintlock  and  percussion  rifles. 

WALKEY,  Sam — Made  fine  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  style,  inlaid  percussion 
Kentucky  rifles. 

WALLACE  &  OSBORNE— Canton,  Conn.  Underhammer  percussion 

WALLACE,  V.  M— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1835. 

WALLACH,  Moses  A.— Boston,  Mass.,  1800-25. 

WALLIS  &  BURCH— Philadelphia,  Pa.  Percussion  derringer. 

WALLIS,  Daniel— See  Wallis  &  Rice. 

WALLIS  &  RICE — Talladega,  Alabama,  rifle  contractors  to  the  Con- 
federacy. The  firm  consisted  of  Daniel  Wallis  of  Talladega,  and 
Samuel  F.  Rice  of  Montgomery,  Ala.  On  May  9,  1862  they  signed 
a  contract  to  make  one  thousand  Mississippi  (Model  1841)  type 
rifles  for  the  State  of  Alabama  and  were  advanced  $2,000  in 
cash.  There  is  no  record  of  production,  but  Gen.  Lovell  H. 
Rousseau  made  a  raid  from  Decatur,  Ala.,  and  on  July  15,  1864, 
reached  Talladega,  where  he  destroyed  two  gun  factories,  which 
probably  included  this  one  and  that  of  Lewis  G.  Sturdivant. 

WALLY,  Samuel — Pennsylvania.  Later  maker  of  Kentucky  rifles. 

WALSH,  James — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  arms  and  gun-lock  maker  to  the 
Committee  of  Safety  in  1776.  With  Samuel  Kinder,  in  December, 
1776,  petitioned  to  the  Committee  for  redress  (on  contracted 
arms)  because  of  rise  in  materials,  tools  and  labor  entering  into 
gun-making.  Walsh  earlier  in  November,  1776,  was  one  of  the 
petitioners  representing  Philadelphia  gunmakers,  complaining 
against  the  high  and  mounting  cost  of  equipment  and  materials 
used  in  making  arms.  James  Walsh  served  the  state  as  Superin- 
tendent of  Arms  at  the  State   Gun  Repair  Shop  at  Allentown 

226  American  Gun  Makers' 

about  1777-78.  In   1779  Walsh  advertised,  offering  his  gunsmith 
tools  for  sale. 

"J.  WALSH"  marking  appears  on  well  made,  handsomely 
ornamented  brass  flintlock  pistols. 

WALSH,  John — Pennsylvania  stock  maker  to  the  Committee  of 
Safety,  1776.  With  James  Walsh,  was  one  of  the  petitioners  to  the 
Committee  complaining  against  the  rising  cost  of  materials  and 
labor  entering  into  gun-making,  and  quoting  the  advance  in 
prices  in  one  year,  since  1775. 

WALTERS,  A.— New  York,  N.  Y.,  1822. 

WALTERS,  A.— Millbury,  Mass.,  1837. 

WALTON,  T. — Unlocated.  Percussion  period. 

WARD — Unlocated.  Halfstock  percussion  sporting  rifle. 

WARD -BURTON — Makers  of  magazine  military  and  sporting  rifles, 
about  1807-74.  There  were  313  breech-loading  single-shot  carbines 
and  1,015  rifles  made  on  the  Ward-Burton  system,  Burton  patent 
of  Dec.  20,  1859,  No.  26,475,  and  W.  G.  Ward  patent  of  Feb.  21, 
1871,  No.  111,994,  at  the  Springfield  Armory  in  1871,  and  were 
issued  for  trial  to  troops  in  1872. 

WARD,  H.  D.— Massachusetts,  1863. 

WARD,  S.  H. — Jamestown,  N.  C.  Halfstock  percussion  rifle  with  Josh 
Golcher  lock;  percussion  pea  rifles. 

WARE,  J.  S. — Unlocated  12  ga.  double,  percussion  shotgun. 

WARE  &  MORSE— Joseph  S.  Ware  and  John  R.  Morse,  Worcester, 
Mass.,  1825-33  and  later. 

WARE,  Orlando — Worcester,  Mass. 

WARE  &  WHEELOCK— Worcester,  Mass.,  1825  and  after. 

WARFIELD,  L.  &  CO.— Gun  barrel  makers.  Marking  on  barrel  of  a 
half  stock,  percussion  plains  rifle  by  S.  J.  Fosdick,  Laporte,  Ind. 

WARNER — Rochester,  N.  Y.  Over-under  percussion  rifle-shotgun. 
Also  New  York  style  mule-ear  hammer  percussion  rifle. 

WARNER,  Benjamin  Franklin — Seneca  County  (Indian  Country). 
Came  from  Connecticut.  Made  gunstocks  for  the  Senecas.  Went 
with  the  tribe  to  Fort  Gibson,  Iowa. 

WARNER,  Charles — Windsor  Locks,  Conn.  Maker  of  6-shot  percus- 
sion revolvers. 

WARNER,  George— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

WARNER,  H.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

WARNER,  Horace — Ridgeway,  Pa. 

WARNER,  Horace— Williamsport,  Pa.,  about  1890. 

WARNER,  Horace — Born  near  Hartford,  Conn.,  about  1832;  died  at 
Williamsport,  Pa.,  1893.  Moved  to  Ridgeway,  Pa.,  when  16;  taught 
himself  gunsmithing.  Served  in  Berdan's  Civil  War  sharpshooters. 
Made  hunting  and  target  rifles  at  Williamsport,  Pa.;  moved  to 
Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  about  1880  and  made  many  target  and  machine 
rest  rifles  weighing  up  to  60  lbs.,  most  with  under-hammer  locks 
and  Berdan  primer  ignition.  A  famous  match  shooter. 

WARNER,  James — Revolver  manufacturer  of  Springfield,  Mass., 
brother  of  Thomas  Warner.  Operator  of  the  Springfield  Arms  Co. 
Active  before  1850  to  about  1869.  Maker  of  Warner  pocket  per- 
cussion revolvers,  6-shot  revolving  percussion  rifles  and  Warner 
rim-fire  cartridge  carbines,  150  of  which  were  purchased  by  the 

American  Gun  Makers  227 

government  between  Jan.  24  and  Nov.  15,  1864,  and  2,500  from 
Feb.  2  to  March  15,  1865. 

The  1850  City  Directory  lists  the  James  Warner  &  Co  pistol 
factory  at  Lyman  and  Gardner  Streets.  Thereafter,  until  1869,  the 
address  is  Blake's  Hill.  See  Springfield  Arms  Co.,  which  this 
pistol  factory  is  believed  to  be. 

The  Warner  hand  arms  were  manufactured  under  patents  of 
Jan.  1851,  No.  7,894;  July  15,  1851,  No.  8,229,  and  July  28,  1857, 
No.  17,904.  The  Warner  carbine  was  patented  Feb,  23,  1864,  No. 
41,732.  Warner,  believed  to  have  been  a  former  employe  of  the 
Massachusetts  Arms  Co.,  was  born  about  1818  and  died  in  1870. 

WARNER,  JAMES  &  CO. — See  Warner,  James,  above,  and  Spring- 
field Arms  Co. 

WARNER,  Joseph— Gunsmith.  Rose  Alley,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

WARNER  &  LOWE— Syracuse,  N.  Y.,  1879-80.  Horace  Warner  and 
William  V.  Lowe.  Percussion  sporting  rifles. 

WARNER,  Thomas — Arms  maker,  elder  brother  of  James  Warner, 
born  at  Springfield,  Mass.,  June  12,  1793.  After  serving  a  three- 
year  apprenticeship  to  his  uncle,  a  millwright  of  North  Amherst, 
Mass.,  he  returned  to  Springfield  in  1814,  and  entered  the  service 
at  the  Armory.  By  1837  Warner  was  Master  Armorer,  which  posi- 
tion he  held  until  Dec.  31,  1842.  At  this  time  the  civilian  superin- 
tendents were  being  replaced  with  Ordnance  Department  person- 
nel, and  Warner  left  the  armory  service,  and  went  to  the  Whit- 
neyville  Armory,  to  take  charge  of  the  tooling  up  for  the  produc- 
tion of  the  Model  1841  rifle.  In  1848-49,  Thomas  Warner  was 
associated  with  Edwin  Wesson,  and  later  with  the  Massachusetts 
Arms  Co.  He  is  next  found  at  the  Waters  Armory,  at  Millbury, 
Mass.,  and  was  active  in  the  removal  of  the  Waters  machinery  to 
the  Palmetto  Armory  of  Columbia,  S.  C.  After  that  Warner  was 
engaged  in  New  York  in  an  enterprise  of  rifling  muskets;  then 
went  to  Chicopee  Falls,  and  finally  back  to  Springfield,  where  he 
died  Feb.  11,  1885. 

WARREN — Albany,  N.  Y.  Maker  of  a  curly  maple  half  stock,  muzzle- 
loading,  percussion  sporting  rifle.  See  Warren  &  Steele. 
WARREN,  A.  J.  &  CO.— Memphis,  Tenn.,  1860. 

WARREN.  Milton — Abingdon,  Va.  Apprenticed  under  John  M.  White- 
sides  of  Abingdon  (then  Wolf  Hills).  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

WARREN  &  STEELE— Albany,  N.  Y.  Marking  on  the  lock  of  an  Eng- 
lish barreled,  percussion  pistol. 

WASHBURN,  Nathan — Worcester,  Mass.  Was  making  five  tons  of 
rifle-barrel  iron  per  day  for  the  Springfield  Armory,  and  was 
under  contract  to  furnish  100,000  rifle-musket  barrels  during  the 
Civil  War. 

WASHINGTON  ARMS  CO.— Unidentified.  Makers  of  single-shot  and 

6-shot  pepperbox,  percussion  pistols. 
WASSMAN,  F. — Washington,  D.  C,  percussion  period. 
W.A.T. — Initials   of  Captain  William  A.  Thornton,   Ordnance  Dept., 

U.  S.  Army.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms  1842-61.  See  Thornton, 

William  A. 

WATERS— Dutchess  County,  N.  Y.  Gunsmith  to  Committee  of  Safety, 

WATERS,  A.  &  CO.— See  Waters,  Asa  W.  Jr. 

228  American  Gun  Makers 

WATERS,  Andrus — Sutton,  Mass.,  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety,  1775-76.  Died  in  1778.  Brother  of  Asa  Waters. 

WATERS  Armory — See,  Waters,  Asa,  Jr.,  and  Waters,  Asa  H. 

WATERS,  Elijah— Sutton,  Mass.  Son  of  Asa  Waters  and  elder  brother 
of  Asa,  Jr.  Active  from  about  1775  until  his  death  in  1814.  See 
Waters,  Asa,  Jr. 

WATERS,  Asa — Revolutionary  War  musket  maker  and  gunsmith  to 
Committee  of  Safety.  Asa  Waters  was  born  at  Sutton,  Mass., 
Jan.  27,  1742.  With  his  brother  Andrus  he  established  the  Sutton 
Waters  Armory  on  Singletary  Stream,  Sutton,  Mass.,  which  fur- 
nished arms  to  the  Continental  troops.  It  is  reputed  to  have  been 
one  of  the  first  to  utilize  water  power  in  the  operation  of  trip- 
hammers used  in  making  skelps  and  gun  forgings.  The  iron  ore 
for  the  works  was  obtained  from  Salisbury,  in  the  northwest 
corner  of  Connecticut.  Andrus  Waters  who  had  been  taking  care 
of  the  ore  shipments,  died  from  exposure  after  two  years  of 
operations,  and  was  buried  at  West  Point  with  military  honors; 
the  business  being  carried  on  by  Asa. 

Asa  Waters  had  also  served  as  lieutenant  in  a  company  of 
the  Lexington  Alarm.  He  died  Dec.  24,  1814. 

WATERS,  Asa,  Jr. — Son  of  Asa  Waters  above.  Asia,  Jr.,  was  born 
at  Sutton,  Nov.  2,  1769,  at  his  father's  home  at  West  Main  and 
Rhodes  Streets.  With  his  elder  brother  Elijah,  he  learned  the 
gunsmith  trade  in  his  father's  factory.  In  1797  Asa,  Jr.  and  Elijah 
Waters  purchased  land  and  water  power  on  Blackstone  River, 
below  the  Singletary,  and  built  the  Waters  Armory.  Elijah  died 
in  1814,  and  Asa  (Jr.)  became  the  sole  proprietor.  As  in  his 
father's  shops,  the  welding  of  barrels  at  the  Waters  Armory 
was  done  by  water  power  operated  trip-hammer  perfected  by 
Asa  Waters  and  patented  Oct.  25,  1817. 

Asa  Waters  had  received  the  following  contracts:  Oct.  16, 
1818,  for  10,000  stands  at  the  rate  of  2,000  yearly,  beginning 
April  1,  1819,  (M.  1816:  The  barrels  and  bayonets  to  be  brown 
color,  locks  unpolished).  October  16,  1823,  Waters  obtained  an 
additional  contract  for  10,000  Model  1816  muskets  with  deliveries 
of  2,000  per  annum  from  Jan.  1,  1825,  Contract  of  Jan.  24,  1829, 
details  unknown. 

Sept.  22,  1836,  Waters  contracted  for  4,000  pistols  Model 
1836  at  $9.00  each,  to  be  delivered  by  Dec.  31,  1837.  On  Feb.  7, 
1840,  Asa  Waters,  in  association  with  his  son,  Asa  H.,  under  the 
name  of  A.  Waters  &  Son,  obtained  an  additional  contract  for 
15,000  pistols.  Model  1836,  (still  flintlock)  at  $7.50  each,  the  con- 
tract being  of  five  years  duration  with  deliveries  at  the  rate  of 
3,000  per  annum. 

Apparently  after  1843  Asa  H.  Waters  (son  of  Asa)  took  over 
the  management  of  the  firm  and  incorporated,  for  pistols  dated 
1844  are  stamped  "A.  H.  Waters  &  Co." 

A  part  of  the  arms  making  machinery  of  the  Waters  Armory 
was  sold  to  Wm.  Glaze,  operator  of  the  Palmetto  Armory  at 
Columbia,  S.  C,  in  1852,  and  was  later  used  in  the  manufacture  of 
Palmetto  Armory  arms.  The  Waters  Armory  is  known  to  have 
made  early  Joslyn  carbines  after  1855. 

WATERS,  Richard— Salem,  Mass.,  1632. 

WATERS  &  WHITMORE— Massachusetts  musket  makers,  contractors 
of  Sept.  8,  1808,  for  5,000  Model  1808  muskets,  delivery  to  be 
completed  in  five  years.  Of  these  3,000  were  delivered  by  Oct.  7, 

American  Gun  Makers  229 

1812.  The  arms  were  probably  made  either  in  the  Sutton  or 
Millbury  Waters  armories. 

WATSON,  J.  M.— Altoona,  Pa.,  late  19th  century.  Over-under  rifle- 
shotgun,  serial  No.  23. 

WATSON,  Jonathan— Chester,  N.  H.,  1800. 

WATSON,  Walter— Fayetteville,  N.  C.  Advertised  Nov.  7,  1864,  "Pis- 
tol Maker  and  Machinist.  Guns  and  pistols  made  and  repaired 
with  Dispatch.  Members  of  Reserves  and  Home  Guards  can  have 
their  arms  repaired  at  half-price." 

WATKEYS,  Henry— New  York  City,  N.  Y.,  before  and  after  1772-76. 
Proposed  to  the  Provincial  Congress  of  New  York  (under  con- 
sideration June  13,  1775,)  to  furnish  1,000  muskets  complete  with 
steel  ramrods,  bayonets  and  scabbards  at  the  price  of  £3,  15  shill- 
ings per  stand,  New  York  currency. 

WATT — McVeytown,  Pa.  Extensive  maker  of  flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

WATT,  G. — Unlocated.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

WATT,  J. — Licking  Creek,  Juniata  Co.,  Pa.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

WATT,  J. — Unlocated.  Heavy-barrel,  flintlock  match  rifle. 

WATT,  William — Old  employee  of  Hawken  shop  in  St.  Louis,  Mo. 
Operated  it  during  1859-61,  while  Samuel  Hawken  and  his  son 
were  in  Denver,  Colo. 

WAY,  Arad— Canfield,  Ohio  1800-08.  Trumbull  and  Middlebury  Sum- 
mit Co.,  1812.  Made  pistols. 

WEATHERBY,  Joseph— Gunsmith.  Above  449  Front,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

WEATHERHEAD,  Joseph— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Contract  Arms,  1821- 
25.  Inspected  arms  in  plants  of  R.  &  J.  D.  Johnson,  Simeon 
North,  Lemuel  Pomeroy,  Nathan  Starr  and  Asa  Waters. 

WEAVER,  Cry pret— Pennsylvania,  1818. 

WEAVER,  Hugh— Pleasant  Ridge,  Ohio,  about  1870.  Half-stock,  per- 
cussion target  rifle. 

WEAVER,  H.  B. — South  Windham,  Conn.  Breech-loading  percussion 

WEAVER,  Sam— Unlocated.  Beautiful  converted  flintlock  Kentucky 
rifle,  early  period. 

W.  B. — William  Border,  New  Paris,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.  Maker  of  full 
stock,   percussion   squirrel   rifles. 

WEBB,   S. — Unlocated  single  action  revolvers. 

WEBBER  ARMS  CO.— Denver,  Col.  Modern. 

WEBEL,  Charles— Gunsmith,  Jackson  near  Tchouptoulas  Sts.,  New 
Orleans,  La.,  1853. 

WEBER,  P. — Unlocated.  Curly  maple,  half  stock  percussion  rifle. 

WEDDELL,  P.  M.— Zanesville,  Ohio,  1823.  Flintlock,  fullstock  Ken- 
tucky rifle  (now  converted  to  percussion)  with  silver  inlays  in 
stock,  complex  patch  box  opening  device.  Marked  on  barrel,  in 
script  "P.  M.  WEDDEL"  and  on  a  silver  inlay  under  cheek  piece 
"ZANESVILLE  1823." 

WEEDS,  N.  B.  &  H.— Unlocated.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

WEEKS,  D. — Erie,  Pa.  Percussion  halfstock  squirrel  rifle,  Steatham 

WEIBLE,   J.— Unlocated.    1844  Percussion  rifle. 

WEICHOLD,  Jack— 4047  Herron  Ave.,  Cincinnati,  O.  Modern  under- 
hammer  percussion  match  rifle. 

230  American  Gun  Makers 

WEIDMAN,  Solomon— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

WEIKER,  G.— Pennsylvania,  period  of  1780.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifle, 
engraved  on  patchbox,  "G.  Weiker,  gunsmith,  has  his  price — 
$16.48  for  manufacturing." 

WEISER,  G.  W.— Pennsylvania,  1839. 

WEIS,  G. — Pennsylvania.  Over-under  percussion  rifle-shotgun. 

WELCH,  BROWN  &  CO.— William  W.  Welch  and  his  sureties,  Plumb 
Brown  and  Austin  A.  Spaulding,  Norfolk,  Conn.,  Civil  War  con- 
tractors, for  16,000  Springfield  rifle-muskets,  Model  1861,  contract 
of  June  6,  1862.  Of  these  1,360  were  recorded  delivered:  1,000 
April  (?)  21,  1865,  and  360  May  3,  1865,  both  lots  at  $15.00  each. 
In  the  records  the  first  date  is  given  as  August  21: — this  is  be- 
lieved to  be  a  typographical  error,  as  both  lots  were  paid  for  in 
full  on  May  11,  1865. 

WELCH,  James— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1783. 

WELCH,  W.  W.— William  Wickham  Welsh,  Norfolk,  Conn.  Civil  War 
arms  contractor.  Organized  a  concern  for  the  manufacture  of 
percussion  rifle  muskets  Model  1861.  Nov.  6,  1861,  for  18,000  at 
$20.00  each.  16,000  delivered.  Jan.  12,  1864,  for  2,500  at  $18.00 
each.  1,000  delivered.  The  rifle-muskets  were  made  in  the  long 
stone  shop  of  the  Empire  Company.  After  the  war  the  same 
company  undertook  the  manufacture  of  "revolving  pistols"  under 
the  name  of  "The  Connecticut  Arms  Company." 

Dr.  Welch  was  born  Dec.  10,  1818,  in  Norfolk,  Conn.  Gradu- 
ated from  Yale  Medical  School  in  1839  and  represented  his  town 
in  General  Assembly  during  years  1848,  1850,  1879  and  1881.  Was 
State  Senator  from  17th  District  in  1851-52  and  Representative 
in  Congress  from  4th  Congressional  District  of  Connecticut  in 
1855-57.  In  addition  to  his  interest  in  rifle-musket  contracts,  Dr. 
Welch  was  active  in  a  number  of  other  enterprises,  including 
services  as  vice-president  of  Norfolk  Bank  from  1862  until  his 
death  in  1892. 

WELDON,  Robin— Mansfield,  Richland  Co.,  Ohio,  1810.  Made  imple- 
ments of  war,  War  of  1812.  Lived  in  blockhouse  during  the  War. 

WELHANCE,  Kunrat — York,  Pa.,  musket  maker.  Associated  with 
Jacob  Laether  in  a  contract  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, of  April  11,  1798,  for  1,200  Charleville  pattern,  (Model 
1795)  muskets.  He  is  also  listed  as  Conrad  Welshanze  in  a  later 
contract  of  April  17,  1801,  also  with  Pennsylvania,  in  which,  he 
in  association  with  Jacob  Doll  and  Henry  Pickell,  of  York 
County,  contracted  for  1,000  Charleville  pattern,  (Model  1795) 

WELLES,  C— See  Wells,  C. 

WELLS,  C— (Or  Welles).  Milwaukee,  Wis.,  1867-1910.  Gunmaker, 
gunsmith  and  dealer.  Formed  a  partnership  with  a  Mr.  Hale  and 
was  listed  as  Welles  &  Hale  from  about  1858  until  about  1870. 
Located  at  15  Wisconsin  Avenue  until  1871,  later  87  Wisconsin 
(1871),  425  East  Water  Street  (1878)  423%  East  Water  (1887), 
419  Sycamore  (1893),  5,124  Second  Street  (1910).  Made  single  and 
double  barrel  percussion  rifles  and  shotguns. 

WELLS  &  HALE — Milwaukee,  Wis.  Percussion  rifles.  See  Wells, 
John  C. 

WELLS,  J.  H. — Staunton,  Va.  Kentucky  rifle  for  match  shooting. 

WELLS,  W.  &  BRO. — Madison,  Ind.  Makers  of  percussion  gun  locks. 

American  Gun  Makers  231 

WELSH,  James— Dock  Ward,  Northern  part  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1779. 
Flintlock  holster  pistol. 

WELSHANS,  Jacob — Probably  same  as  Welshantz  below.  Contracted 
for  "rifle  guns"  in  1792.  Payment  of  $72.00  recorded. 

WELSHANTZ,  David— York  County,  Pa.,  1780-83. 

WELSHANTZ,  Jacob— York  County,  Pa.,  1777-83.  Worked  for  the 
State  1777-80. 

WELSHANTZ,  Joseph— York  County,  Pa.,  1779-83. 

WELSHANZE,  Conrad — York,  Pa.,  musket  maker.  In  association 
with  Jacob  Doll  and  Henry  Pickell,  of  York  County,  contracted 
April  17,  1801,  with  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  for  1,000 
muskets,  Charleville  pattern. 

Under  the  name  of  Kunrat  Welhance  he  had  earlier,  April 
11,  1798,  contracted  in  association  with  Jacob  Laether  to  fur- 
nish the  Commonwealth  with  1,200  muskets  made  on  the  Charle- 
ville pattern.  Doubtless  was  of  the  same  clan  with  the  Welshantz 
gunsmiths  above,  regardless  of  the  spelling  of  the  family  name. 

WELSHENS,  J.— No  details.  (Joseph  or  Jacob  Welshantz?) 

WELTON,  Ard — Waterbury,  Conn.,  musket  maker,  before  and  after 
1773-1801.  Contractor  under  the  Act  of  July  5,  1798,  for  1,000 
Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795),  muskets  at  $13.40  per  stand. 
$7,865  recorded  paid  on  account  in  1799;  $7,705  in  1800,  and 
$598.20  in  1801.  Welton  had  served  as  lieutenant  in  the  Con- 
tinental Army  during  the  Revolutionary  War. 

WELZHOFER,  Joseph— 307  Main  St.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  1845. 

WENTZEL,  W.  H.— Frederick,  Md.  (?)  Maker  of  a  side-by-side, 
double  barrel,  percussion  rifle  with  curly  maple  half-stock  and 
locks  by  "McKIM  &  CO." 

WAREHAM,  David— Ohio. 

WERGER,  Christian — Leacock  Township,  Pa.,  musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety  in  1776. 

WERNER,  Charles — Rochester,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 

WERNER,  J.  G.— York,  Pa.  Percussion,  double-barrel  rifle. 

WERTER — Gun  barrel  maker;  late  flint  period.  Stamped  under  breech 
of  H.  Gibbs,  Lancaster,  Kentucky  rifle. 

WERTZ,  Peter — Gunsmith,  Saleto  Township,  Muskingum  Co.,  Ohio, 

WESLE,  Norbert — Milwaukee,  Wis.  Percussion  hunting  and  target 
rifles.  Located  on  Third  between  Chestnut  and  Prairie  in  1854-55, 
on  Third  between  Tamarack  and  Prairie  in  1856-61,  at  289  Third 
in  1862-74,  and  at  315  State  Street  from  1874  to  1880. 

WESSON,  D.  B.— Daniel  Baird  Wesson,  one  of  the  founders  of  Smith 
&  Wesson,  was  born  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  in  May,  1825,  of  an 
old  New  Hampshire  family  of  English  descent.  After  a  brief 
attempt  to  interest  himself  in  the  shoe  business  with  his  brothers 
Rufus  and  Martin,  Daniel  joined  his  brother  Edwin  at  Northboro 
in  1843,  and  completed  his  apprenticeship  in  1846.  He  continued 
with  Edwin  until  about  1850,  when  his  brother  died.  After  work- 
ing for  a  time  for  his  brother  Frank,  who  had  a  gunsmith  shop 
at  Grafton,  and  with  Leonard  at  Charlestown,  Mass.,  as  super- 
intendent of  the  Leonard  pepperbox  pistol  plant,  Wesson  went 
to  work  for  Allen,  Brown  and  Luther  at  Worcester,  Mass.,  in 
1852.  There  he  became  associated  with  Horace  Smith  and  the 
Volcanic  Repeating  Arms  Co.,  and  later  formed  the  Smith  & 

232  American  Gun  Makers 

Wesson  arms  manufacturing  firm.  See  Smith  &  Wesson.  Daniel 
B.  Wesson  died  at  Springfield,  Mass.,  August  4,  1906. 

WESSON,  Edward— Grafton,  Mass.,  1834-40,  then  at  Northboro  until 
1843  and  later. 

WESSON,  Edwin — Son  of  Rufus  Wesson,  a  native  of  New  Hampshire, 
who  migrated  to  Massachusetts  and  established  a  plow  manu- 

Edwin  apprenticed  himself  to  Silas  Allen  of  Shrewsbury, 
and  later  set  up  for  himself  at  Northboro,  where  in  association 
with  Leavitt  he  manufactured  the  Wesson  and  Leavitt  revolver, 
until  his  death  in  1850.  See  Massuchusetts  Arms  Co.  Edwin  was 
an  older  brother  of  Daniel  B.  Wesson. 

WESSON,  Frank— Brother  of  Daniel  B.  and  Edwin  Wesson.  Arms 
manufacturer  of  Worcester,  Mass.  Active  about  1850-77.  Maker 
of  Wesson  pistols,  military  carbines  and  sporting  and  target  rifles, 
under  the  patent  of  Frank  Wesson  and  N.  S.  Harrington  of  Oct. 
25,  1859.  No.  25,926,  and  the  numerous  Frank  Wesson  patents 
of  Nov.  11,  1862;  Dec.  15,  1868;  July  20,  1869;  June  13,  1871  and 
July  10,  1877. 

One  hundred  and  fifty  Wesson  rim-fire  carbines  were  pur- 
chased by  the  government  during  the  Civil  War,  as  well  as  many 
hundreds  by  various  states  and  units. 

WESSON  &  HARRINGTON— Worcester,  Mass.,  1871-74.  Makers  of 
5-  and  7-shot  cartridge  revolvers.  Succeeded  by  Harrington  & 
Richardson  1875  to  date.  See  the  latter  firm. 

WESSON  &  PRESCOTT— Northboro,  Mass.  Prior  to  1850.  Edwin 
Wesson  in  association  with  E.  A.  (?)  Prescott,  rifle  manufac- 
turers. Partnership  dissolved  on  Edwin  Wesson's  death  in  1850. 

WESSON,  STEVENS  &  MILLER— Hartford,  Conn.,  Edwin  Wesson, 
Joshua  Stevens  and  S.  C.  Miller,  manufacturers,  between  1837-49, 
of  hand-turned  cylinder,  percussion  revolvers  made  on  the 
Daniel  Leavitt  of  Cabotsville  (now  Chicopee),  Mass.,  patent  of 
April  29,  1837,  No.  182. 

WEST,  Stephen — Woodward,  Frederick  Co.,  Md.  Revolutionary  War 
period.  His  letter  with  address  given  as  Woodyard,  (?),  dis- 
cusses the  many  merits  of  his  guns  and  scoffs  at  all  others  pro- 
duced in  Maryland,  particularly  those  of  Isaac  Harris,  at  "fit 
only  to  beat  homminy  with." 

WESTERN  ARMS  CO.— New  York,  N.  Y.  and  Chicago,  111.  Percussion 
pocket  and  rim-fire  cartridge  belt  revolvers.  Quite  likely  made 
for  Western  Arms  Company  by  some  other  firm. 

WESTERN  ARMS  CORP.— Ithaca,  N.  Y.,  Modern. 

WESTERN  GUN  WORKS— Chicago,  111.  "Tramp's  Terror"  .22  pocket 

WESTPHALL,  Charles  W.— Musket  maker.  In  association  with 
Frederick  Goetz  of  Philadelphia,  contracted  on  July  13,  1808, 
for  2,500  Model  1808  muskets,  duration  five  years.  Of  these  1,019 
recorded  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

WETMORE,  W.  W.— Lebanon,  N.  H.,  and  Windsor,  Vt.  Percussion 
gaintwist  rifle  for  picket  bullet;  false  muzzle  recessed  for  either 
linen  or  paper  cross-patch. 

WETZEL,  Jonathan — Pennsylvania.  Middle  and  late  flintlock  period 
and  early  percussion,  Roman  nose  style,  graceful  Kentucky  rifles. 
WEYERMAN,  Isaac— Le  Soeur  County,  Minn.,  1864-65. 

American  Gun  Makers  233 

W.  G.  M. — Unidentified.  Kentucky  rifles  with  very  dark  stocks. 

WHALL,  William— Kirby  St.,  Liberty  Square,  Phila.,  Pa.  Advertised 
for  an  apprentice  Feb.  2,  1793  and  had  for  sale  pistols,"  very 
elegant  Fowling  and  Cocking  Pieces  .  .  .  calculated  for  large  and 
small  game  .  .  .  very  elegant  Muskets  with  bayonets,  fit  for  mili- 
tary gentlemen." 

WHALL,  William,  Jr.— Boston,  Mass.,  1813-19. 

WHEATLEY,  Henry— Washington  and  Claysville,  Washington  Co.,  Pa. 

WHEELDON,  James— Pomeroy,  O.,  19th-20th  century.  Muzzle-loading 

WHEELER,  A.  G.— Farmington,  Me.,  1867-68. 

WHEELER,   G.   E.— Farmington,  Me.,    1877.   Maker   of   Plains   rifles. 

WHEELER,  George — Stevensburg,  Culpepper  Co.,  Va.  Musket  maker 
to  the  State  of  Virginia,  and  operator  of  Wheeler's  Works.  Con- 
tracted with  the  State  about  1797,  for  4,000  muskets,  of  which 
250  were  inspected  and  passed  Oct.  16,  1801,  at  Richmond,  Va., 
by  Alex  Quarrier  and  John  Clerke  with  comments  that  the  work 
was  roughly  executed,  especially  in  the  locks,  but  better  than 
any  Wheeler  had  made  before;  considerably  inferior  to  guns  sent 
from  Philadelphia.  Another  parcel  is  reported  inspected  and 
passed  Feb.  23,  1802,  by  John  Strode. 

WHEELER,  J.  H.— Unlocated,  Heavy  barrel  (24  lb.)  percussion  target 

WHEELER,  Leicester — Forged  pistol  barrels,  Springfield  Armory, 

WHEELER  &  MORRISON— Virginia  musket  makers,  contractors  of 
Oct.  21,  1808,  for  2,500  Model  1808  muskets,  duration  five  years. 
Only  125  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

WHETCROFT,  William— Annapolis,  Md.  Musket  maker  to  Commit- 
tee of  Safety  1776.  Had  a  plant  producing  50  muskets  a  week. 

WHIPPLE,  T.  H.— Cambridge,  Vt.  Made  heavy  sharpshooters'  rifles 
for  Union  forces.  An  18-lb.  under-hammer  percussion  rifle. 

WHIT,  J.  R. — Gunsmith.  Seneca  Co.,  Ohio.  Bored  gun  barrels  and 
repaired  arms  during  War  of  1812. 

WHITE,  E.  B. — Unlocated.  Maker  of  percussion  under-hammer 
pepperbox  pistol  with  bootleg  grip. 

WHITE,  H.— Gunsmith,  Jackson,  Jackson  Co.,  Ohio,  1851-65. 

WHITE,  Horace — Springfield,  Mass.,  arms  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety  1775-76. 

WHITE,  H.  W. — Jackson,  Ohio.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

WHITE,  J. — Uniontown,  Pa.,  from  about  1815.  Smallbore  rifles.  (Same 

as,  or  related  to  John  White  of  Uniontown,  Pa.?) 
WHITE,  J.  A.— Gunsmith.  Jackson,  Jackson  Co.,  Ohio,  1854-58. 
WHITE,  John— New  Lisbon,  (now  Lisbon)  Columbiana,  County,  Ohio. 

Active  in  the  early  part  of  19th  Century. 

WHITE,  John— Uniontown,  Fayette  Co.,  Pa.,  about  1790-1810. 

WHITE,  John— Gunsmith.  New  Philadelphia,  Tuscarawas  Co.,  Ohio. 

WHITE,  L.  B. — Underhammer  percussion  pistol. 

WHITE,  Nicholas — Frederick  Town,  Md.,  musket  maker,  associated 
with  Thomas  Crabb,  Jacob  Metzger  and  Christopher  Barnhizle 
in  a  contract  under  Act  of  July  5,   1798,  for  1,000  Charleville 

234  American  Gun  Makers 

pattern    (Model   1795)    muskets   at   $13.40  per   stand.    Of   these 
235  delivered  by  June  10,  1801. 

WHITE,  Peter — Annapolis,  Md.,  rifle  maker  of  the  Revolutionary 
War  period. 

WHITE,  Peter— Colerain  Township.  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1825. 

WHITE,  Peter— Highly  ornamented  flintlock  rifles.  Said  by  Uriah 
Fisher  to  have  been  the  first  gunsmith  in  Uniontown,  Fayette 
Co.,  Pa.  Possibly  the  same  as  Peter  White  above. 

WHITE,  ROLLIN  ARMS  CO.— Lowell,  Mass.  Established  about  1864, 
to  manufacture  cartridge  revolvers  which  infringed  on  the  Rollin 
White  patents  controlled  by  Smith  &  Wesson,  and  8,642  revolvers 
were  turned  over  to  Smith  &  Wesson  for  sale. 

The  firm  assumed  the  name  of  Rollin  White  without  author- 
ity or  permission  from  Mr.  White.  On  Rollin  White's  protest  on 
the  use  of  his  name,  the  firm's  name  was  changed  to  Lowell 
Arms  Co. 

WHITE,  Rollin — Arms  inventor  and  designer  was  born  at  Williams- 
town,  Vt,  June  6,  1817.  During  1849-57  he  resided  at  Hartford, 
Conn.,  where  he  worked  for  two  of  his  brothers,  contractors  to 
Colt,  in  1849.  He  did  contract  work  for  Colt  from  1849  until  1852, 
when  he  left  Colts  on  their  abandonment  of  the  contract  system 
in  their  shops.  Lived  at  Davenport,  Iowa,  from  1857  to  1863, 
when  because  of  frequent  visits  East,  necessary  because  of  his 
patent  interests,  he  moved  to  Springfield,  Mass.  In  1864  he  pur- 
chased a  residence  in  Lowell  and  engaged  in  the  invention  of 
arms  as  well  as  many  other  mechanical  devices,  such  as  a  loom, 
wrenches,  spinning  spindles,  drawing  punches,  a  torpedo,  car- 
tridges, etc.  About  1866  he  heard  that  a  Lowell  revolver  manu- 
facturing firm  had  without  his  consent  assumed  his  name  in  con- 
nection with  their  trade  name,  Rollin  White  Arms  Company, 
which  he  caused  them  to  abandon,  they  changing  to  Lowell  Arms 
Co.  Rollin  White  died  at  Lowell  March  22,  1892. 

Rollin  White's  patent  of  "a  cylinder  bored  end  to  end"  pur- 
chased by  Smith  &  Wesson,  had  paid  him  a  royalty  of  50 
cents  per  arm,  but  since  the  terms  of  the  contract  stipulated 
that  White  had  to  defend  his  patent  against  infringements, 
most  of  the  royalties  were  absorbed  in  law  suits  to  defend  the 
patent,  which  expired  on  April  3,  1869.  White  succeeded  in 
obtaining  Congressional  legislation  for  its  extension,  but  the 
measure  was  vetoed  by  President  Grant,  because  the  control 
of  the  patent  had  deprived  the  Union  armies  of  cartridge  re- 
volvers during  the  Civil  War. 

WHITE,  W.  H.— Jackson,  Ohio,  1851-65. 

WHITESCARVER,  CAMPBELL  &  CO.— Rusk,  Cherokee  Co.,  Tex. 
Delivered  750  Texas  (Model  1841  type)  Rifles  by  November, 
1864.  Texas  Rifles  were  issued  mainly  to  Indian  troops  serving 
in  the  Confederate  army  and  stationed  in  Indian  Territory, 
now  Oklahoma. 

WHITESIDES,  John  M.— Abingdon  (then  Wolf  Hills),  Va.  Axe- 
maker,  turned  to  riflesmithing.  Handmade  percussion  Kentucky 
rifles,  mounted  with  iron,  brass,  German  silver,  or  silver.  Scroll 
wire  inlaying  a  specialty.  Taught  Milton  Warren. 

WHITING,  John— Independence,  Iowa.  1867-68. 

WHITMAN,  B.— Stillwater,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 

WHITMORE — Sutton,    Mass.,    musket    maker    associated    with    Asa 

American  Gun  Makers  235 

Waters  in  a  contract  of  Sept.  8,  1808,  for  5,000  Model  1808 
muskets,  of  five  years  duration.  Of  these  3,000  delivered  by 
Oct.  7,  1812. 

WHITMORE,  Andrew  H.— Somerville,  Mass.,  1868. 

WHITMORE,  H.  G.— Boston,  Mass.,  1853  and  later. 

WHITMORE,  Nathaniel  G Rifle  maker.  Born  at  Mansfield,  Mass.,  in 

1829,  and  learned  the  trade  in  his  father's  shop.  Worked  for 
Sharps  Rifle  Co.  and  Remingtons.  Died  at  Eastondale,  Mass.,  in 

Maker  of  a  heavy  barrel,  muzzle  loading,  percussion,  target 
rifle  with  double  set  triggers. 

A  presentation  rifle  by  Whitmore  was  gift  to  Gen.  U.  S.  Grant 
from  the  citizens  of  Providence,  R.  I.,  and  is  now  in  the  Smith- 
sonian Institution  in  Washington,  D.  C. 

WHITMORE  &  WOLFF— Makers  of  half  stock,  muzzle  loading  per- 
cussion rifle  with  double  set  triggers.  See  Whitmore,  Wolff  below. 

WHITMORE,  WOLFF  &  CO.— 50  Wood  St.,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  in  1853. 
M.  Whitmore,  C.  H.  Wolff,  Hugh  Jones,  Geo.  J.  Duff,  "Importers 
and  Wholesale  Dealers  in  Hardware  and  Cutlery."  Makers  of 
front  and  back  action  locks. 

Probable  firm  sequence:  Whitmore  &  Wolff;  Whitmore,  Wolff 
&  Co.;  Whitmore,  Wolff,  Duff  &  Co. 

WHITMORE,  WOLFF,  DUFF  &  CO.— Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Lockmakers, 
late  percussion  period.  Back-action  lock  with  this  marking  on  a 
M.  Rmgle,  late  Kentucky  rifle.  See  Whitmore,  Wolff  &  Co.,  above. 

WHITMORE,  W.  W.— Percussion  period.  Under  J.  H.  Durkee  at 
Lebanon,  N.  H.;  later  opened  shop  at  Springfield,  Mass. 

WHITNEY  ARMORY— Whitneyville,  Conn.  Established  by  Eli  Whit- 
ney, inventor  of  the  cotton  gin,  upon  the  receipt  of  a  contract 
to  make  10,000  muskets  under  the  Act  of  July  5,  1798.  The 
armory  made  flintlock,  percussion  and  cartridge  arms  for  the 
government  and  for  private  use  in  the  90  years  of  its  existence, 
including  Models  1798,  1808,  1812,  1816  flintlock  muskets,  1841 
percussion  rifles,  Springfield  rifle  muskets  during  the  Civil  War, 
percussion  as  well  as  cartridge  revolvers,  and  Whitney,  Burgess, 
Phoenix,  Kennedy  and  other  sporting  and  military  rifles  and 
carbines.  The  armory  ceased  operations  in  1888.  See  Whitney, 
Eli,  £r.  and  Jr.,  below. 

WHITNEY  ARMS  CO.— New  Haven,  Conn.,  1866-69.  Eli  Whitney 
(Jr.)  Pres.  Connected  with  the  Whitney  Armory.  Made  Howard 
patent  hammerless  rifles  for  Howard  Bros. 

WHITNEY,  Eli  (Sr.)— New  Haven,  Conn.  Born  Dec.  8,  1765.  Famous 
as  the  inventor  of  the  cotton  gin.  On  Jan.  14,  1798,  under  the 
influence  of  Hon.  Oliver  Wolcott,  the  Secretary  of  War,  Whitney 
obtained  a  contract  for  10,000  Charleville  pattern  muskets  (Model 
1795)  at  $13.40  per  stand,  and  established  an  armory  for  their 
manufacture  at  the  foot  of  East  Rock,  (Whitneyville)  about  two 
miles  from  New  Haven.  The  contract  was  not  completed  until 
1809,  due  to  many  difficulties  encountered  in  the  establishment 
of  a  new  business,  but  the  Whitney  arms  proved  very  satisfactory 
and  embodied  improvements  which  became  features  of  later 

April  8,  1808,  Whitney  contracted  to  furnish  the  State  of 
New  York  with  2,000  muskets  at  $13.00  per  stand;  these  were 
delivered  by  March  13,  1811,  and  an  additional  2,000  were 

236  American  Gun  Makers 

His  next  government  contracts  were  of  July  18,  1812,  for 
15,000  stands;  August  1,  1822,  for  3,000  muskets  Model  1816,  at 
$12.00  per  stand  to  be  delivered  by  Feb.  1,  1824,  which  was 
followed  on  August  15,  1822,  by  an  additional  contract  for 
15,000  more  of  the  same  model,  also  at  $12.00,  to  be  delivered 
at  the  rate  of  3,000  per  annum  from  January  1,  1824. 

Eli  Whitney  (Sr.)  died  Jan.  8,  1826,  and  during  his  son's, 
Eli's  (Jr.)  minority,  the  Whitney  Armory  was  operated  by  a 
Board  of  Trustees,  among  them  P.  &  E.  W.  Blake  (Eli  W. 
Blake  was  a  nephew  of  Eli  Whitney,  Sr.).  The  Blake  name 
appears  on  Whitney  arms  before  and  after  1827. 

WHITNEY,  Eli  (Jr.)— Whitneyville,  Conn.  Son  of  Eli  Whitney  (Sr.), 
the  founder  of  the  Whitney  Armory.  The  younger  Whitney  be- 
came of  age  in  November,  1842.  Under  his  administration  the 
Whitney  armory  received  numerous  government  contracts,  in- 
cluding large  orders  for  Model  1841  percussion  rifles.  Thomas 
Warner,  ex-master  armorer  of  the  Springfield  Armory,  super- 
intended the  tooling  up  and  the  manufacture  of  these  rifles. 
Some  of  these  arms  were  shipped  to  New  Orleans  about  1847, 
and  issued  to  the  1st  Mississippi  Regiment  commanded  by  Jeffer- 
son Davis,  and  so  acquired  the  name  of  Mississippi  rifles. 

The  government  contracts  received  before  the  Civil  War 
included  the  following:  Oct.  22,  1842,  for  7,500  Model  1841 
rifles  at  $13.00  each,  to  be  delivered  by  Jan.  1,  1847;  an  addi- 
tional order  of  March  27,  1848,  for  7,500  more  at  $12.87%; 
Feb.  6,  1849,  for  2,500  rifles  at  $12.87  and  one  for  100  rifles  at 
$11.62%  each,  dated  May  24,  1855. 

During  the  Civil  War  Whitney  delivered  15,001  Whitney 
rifle  muskets  under  contract  of  Oct.  17,  1863.  In  addition  the 
government  purchased  11,214  Whitney  Navy  revolvers.  From 
the  end  of  the  Civil  War  until  it  suspended  operations  in  1888, 
the  Whitney  armory  was  engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  various 
types  of  military  and  sporting  arms.  See  Whitney  Armory. 

WHITNEY,  James  S.— Colonel  Ordnance.  Superintendent  Springfield 
Armory  from  October  19,  1854  to  March  1,  1860. 

WHITNEY,  John— Independence,  Iowa,  1867.  Made  some  rifles  but 
mostly  did  repair  work.  Closed  his  shop  in  1880's.  Died  towards 
end  of  that  decade. 

WHITNEY  SAFETY  FIREARMS  CO.— Florence,  Mass.,  1891* 

WHITSIDE,  R.  &  J.— Makers  of  a  full  curly  maple  stock,  double  set 
triggers,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

WHITTEMORE,  Amos— Boston,  Mass.,  about  1775-85.  Arms  maker 
to  Committee  of  Safety. 

WHITTEMORE,  D.— Cambridge,  Mass.,  1860. 

WHITTIER,  O.  W.— Enfield,  N.  H.  Designed  and  made  6-shot  per- 
cussion hammerless  revolving  rifles,  Kentucky  style  stock. 

W.  &  H.  S.— See  Shannon,  W.  &  H. 

WHYSONG,  Samuel— Pavia,  Union  Township,  Bedford  Co.,  Pa.,  1877. 

WICKER  &  HAGADORN— Ypsilanti,  Mich.  Double-barrel,  side-by- 
side  percussion  rifles. 

WICKHAM,    M.    T Philadelphia,    Pa.,    musket   maker.    Contractor 

of  July  19,  1822,  for  5,000  Model  1816  muskets  to  be  delivered 
at  the  rate  of  2,000  per  year  from  January  1,  1823.  Dec.  6, 
1823,  he  received  a  contract  for  an  additional  10,000,  deliveries 
at  2,000  a  year  from  July  1,  1824.  He  also  had  a  navy  contract 

American  Gun  Makers  237 

for  muskets  of  1826,  at  $14.00  per  stand.  Also  army  contract  of 
Jan.  24,  1829. 

Marine  T.  Wickham  had  been  a  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms, 
1811-15.  He  is  listed  in  1829-33  in  the  Philadelphia  City  Directory 
at  the  location  of  the  John  Joseph  Henry  gun  factory,  at  the 
corner  of  3rd  and  Noble  Streets. 

WICKHAM  &  CO.— Military  and  fancy  hardware,  94  High,  Phila.,  Pa. 
See  M.  T.  Wickham.  1819  Directory  ad  reads:— 
"Importers  of  Hardware 
Military  and  Sportsmen's  Articles 
Have  constantly  on  hand 
An  extreme  assortment  of  .  .  . 
A  good  variety  of  Fowling  Pieces,  Pistols,  Sabres,  Swords, 
Dirks,  Foils,  Locks — and  component  parts  of  each  .  .  ." 

WICKHAM,  T.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1775-76.  Gunsmith  to  Committee 
of  Safety. 

WICKHUN  &  MATHUES— Unlocated,  period  of  1810.  Fine  flintlock 
Kentucky  rifles. 

WICKLINE— Gunsmith.  New  Ironton,  Lawrence  Co.,  Ohio.  Halfstock 
Kentucky  type,  percussion  rifles. 

WICKLINE,  G.  L.— Cadmus,  O.,  late  19th  century.  Percussion  half- 
stock  Kentucky  rifle. 

WIDMER,  J. — Newark,  N.  J.  Schuetzen  rifle  of  fine,  plain  workman- 
ship. Remington  Cast  Steel  barrel  marked  on  top  flat  "J.  WID- 

WIGFALL,  Samuel — Philadelphia,  Pa.,  musket-lock  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety.  Contracted  for  200  musket-locks  Dec.  5,  1775. 

WIGLE,  Peter— York  County,  Pa.,  1777-80.  Had  worked  for  the  State. 

WILCOCKS,  John — Revolutionary  War  officer  and  operator  of  a  gun- 
lock  factory. 

WILCOX,  John— Deep  River,  N.  C,  1776-79.  Maker  of  rifle  barrels, 
shot  and  cannon  for  the  State  at  his  foundry  and  iron  works. 

WILDER,  F. — Unlocated.  Light  weight,  single-barrel  shotgun. 

WILDER,  R.  M. — Coldwater,  Mich.,  3-barrel,  swivel-breech,  percus- 
sion rifle. 

WILEY— Pennsylvania   gunsmith  to   Committee   of   Safety,    1775-76. 

WILHELM,  Jacob— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

WILKINS,  Neil— Gunsmith,  Zanesville,  Muskigum  Co,  Ohio,  1804- 

WILKINSON— Keesville,  N.  Y,  1870.  Bolt  action  rifle. 

WILKINSON,  J.  D.— Plattsburg,  N.  Y.,  1866  and  after. 

WILKS,  John— Letter  cutter  and  gunsmith.  Capitol  St,  Albany, 
N.  Y,  in  1815;  119  State  St.  in  1820-1821;  different  addresses  up 
to  1826. 

WILLARD,  A. — Boston,  Mass.  Underhammer  percussion  pistol. 

WILLARD,  Bartholomew — Burlington,  Vt.  Percussion  period. 

WILLARD  CASE  &  CO.— New  Hartford,  Conn.  Makers  of  under- 
hammer percussion  pistols. 

WILLERDING— Evansville,  Ind. 

WILLETS,  A.  &  S.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Maple-stocked  flintlock  fowling 

WILLETS — Lock  marking  of  a  striped  maple,  full  stock,  goose-neck 

238  American  Gun  Makers 

hammer,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle.  Lock  stamped  with  crown  over 
V,  so  probably  British;  but  see  A.  &  S.  Willets. 

WILLIAM,  Abraham— Covington,  Ky.,  1845. 

WILLIAMS— Maquoketa,  Iowa. 

WILLIAMS,  Abe— Craft  Creek  near  Prosperity,  Washington  Co.,  Pa., 
1835  or  earlier,  to  about  1860.  Flint  and  percussion  rifles;  name 
scribed  on  brass  and  inlaid  in  barrel.  Operated  water-power  shop. 

WILLIAMS,  Abe — Owego,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 

WILLIAMS,  Charles— U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms,  1808-14.  Inspected 
sabers  at  plant  of  Nathan  Starr  1812-13. 

WILLIAMS,  Edward— Connecticut.  Certified  he  sold  to  Capt.  Hez. 
Huntington  and  Amasa  Palmer,  musket  makers  to  Committee 
of  Safety,  "good  duble  bridle  gunlocks." 

WILLIAMS,  Elie— Williamsport,  Md.  Contractor  under  Act  of  July 
5,  1798,  for  2,000,  Charleville  pattern  (Model  1795)  muskets,  at 
$13.40  per  stand.  It  is  believed  that  he  failed  on  his  contract. 
No  payments  are  recorded. 

WILLIAMS,  M.  D. — Horn  ells  ville,  N.  Y.  .50  caliber  percussion  rifle, 
lock  by  Leman  of  Lancaster. 

WILLIAMS  &  REZNER— Mercer,  Pa.  Percussion  Plains  rifle,  brass- 
mounted,  walnut  halfstock,  G.  Goulcher  lock. 

WILLIAMSON,  David — New  York,  N.  Y.  The  name  appears  on  a  per- 
cussion derringer  made  under  D.  Williamson  patent  of  Oct.  2, 
1866,  No.  58,525.  Probably  made  by  the  National  Arms  Co.,  of 
Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  or  Moore  Firearms  Co.  of  Brooklyn  (same 
firm),  makers  of  Williamson  arms. 

WILLIS,  John — Pennsylvania  musket  maker  to  Committee  of  Safety. 
In  association  with  Benjamin  Town,  contracted  on  Dec.  6,  1775, 
to  make  200  "firelocks"  at  £4,  5  shillings  each.  Willis  was  one 
of  the  petitioners  to  the  Committee  of  Safety  at  Philadelphia  in 
November,  1775,  complaining  against  the  rising  cost  of  materials 
and  labor  entering  into  arms  making. 

WILLIS,  Richard — Lancaster,  Pa.,  gunsmith  proscribed  as  "attained 
of  treason"  by  public  proclamation  at  Lancaster,  June  15,  1778. 

WILMOT,  Nathaniel  N.— St.  Paul,  Minn.,   1863-64. 

WILMOT,  N.  M. — St.  Louis,  Mo.  Percussion  6  ga.  goose  gun. 

WILMOT,  N.  N. — Boston,  Mass.  Possibly  same  as  Nathaniel  N. 
Wilmot,  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  1863-4. 

WILSON  &  EVANS— 513  Clay  and  122  Sacramento,  San  Francisco, 
Calif.,  1862-63.  513  Clay,  1864-65. 

WILSON,  H.  H.  &  SON— 27  6th  St.,  San  Francisco,  Calif.  1887. 

WILSON,  Philip  &  Co.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1851.  Percussion  buffalo 

WILSON,  Sam— Fairchild,  Conn.  Shop  on  Hoyden  Hill  Road  near 
Black  Rock  Turnpike.  Active  about  1835-67. 

WILT,  J.— Upper  Hydraulic,  Dayton,  Ohio,  1850-54. 

WIMTELL,  J. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  a  percussion  rifle  lock. 

WINCHESTER  REPEATING  ARMS  CO.— New  Haven,  Conn.  Organ- 
ized by  Oliver  F.  Winchester  in  1866,  upon  reorganization  of  the 
New  Haven  Arms  Co.,  of  which  Winchester  had  been  one  of  the 
principal  stockholders. 

Mr.  Winchester,  a  shirt  manufacturer  of  New  Haven,  Conn., 
had  come  to  that  city  in  1848,  and  started  a  shirt  factory,  Win- 
chester &  Davies,  at  59  Court  St.,  the  next  house  from  his  resi- 

American  Gun  Makers  239 

dence  at  57  Court  Street.  He  became  interested  in  arms  manu- 
facturing in  1855  when  he  purchased  stock  in  the  Volcanic  Re- 
peating Arms  Co.,  at  Norwich,  Conn.,  which  moved  to  New 
Haven  in  February,  1856,  failed  in  1857;  emerged  as  the  New 
Haven  Arms  Co.,  and  eventually  became  the  Winchester. 

During  the  World  War,  the  Winchester  Company  supplied 
the  government  with  465,980  Model  1917  (Enfield)  rifles  from 
August  1,  1917,  to  Nov.  9,  1918,  as  well  as  innumerable  other 
equipment  and  munitions. 

WINDSOR  MFG.  CO.— Windsor,  Vt.,  1867-68. 

WING,  Robert— Sharleston,  S.  C,  1867. 

WINGER,  Richard — Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  gunsmith  to  Committee  of 
Safety,  1775-77. 

WINGERT,  William— Detroit,  Mich.  Active  from  1845  to  1867.  When 
he  retired,  his  shop  at  10  Congress  Street  East,  was  taken  over 
by  Fisher  &  Long.  He  made  3-barrel  rifles,  single-barrel  per- 
cussion rifles,  and  under-hammer  pistols. 

WINN,  C.  W. — Unlocated.  Full  stock  percussion  rifle. 

WINNER,  James— 104  Walnut  St.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1813. 

WINNER,  NIPPES  &  CO.— Pennsylvania  musket  makers.  Contractors 
of  July  20,  1808,  for  9,000  Model  1808  muskets,  five  years  dura- 
tion. Of  these  3,900  were  delivered  by  Oct.  7,  1812. 

WINNIGER,  Adams — Gunsmith.  Rockey  Fork  near  Lucas,  Richland 
Co.  Repaired  firearms  at  Beams  Mill,  1812. 

WINSHIP,  Wynn — Gunsmith.  Worked  in  Stockade,  southeast  of  pub- 
lic square,  Mansfield,  Richland  Co.,  Ohio,  War  of  1812. 

WINTABLE,  Abraham— 437  North  3rd  St.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1816. 

WINTAFELD,  Abel— Gunsmith.  437  N.  Third,  Phila.,  Pa.,  1819. 

WINTER,  Gustave— Denver,  Colo.,  1879-80. 

WINTERS,  Elisha — Chestertown,  Md.,  musket  maker  to  Committee  of 
Safety.  Made  40  stands  of  muskets  per  month. 

WINTERSTEIN,  E.— Trinidad,  Colo.,  1874-80. 

WITHER,  John  and  Michael — Strasbourg  Township,  Lancaster  Co., 
Pa.,  before  and  after  1771-79. 

WITHERS,  Michael — Lancaster  County,  Pa.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety,  1775.  Agreed  to  make  muskets  and  bayonets  at 
Philadelphia  prices,  and  to  confine  himself  and  his  workmen  to 
that  work. 

WITHERS,  William— Gunsmith.  5  Baker's  Court,  Phila.,  Pa.  1819. 

WITMAN,  Solomon— Lancaster,  Pa.,  1857. 

W.  J. — Unidentified.  A  plain  percussion  Kentucky  rifle  with  factory 

W.  K. — Unidentified.  Early  Kentucky  rifle,  flintlock  period. 
W.  L. — Unidentified.  Maker  of  Kentucky  rifle. 

W.  N. — Initials  of  W.  North,  U.  S.  Inspector  of  Arms  within  years 

W.  N.  &  S. — See  Winner,  Nippes  &  Co.,  Nippes,  Daniel,  and  Steinman, 

WOLF— New  York  City.  No  details. 

WOLFE,  Luther  M. — Willshire,  O.  Modern  muzzle-loading  rifles. 
WOLFE,  Meredith— Born  in  McMinn  Co.,  Tenn.,  Sept.  3,  1833;  died  in 

Chattanooga,  Feb.  8,  1930.  Apprenticed  under  John  Selvridge  at 

240  American  Gun  Makers 

Harris  Creek,  Bradley  Co.,  Tenn.,  in  1845;  later  married  his 
daughter  Elizabeth.  U.  S.  Marshal  of  Bradley  Co.;  opened  lock 
and  gun  repair  shop  at  Chattanooga,  1881;  made  percussion  rifles. 
Father  of  gunsmiths  John,  James,  Frank,  and  Robert  Wolfe. 

WOLFF,  C.  H.— Pittsburgh,  Pa.  Member  of  firms:  Whitmore  &  Wolff; 
Whitmore,  Wolff  &  Co.;  Whitmore,  Wolff,  Duff  &  Co. 

WOLFF  &  LANE— Or  Wolfe  &  Lane,  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  percussion 
lock  makers.  Early  period  percussion  lock  mounted  on  a  plain, 
curly  maple,  fullstock  rifle  by  J.  &  D.  Little. 

WOLFF  &  MASCHEK— Memphis,  Tenn.,  1860. 

WOLFF  &  WHITMORE— Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  gun-lock  makers.  See  Whit- 
more &  Wolff,  and  Whitmore,  Wolff  &  Co. 

WOLFHEIMER,  Philip— Lancaster,  Pa.,  before  1783. 

WOLLFINGER,  Frank— Mohnton,  Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa. 
Made  rifle  repairs. 

WOMELSDORF— Unidentified.  Silver  inlaid,  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle. 

WOOD,  Amos  P. — North  Hamden,  N.  Y.  Percussion  match  and  hunt- 
ing rifles. 

WOOD,  B.  C. — Painted  Post,  N.  Y.  Percussion  rifles  of  many  types,  in- 
cluding over-under,  combination  rifle-shotguns,  and  multi-barrel 
rifles.  Also  made  under-hammer  pistols. 

WOOD,  Daniel— Rochester,  N.  Y.,  in  1861.  Designed  improved  tele- 
scope sight  with  range-finder  reticule. 

WOOD,  J.  B. — Norwich,  N.  Y.  1866.  Over-under  percussion  rifle- 

WOOD,  J.  M. — Unlocated.  Marking  on  halfstock  Southern  made  rifle. 

WOOD,  John — Roxbury,  Mass.,  1775.  Arms  maker  to  Committee  of 

WOOD,  John— Boston,  Mass.,  1800. 

WOOD,  Josiah — Norrington  Township,  Pa.  Musket  maker  to  Com- 
mittee of  Safety,  1775-76. 

WOOD,  Luke — Sutton,  Mass.  Flintlock  rifles.  Model  1808  musket  lock- 
plates  are  known  marked  "L.WOOD"  and  a  five  pointed  star  with 
a  circle  in  the  center,  stamped  over  the  name. 

WOOD,  Win — Peebles,  O.  Recent  percussion  rifles. 

WOOD,  W.  N.— New  York,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 

WOODBURY,  N.  &  CO.— Woodstock,  Vt.  Makers  of  underhammer 
percussion  half  stock  rifle. 

WOODS,  James— Lancaster,  Pa.,  about  1810-1820.  Fine  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifles. 

WOODS,  John — New  York.  Colonial  gunsmith,  who  with  Thomas 
Allen  was  returned  to  England  in  December,  1775,  by  Governor 
William  Tryon  with  the  inducement  of  prepaid  passage,  20 
guineas  in  cash  and  employment  at  a  government  armory. 

WOODS,  Robert— Pennsylvania,  about  1800.  Beautiful  flintlock  Ken- 
tucky rifle. 

WOODS,  T.— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1810. 

WORKMAN,  J.— Hamburg,  Pa.  Ornate  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle  with 
incised  carving,  30  silver  inlays. 

WORL,  H. — Pennsylvania,  early  flintlock  period. 

WORL,  H. — Unlocated.  Maker  of  over-under  barels  for  percussion 
rifles.  Rifle  lock,  stock  and  furniture  by  D.  Young. 

American  Gun  Makers  241 

WORLEY,  David— East  Finley  Township,  Washington  Co.,  Pa.  Per- 
cussion period. 

WORLEY — Wyomissing  Creek,  Pa.  Built  two  gun  shops  on  the  Wyo- 
missing  about  1811.  (Same  as  J.  Worly  above?)  Was  succeeded  by 
John  Keim,  his  superintendent. 

WORLEY,  Henry — Son  of  Worley  above.  Shop  superintendent  for 
Benjamin  Mohn,  a  Wyomissing  Creek,  Pa.,  gun-maker.  Bought 
Mohn's  shops  on  latter's  retirement,  prior  to  Civil  War,  and 
carried  on  the  business  until  about  1880. 

WORLY,  J.— Unlocated.  Also  Worley.  About  1800.  Flintlock  Kentucky 
rifles  of  fine  workmanship. 

W.P.— Unidentified.  (William  Pannebecker?) 

WREN,  I.  G. — Unlocated.  Walnut  halfstock  flintlock  rifle  with  brass 
patchbox,  silver  eagles,  acorns,  etc. 

WRIGHT — Southern  maker  of  percussion  Kentucky  rifles. 

WRIGHT,  A. — Newburgh,  N.  Y.  Heavy  percussion  target  rifle. 

WRIGHT,  Alexander— Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.,  1835-46.  Of  the  firm 
Palmateer  &  Wright. 

WRIGHT,  A.  C. — Fitchburg,  Mass.,  percussion  period. 

WRIGHT  ARMS  CO. — Lawrence,  Mass.,  about  1876.  Makers  of  .22  cal. 
"All  Right"  palm  revolver. 

WRIGHT,  J.— Unlocated.  About  1820. 

WRIGHT,  Loomis  S. — Waddington,  N.  Y.  Percussion  period. 

WRISLEY,  Loren  H.— Norway,  Me.,  1834,  and  later. 

WUERKE,  F.— Alton,  111.  1869-75. 

WUERKER,  Frederick — Alton,  111.  Emigrated  from  Germany  with 
brother  Christian,  settled  at  Alton  in  1849.  Gunsmiths  and  lock- 
smiths, active  in  1875.  Percussion  rifle,  curly  maple  halfstock. 

WUNDHAMMER,  Ludwig — Los  Angeles,  Cal.  Modern  rifle  maker. 

WURFFLEIN,  Andrew— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  about  1835  and  later. 
Maker  of  percussion  derringers   and  double-barrelled  shotguns. 

WURFFLEIN,  John — Unlocated.  Percussion  derringers  and  brass- 
mounted  needle  guns. 

WURFFLEIN,  J.  &  PESSOTA— Philadelphia,  Pa. 

WURFFLEIN,  William— Philadelphia,  Pa.,  1874-1910.  Son  of  Andrew 
Wurfflein.  Maker  of  breech-loading  sporting  and  target  rifles  and 

W.  W. — Unidentified.  Light  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle,  slim-wrist  maple 
fullstock  with  a  high  comb,  brass  patchbox. 

W.  M.  M. — Unidentified.  Percussion  under-hammer  pistols. 

WYLER,  J.  L. — Unlocated.  Revolving  side-hammer  percussion  rifle. 

YACHUM,  D.— Pennsylvania. 

YAGER,  Charles — East  Main  Street,  Elizabeth  Borough,  Lancaster, 
Pa.,  1869-70. 

YAHNER,  Henry  F.— R.F.D.  lc,  Loretto,  Cambria  Co.,  Pa.  Born  Oct. 
15,  1860  at  Boniface  Farm  near  Loretto.  Learned  blacksmithing 
from  his  father;  set  up  gunsmith  shop  in  1915.  Made  percussion 
rifles,    shotguns,    3    over-under    rifle-shotguns,    stamped    "H.    F, 

242  American  Gun  Makers 

YAHNER  LORETTO."  Bored  and  rifled  barrels,  made  his  own 
locks;  stocked  in  black  walnut  with  plain  inlays  of  brass,  German 
silver,  silver,  or  dollars.  Last  gun  made  about  1945,  but  still 
makes  repairs  and  sporting  conversions. 

YATES,  A. — And  "1776"  engraved  on  octagon,  very  heavy  barrel 

YENAN,  T.  M. — Unlocated.  Percussion  sporting  rifle. 

YERIAN,  Frederick — Gunsmith.  Sharon  Township,  Noble  Co.,  Ohio. 
Early  period  of  Ohio. 

YERIAN,  John— Sharon,  Ohio,  1879-82. 

YERIAN,  L.  M.— Cumberland,  Ohio,  1883-1902. 

YESLET,  H.— Or  Yesley.  Unidentified.  About  1840. 

YOCOM,  Nicholas — Employed  as  musket  barrel  maker  by  Joseph 
Henry  in  1810. 

YOCUM — Unlocated.  Handsome,  heavy  flintlock  Kentucky  rifle,  silver 
and  brass  inlaid. 

YOKUM,  Nicholas  &  Son — Furnished  iron  for  John  Keim  shops  on 
Wyomissing  Creek,  Berks  Co.,  Pa.;  succeeded  Keim  in  business; 
later  sold  out  to  Franklin  K.  Schnader.  See  Keim,  John. 

YOMENS— Charlotte,  N.  C.  See  Youmans. 

YOST,  Casper — Lancaster  County,  Pa.,  active  before  and  after  1773- 
78.  Gunsmith  to  Committee  of  Safety  in  1777. 

YOST,  John — Georgetown,  Md.  Revolutionary  War  period. 

YOST,  John— Montgomery  County,  Md.,  before  and  after  1771-83. 
Musket  and  rifle  contractor  to  Committee  of  Safety  in  1775. 

YOUMANS — Lancaster,  Pa.  Revolutionary  War  period.  Members  of 
this  family  migrated  to  Charlotte,  N.  C. 

YOUNG,  Charles  A.— Maker  of  2-shot  shotguns,  1901-02. 

YOUNG,  D. — Middleburg,  Snyder  Co.,  Pa.  Early  percussion  period. 

YOUNG,  Henry— Easton,  Pa.,  before  and  after  1770-80.  Located  at  the 
intersection  of  Minnisink  Highway,  main  mountain  thoroughfare, 
and  Old  Sullivan  Road. 

YOUNG,  J. — Michigan  City,  Mich.  Halfstock  percussion  target  rifle. 
Possibly  same  as  James  Young,  Detroit. 

YOUNG,  Jacob— Unlocated,  period  of  1820.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles. 

YOUNG,  James — Detroit,  Mich.,  percussion  period. 

YOUNG,  John — Easton,  Northampton  County,  Pa.  Before  and  after 
1775-88.  Brother  of  Henry  Young.  In  association  with  Johnston 
Smith,  Pennsylvania  rifle  and  musket  maker  contracted  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1776,  to  furnish  arms  to  the  State  of  Virginia.  With  Adam 
Foulke  in  April,  1776,  contracted  to  supply  the  Council  of  Safety 
(of  Pennsylvania)  with  130  rifles.  John  Young  was  an  expert  en- 
graver and  at  times  had  worked  for  his  brother  Henry. 

YOUNG,  John— Maryland.  Armorer  to  the  Colony  1728-40. 

YOUNG,  Joseph— Harpers  Run,  W.  Va. 

YOUNG,  Michael — Gunsmith.  Government  Stockade,  Mansfield,  Rich- 
land Co.,  Ohio.  War  of  1812. 

YOUNG,  Nathaniel— Gunsmith.  Fairfield  Co.,  Ohio,  1803. 

YOUNG,  P. — Pennsylvania.  Revolutionary  War  period. 

YOUNG  REPEATING  ARMS  CO.— Columbus,  Ohio.  Hammerless  shot- 

American  Gun  Makers  243 

YOUNG  &  SMITH — Unlocated.  6-shot  percussion  pepperbox. 

YOUS,  Joshua — Unidentified.  Percussion  Kentucky  rifle. 

YOUST,  John — Frederick  Co.,  Md.  Contracted  to  make  muskets  for 

Council  of  Safety,  in  March,  1776. 
YOUTZE— Gunsmith,  Wilmot,  Stark  Co.,  Ohio. 

ZARTMAN,  Joshua— 77  North  5th  St.,  Newark,  Ohio,  active  1852-1886. 

ZETTLER  BROS.— New  York,  N.  Y.  1868-1918.  134  Bowery  in  1868; 
224  Bowery  to  1886;  then  159  W.  23rd  St.  Percussion  and  breech- 
loading  target  rifles. 

ZIEGLER,  H.  D.— Portsmouth,  Ohio,  1858-65.  Listed  as  H.  D.  Ziegler  & 
Co.  in  1866. 

ZIMMERMAN— Pennsylvania. 

ZICHANG,  A.  O. — Syracuse,  N.  Y.  Famed  for  his  accurate  rifles.  Born 
in  Saxony,  Germany  in  1846,  of  a  long  line  of  professional  gun- 
smiths. Came  to  U.  S.  in  1876  and  shortly  after  found  employ- 
ment with  Sharps  Rifle  Co.,  at  Bridgeport,  Conn.,  which  probably 
influenced  his  frequent  choice  of  Sharps-Borchard  actions  for 
his  best  and  most  accurate  rifles.  From  Bridgeport  he  went  to 
Syracuse  where  he  became  associated  with  Nichols  and  Lefever, 
and  in  1879  opened  his  own  shop,  doing  general  gunsmithing  and 
specializing  in  fine  target  rifles.  In  1919  he  turned  the  manage- 
ment of  the  shop  over  to  his  son,  William  O.  Zichang,  but  con- 
tinued to  use  the  shop  and  do  some  work  until  his  death  in  1925. 

ZICHANG,  William  O. — Syracuse  gunsmith,  son  and  successor  of 
A.  O.  Zichang. 

ZOLLINGER,  A.— Lagrange  Co.,  Ind. 

ZOOK,  D. — Unidentified.  Maker  of  over-under,  swivel  breech,  percus- 
sion rifle. 

ZORGER,  C— Unidentified.  Flintlock  Kentucky  rifles,  about  1800. 

ZORGER,  Frederick — York,  Pa.  Revolutionary  War  period.  Was  on 
guard  duty  March  17,  1778.  Name  on  flintlock  pistol.  Listed  as 
"Tenant  Gun  Smith." 

ZORGER,  G.— York,  Pa.  Revolutionary  War  period.  Name  on  flintlock 

ZUCCARELLE,  N.  B.— Pulaski,  Tenn.  Arms  maker. 

ZUENDORFF,  John— 106  East  Houston  St.,  New  York,  N.  Y.,  1850-60. 

ZUZER,  J.  G.— Arnheim,  Pa.,  1850. 


ALBRIGHT— Greensboro   (N.  C),  1808-1904. 

ANTIQUES — Magazine  articles. 


AMERICA'S   MUNITIONS— Report   of  Assistant   Secretary   of   War. 

BAYLES — History  of  Providence,  R.  I.  1891. 

BEAN— History  of  Montgomery  County,  Pa.,  1884. 

BINGHAM— Early  Buffalo  Gunsmiths. 

BIOGRAPHICAL  REVIEW— Worcester,  Mass.,  1899. 

BUCK— History  of  Montgomery  County,  Pa.  1859. 

CARPENTER— History  of  Amherst,  Mass.,  1896. 

CAULKINS— History  of  Norwich,  Conn.  1866. 

CHAPIN— Springfield;  Its  Inhabitants.  1893. 

CONDIT— History  of  Easton,  Pa.,  1739-1885. 

CONE — A  Concise  History  of  Hamilton,  Ohio. 

CONGRESSIONAL  RECORDS— American  State  Papers;  U.  S.  Serials. 


CONNECTICUT— Centennial  Review. 

CONNECTICUT— Historical  &  Industrial.  1883. 

DANDRIDGE— Historic  Shepherdstown.  1910. 

DESILVER— Philadelphia    Directory    and    Stranger's    Guide. 

DEYRUP— Arms  Makers  of  the  Connecticut  Valley. 

DILLIN— The  Kentucky  Rifle. 

DIRECTORIES  AND  TAX  LISTS— Baltimore,   Lancaster,   Philadel- 
phia, San  Francisco  and  other  cities. 

DULANEY— Early  Baltimore  Gunsmiths. 

ELLIS — History  of  Lancaster.  1883. 

EVERTS— History  of  Connecticut  Valley,  Mass.  1879. 

FULLER — Springfield  Shoulder  Arms. 

The  Breech-loader  in  the  Service. 

FULLER  and  STEUART— Firearms  of  the  Confederacy. 

GARDNER — Arms  Fabricators,  Ancient  and  Modern. 

GLUCKMAN— United  States  Martial  Pistols  &  Revolvers. 

GLUCKMAN— United  States  Muskets,  Rifles  &  Carbines. 


GREEN— Springfield.  1636-1886. 

GREENER — The  Gun  and  Its  Development. 

HELLER— Historic  Easton.  1911. 

HICKS— U.  S.  Ordnance,  Vols.  I  and  II. 

HURD— History  of  Worcester  County. 


KINGMAN — History  of  North  Bridgewater. 

MATHEWS— History  of  Lehigh  County,  Pa.  1884. 

MILWAUKEE  MUSEUM— Bulletin  of  the  Nunnemacher  Collection. 



NORTH— Simeon  North  First  Official  Pistol  Maker  of  the  U.  S. 


POLLARD— History  of  Firearms. 

RICE— Worcester.   1898. 

RIDD— History  of  Valley  Forge. 

SATTERLEE — A  Catalogue  of  Firearms.  Articles  in  Hobbies. 

SAWYER— Our  Rifles. 

Firearms  in  American  History. 
Our  Pistols  &  Revolvers. 
U.  S.  Single  Shot  Pistols. 

STEBBINS— Eighty  Years  of  Progress.  1866. 
One  Hundred  Years  of  Progress. 

STOCKHARD— History  of  Guilford  County,  N.  C.  1902. 

THOMPSON— History  of  Chester  County,  Pa.  1898. 

TICONDEROGA— Museum  Bulletin,  July   1941. 

VIRGINIA— Calendar  of  State  Papers. 






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